Svalbard

Svalbard ( sv pronunciationlbɑː , svɑl- / ; [3]) [Translation ] [ pronunciation: [sʋɑ (ː) lbɑːɾ] ; prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen , meaning “jagged mountains”) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean . Situated north of mainland Europe, it is about midway between continental Norway and the North Pole . The islands of the group range from 74 ° to 81 ° north latitude, and from 10 ° to 35 ° east longitude. The largest island is Spitsbergen , followed byNordaustlandet and Edgeøya . Administratively, the archipelago is not part of any Norwegian county , but forms an unincorporated area governed by a governor appointed by the Norwegian government. Since 2002 Svalbard’s main settlement, Longyearbyen , HAS Review: had an Elected local government , Somewhat similar to mainland Municipalities . Other activities include the Russian mining community of Barentsburg , the research station of Ny-Ålesund , and the mining outpost of Sveagruva. Ny-Ålesund is the northernmost settlement in the world with a permanent civilian population. Other settlements are farther north, but are populated only by rotating groups of researchers.

The islands Were first taken into use as a whaling base in the 17th and 18th centuries, after-qui They Were abandoned. Coal mining started at the beginning of the 20th century, and several permanent communities were established. The Svalbard Treaty of 1920 recognizes Norwegian sovereignty , and the 1925 Svalbard Act made Svalbard a full part of the Kingdom of Norway. They also established a free zone and a demilitarized zone . The Norwegian Store Norske and the Russian Arktikugolremain the only mining companies in place. Research and tourism have become important additional industries, with the University Center in Svalbard (UNIS) and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault playing critical roles. No roads connect the settlements; instead snowmobiles , aircraft and boats serve inter-community transportation. Svalbard Airport, Longyear serves as the main gateway.

The archipelago features an Arctic climate at the same latitude. The flora take the advantage of the long period of midnight sun to compensate for the polar night . Svalbard is a breeding ground for many seabirds, and features polar bears , reindeer , Arctic fox , and certain marine mammals . Seven national parks and twenty-three nature reserves cover two-thirds of the archipelago, protecting the largely untouched, yet fragile, natural environment. Approximately 60% of the archipelagois covered with glaciers, and the islands feature many mountains and fjords .

Svalbard and Jan Mayen are collectively assigned the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code “SJ”. Both areas are hosted by Norway, though they are separated by a distance of 950 kilometers (510 nautical miles) and have very different administrative structures.

Geography

The Svalbard Treaty of 1920 [4] defines Svalbard as all islands, islets and skerries from 74 ° to 81 ° north latitude, and from 10 ° to 35 ° east longitude. [5] [6] The land area is 61,022 km 2(23,561 sq mi), and dominated by the island of Spitsbergen, which is more than half the archipelago, followed by Nordaustland and Edgeøya. [7] All settlements are located on Spitsbergen, except the meteorological outposts on Bjørnøya and Hopen . [4] The Norwegian state took possession of all unclaimed land, or 95.2% of the archipelago, at the time Svalbard Treaty entered into force; Store Norskeowns 4%, Arktikugol owns 0.4%, while other private owners hold 0.4%. [8]

Since Svalbard Is located north of the Arctic Circle it experiences midnight sun in summer and polar night in winter. At 74 ° north, the midnight sun lasts 99 days and polar night 84 days, while the respective figures at 81 ° are 141 and 128 days. [9] In Longyearbyen , midnight sun lasts from 20 April until 23 August, and polar night lasts from 26 October to 15 February. [5] In winter, the combination of full moon and reflective snow can give additional light. [9]

Glacial ice covers 36,502 km 2 (14,094 sq mi) or 60% of Svalbard; 30% is barren rock while 10% is vegetated. [10] The largest glacier is Austfonna (8,412 km 2 or 3,248 sq mi) on Nordaustlandet, followed by Olav V Land and Vestfonna . During summer, it is possible to ski from Sørkapp in the south to the north of Spitsbergen, with only a short distance not being covered by snow or glacier. Kvitøya is 99.3% covered by glacier. [11]

The landforms of Svalbard Were created through repeated ice ages , glaciers When cut into the tray forming fjords , valleys and mountains. [12] The tallest peak is Newtontoppen (1,717 m or 5,633 ft), followed by Perriertoppen (1,712 m or 5,617 ft), Ceresfjellet (1,675 m or 5,495 ft), Chadwickryggen (1,640 m or 5,380 ft) and Galileotoppen (1,637 m or 5,371 ft). The longest fjord is Wijdefjorden (108 km or 67 mi), followed by Isfjorden (107 km or 66 mi), Van Mijenfjorden (83 km or 52 mi), Woodfjorden (64 km or 40 mi) andWahlenbergfjorden (46 km or 29 mi). [13] Svalbard is part of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province , [14] and experienced Norway’s strongest earthquake on March 6, 2009, which hit a magnitude of 6.5. [15]

Sports

Football Association is the most popular sport in Svalbard. There are three football pitches, but no stadiums because of the low population. [16]

History

Main article: History of Svalbard

Dutch exploration and the first verified discovery of a terra nullius

See also: Dutch Republic in the Age of Discovery , Willem Barentsz , Northeast Passage , Arctic exploration , and Terra nullius
Spitsbergen and Svalbard during the Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery (c.1590s-1720s). Portion of 1599 map of Arctic exploration by Willem Barentsz . Spitsbergen, here mapped for the first time, is indicated as “Het Nieuwe Land” (Dutch for “the New Land”), center-left. This is a typical map of the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography .
In the Age of Discovery (Age of Exploration), the Dutch were the first (non-native) to undisputedly explored, and the Svalbard archipelago and Jan Mayen in the Arctic Ocean .

Scandinavians may be discovered Svalbard as early as the 12th century. There are traditional Norse accounts of Svalbarð-literally “cold shores” -although this might have referred to Jan Mayen , or a part of eastern Greenland . [17] [18] Svalbard and Greenland were connected to Continental Europe. [19] The archipelago might have been used for fishing and hunting. [20] The Dutchman Willem Barentsz made the first indisputable discovery of the archipelago in 1596, when he sighted its coast while searching for the Northern Sea Route . [21]

The name Spitsbergen originated with Barentsz, who described the “pointed mountains” on the west coast of his island , 1599 map of the Arctic labels Het Nieuwe Land (“The New Land”). Barentsz did not recognize that he had discovered an archipelago, and thus the name Spitsbergen long remained in use for the archipelago as a whole. [22]

The first known landing on the island dates to 1604, when an English ship landed at Bjørnøya and started hunting walrus ; Spitsbergen became a base for hunting the bowhead whale from 1611. [23] [24] Because of the lawless nature of the area, English, Danish, Dutch, and French companies out other countries’ fleets. [25] [26]

From early Dutch settlements to the international whaling base (17th-18th centuries)

The whaling station of the Amsterdam chamber of the Northern Company in Smeerenburg , by Cornelis de Man (1639), but based on a painting of a Dansk hvalfangststation (Danish whaling station) by ABR Speeck (1634), which represented the Danish station in Copenhagen Bay (Kobbefjorden).

Smeerenburg was one of the first settlements, established by the Dutch in 1619. [27] Smaller bases were also built by the English, Danish and French. At first the outposts were merely summer camps, but from the early 1630s, a few individuals started to overwinter . Whaling at Spitsbergen lasted until the 1820s, when the Dutch, British and Danish whalers moved elsewhere in the Arctic. [28] By the late 17th century, Russian hunters arrived; they overwintered to a greater extent and hunted land mammals such as the polar bear and fox. [29]

19th century

After British raids in the Sea Barents in 1809, Russian activity on Svalbard diminished, and ceased by the 1820s. [30] Norwegian hunting-mostly for walrus-started in the 1790s. The first Norwegian citizens to reach Spitsbergen proper were a number of Coast Sámi people from the Hammerfest region, who were hired as part of a Russian crew for an expedition in 1795. [31] Norwegian whaling was abandoned on the same time as the Russians left , [32] but whaling continued around Spitsbergen until the 1830s, and around Bjørnøya until the 1860s. [33]

20th century

Svalbard Treaty and Norwegian sovereignty

Main article: Svalbard Treaty

By the 1890s, Svalbard had become a destination for Arctic tourism, coal deposits had been found and the islands were used as a basis for Arctic exploration . [34] The first mining was along Isfjorden by Norwegians in 1899; by 1904, British interests had established themselves in Adventfjorden and started the first all-year operations. [35] Production in Longyearbyen, by American Interests, started in 1908; [36] and Store Norske established itself in 1916, as did other Norwegian interests during the war, in part by buying American interests. [37]

Discussions to suit les the sovereignty of the archipelago commenced in the 1910s, [38] aim Were interrupted by World War I . [39] On 9 February 1920, following the Paris Peace Conference , the Svalbard Treaty was signed, granting full sovereignty to Norway. However, all signatory countries have been granted non-discriminatory rights to fishing, hunting and mineral resources. [40] The treaty took effect on August 14, 1925, at the same time as the Svalbard Actregulated the archipelago and the first governor , Johannes Gerckens Bassøe , took office. [41]The archipelago has been known as Spitsbergen, and the main island as West Spitsbergen. From the 1920s, Norway renamed the archipelago Svalbard, and the main island became Spitsbergen. [42] Kvitøya, Kong Karls Land, Hopen and Bjørnøya were not considered as part of the Spitsbergen archipelago. [43] Russians have traditionally called the Grumant archipelago ( Грумант ). [44] The Soviet Union retained the name Spitsbergen ( Шпицберген ) to support undocumented claims that Russians were first to discover the island. [45] [46] In 1928, Italian explorer Umberto Nobile and the crew of the airship Italiacrashed on the icepack off the coast of Foyn Island . The subsequent rescue attempts were extensively in the press and Svalbard received short-lived fame as a result.

Second World War

In 1941, after Operation Gauntlet , all Norwegian and Soviet settlements on Svalbard were evacuated, [47] and a German presence was established with a meteorological outpost, [48] a small Norwegian garrison was kept on Spitsbergen. The German Operation Zitronella took this garrison by force in 1943, and at the same time destroying the settlements at Longyearbyen and Barentsburg. [49] In September 1944, together with the supply Carl J. Busch , the submarine U-307 transported the men of Operation Haudegen to Svalbard. Operation Haudegen (ie, swashbuckler) was the name of a German operation duringSecond World War to establish meteorological stations on Svalbard. The station was active from 9 September 1944 to 4 September 1945. It lost radio contact in May 1945, and the soldiers were able to ask for support only in August 1945. On 4 September 1945, the soldiers were picked up by a Norwegian seal hunting vessel and surrendered to its captain. This group of men were the last German troops to surrender after the Second World War. After the war, the Soviet Union proposed common Norwegian and Soviet administration and military defense of Svalbard. This was rejected in 1947 by Norway, which two years later joined NATO . The Soviet Union retained high economic activity on Svalbard, in part to ensure that the archipelago was not used by NATO. [50]

Post-war

After the war, Norway re-established operations at Longyearbyen and Ny-Ålesund, [51] while the Soviet Union established mining in Barentsburg, Pyramiden and Grumant . [52]The mine at Ny-Ålesund had several fatal accidents, killing 71 people while it was in operation from 1945 to 1954 and from 1960 to 1963. The Kings Bay Affair , caused by the 1962 accident killing 21 workers, forced Gerhardsen’s Third Cabinet to resign. [53] [54] From 1964, Ny-Ålesund became a research outpost, and a facility for the European Space Research Organization . [55]Petroleum testing was started in 1963 and continued until 1984, but no commercially viable fields were found. [56] From 1960, hotellneset ; [57] in 1975, Svalbard Airport, Longyear opened, allowing year-round services. [58]

During the Cold War, the Soviet Union with the archipelago’s population is slightly under 4,000. [52] Russian activity has diminished substantially since then, falling from 2,500 to 450 people from 1990 to 2010. [59] [60] Grumant was closed after it was depleted in 1962. [52] Pyramiden was closed in 1998. [61] Coal exports from Barentsburg ceased in 2006 because of a fire, [62] but resumed in 2010. [63] The Russian community has also experienced two air accidents, Vnukovo Airlines Flight 2801 , which killed 141 people, [64]andHeerodden helicopter crash . [65]

Longyearbyen was purely a company town until 1989 when utilities, Svalbard Samfunnsdrift. [66] In 1993 it was sold to the national government and the University Center was established. [67] Through the 1990s, tourism and the town developed an independent economy of the Norske Store and the mining. [68] Longyearbyen was incorporated on January 1, 2002, receiving a community council. [66]

Population

Demographics

In 2012, Svalbard had an estimated population of 2,642, of which 439 were Russians and Ukrainians , 10 were Polish and 322 were other non-Norwegians living in Norwegian settlements. [7] The largest non-Norwegian groups in Longyearbyen in 2005 were from Thailand , Sweden , Denmark , Russia , Iran and Germany . [60]

Settlements

Longyearbyen is the largest settlement on the archipelago, the seat of the governor and the only town to be incorporated. The town features a hospital, primary and secondary school, university, sports center with a swimming pool, library, culture center, cinema, [62] bus transportation, hotels, a bank, [69] and several museums. [70] The newspaper Svalbardposten is published weekly. [71] Only a small fraction of the mining activity remains at Longyearbyen; Instead, workers commute to Sveagruva (or Svea) where Store Norske operates a mine. Sveagruva is a dormitory town, with workers commuting from Longyearbyen weekly. [62]

Ny-Ålesund is a permanent settlement based entirely around research. Formerly a mining town, it is still a company townoperated by the Norwegian state-owned Kings Bay . While there is some way to go, Norwegian authorities limit access to the outpost to minimize impact on the scientific work. [62] Ny-Ålesund has a winter population of 35 and a summer population of 180. [72] The Norwegian Meteorological Institute has outposts at Bjørnøya and Hopen, with respectively ten and four people stationed. Both can also house temporary research staff. [62] Poland operates the Polish Polar Station at Hornsund, with ten permanent residents. [62]

Barentsburg is the only inhabited Russian settlement Permanently after- Pyramiden Was abandoned in 1998. It is a company town: all facilities are owned by Arktikugol, qui Operates a coal mine. In addition to the mining facilities, Arktikugol has opened its doors to the hotel and has been renting a shop, catering for tourists, taking trips or hikes from Longyearbyen. [62] The village features facilities such as a school, library, sports center, community center, swimming pool, farm and greenhouse. Pyramiden features similar facilities; both are built in a typical post-World War II Soviet architectural and planning style and contain the world’s two most northerly Lenin statues and other socialist realismartwork. [73]As of 2013 , a handful of workers are stationed in a large area of ​​the world, which has been re-opened for tourists.

Religion

Most of the population is affiliated with the Church of Norway . Catholics on the archipelago are pastorally served by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oslo . quote needed ]

Politics

The Svalbard Treaty of 1920 established full Norwegian sovereignty over the archipelago. The islands are, unlike the Norwegian Antarctic Territory , a part of the Kingdom of Norway and not a dependency . The treaty came into effect in 1925, following the Svalbard Act. All forty signatory countries of the treaty to conduct commercial activities on the archipelago without discrimination. The treaty limits Norway’s right to collect taxes to that of financing services on Svalbard. Therefore, Svalbard has a lower income tax than mainland Norway, and there is no value added tax. There is a separate budget for Svalbard to ensure compliance. Svalbard is a demilitarized zone , as the treaty prohibits the establishment of military installations. Norwegian military activity is limited to the Norwegian Coast Guard to the protection of the environment. [6] [74]

The Svalbard Act established the institution of the Governor of Svalbard ( Norwegian : Sysselmannen ), who holds the responsibility of both the county governor and the chief of police . Duties include environmental policy , family law , law enforcement , search and rescue , tourism management, information services, contact with foreign settlements, and judge in some areas of maritime inquiries and judicial reviews. [75] [76] Since 2015, Kjerstin Askholthas been governor; she is assisted by a staff of 26 professionals. The institution is subordinate to the Ministry of Justice and the Police , but reports to other ministries in matters of their portfolio. [77]

Since 2002, Longyearbyen Community Council has had many of the same responsibilities of a municipality , including utilities, education, cultural facilities, fire departments, roads and ports. [68] No care or nursing services are available. Norwegian residents retain their pensions and medical rights through their mainland municipalities. [78] The hospital is part of the University Hospital of North Norway , while the airport is operated by Avinor . Barentsburg and Ny-Ålesund REMAIN company towns with all infrastructure owned by Kings Bay and Arktikugol, respectivement. [68]The Norwegian Polar Institute , the Norwegian Tax Administration and the Church of Norway, have the Norwegian Directorate of Mining . [79]Svalbard is subordinate to Nord-Troms District Court and Hålogaland Court of Appeal , both located in Tromsø . [80]

Although Norway is part of the European Economic Area (EEA) and the Schengen Agreement , Svalbard is not part of the Schengen Area or the EEA. [81] Non-EU and non-Nordic Svalbard residents do not need Schengen visas, but are prohibited from reaching Svalbard from mainland Norway without such. In theory it would be possible to do a visa-free airport transit at Oslo Airport, but this is not allowed by Norway. People without a source of income can be rejected by the governor. [82] No person is required to have a visa or residence permit for Svalbard . Everybody can live in Svalbard indefinitely regardless of citizenship. Svalbard Treatynational citizens of Norway. So far, non-citizens are admitted visa-free as well. “Regulations concerning rejection and expulsion from Svalbard” in force. [83] [84] Russia retains a consulate in Barentsburg . [85]

In September 2010, the Svalbard archipelago and the Novaya Zemlya archipelago . Increased interest in petroleum exploration in the Arctic. The agreement takes the position of the relative positions of the archipelagos, rather than being based simply on northward extension of the continental border of Norway and Russia. [86]

Economy

The three main industries on Svalbard are coal mining , tourism , and research . In 2007, there were 484 people working in the mining sector, 211 people working in the tourism sector and 111 people working in the education sector. The same year, the mining gave a revenue of NOK 2.008 billion (227.791,078 USD), tourism NOK 317 million (35,967,202 USD) and research NOK 142 million (16,098,404 USD) [68] [87] In 2006, the average income for economically active people was NOK 494,700; 23% higher than on the mainland. [88]Almost all housing is owned by the various employers and institutions and their employees; There are only a few privately owned houses, most of which are recreational cabins. Because of this, it is almost impossible to live on Svalbard without working for an established institution. [82]

Since the resettlement of Svalbard in the early 20th century, coal mining has been the dominant commercial activity. Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani , a subsidiary of the Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry, operates Svea North in Sveagruva and Mine 7 in Longyearbyen. The former produced 3.4 million tonnes in 2008, while the latter used 35% of its output at Longyearbyen Power Station. Since 2007, there has been no significant Russian state-owned Arktikugol in Barentsburg. There was previously performed testing for petroleum on land. The Norwegian authorities do not allow offshore petroleum activities for environmental reasons, and the national training-tested or national parks. [68]In 2011, a 20-year plan to develop offshore oil and gas resources around Svalbard was announced. [89]

Svalbard has historically been based on both whaling and fishing . Norway claimed a 200-nautical-mile (370 km; 230 mi) exclusive economic zone (EEZ) around Svalbard in 1977, [8] with 31,688 square kilometers (12,235 sq mi) of internal watersand 770,565 square kilometers (297,517 sq mi) of EEZ. [90] Norway retains a restrictive fisheries policy in the area, [8] and the claims are disputed by Russia. [4] Tourism is focused on the environment and is centered on Longyearbyen. Activities include hiking, kayaking, walks through glacier wineries and snowmobilesand dog-sled safari. Cruise ships generate a significant portion of the traffic, including both stops by offshore vessels and expeditionary cruises starting and ending in Svalbard. Traffic is strongly concentrated between March and August; Overnights have been quintupled from 1991 to 2008, when there were 93,000 guest-nights. [68]

Research on Svalbard centers on Longyearbyen and Ny-Ålesund, the most accessible areas in the Arctic High. Svalbard, resulting in the Polish Polar Station and the Chinese Arctic Yellow River Station , plus Russian facilities in Barentsburg. [91] The University Center in Svalbard in Longyearbyen offers undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate courses to 350 students in various arctic sciences, particularly biology , geology and geophysics. Courses are provided to supplement studies at mainland universities; There are no tuition fees and courses are held in English, with Norwegian and international students represented. [67]

The Svalbard Global Seed Vault is a seedbank to store seeds of as many of the world’s crop types and their botanical wild relative as possible. A cooperation between the government of Norway and the Global Crop Diversity Trust , the vault is cut into rock near Longyearbyen, keeping it at -6 ° C (21 ° F) and refrigerating the seeds at -18 ° C (0 ° F) ). [92] [93]

The Svalbard Undersea Cable System is a 1,440 km (890 mi) fiber optic line from Svalbard to Harstad , needed for communicating with polar orbiting satellites through Svalbard Satellite Station and facilities in Ny-Ålesund. [94] [95]

One source of income for the area is visiting cruise ships. Ny-Ålesund, which is conveniently close to the barren-yet-picturesque Magdalena Fjord . With the increasing size of the larger ships, up to 2000 people can potentially appear in a community that normally numbers less than 40. The government has recently passed legislation, effective January 2014, severely restricting the size of cruise ships. quote needed ]

Transport

Within Longyearbyen, Barentsburg, and Ny-Ålesund, there are road systems, but they do not connect with each other. Off-road motorized transport is prohibited, but snowmobiles are used extensively during winter-both for commercial and recreational activities. Transport from Longyearbyen to Barentsburg (45 km or 28 mi) and Pyramiden (100 km or 62 mi) is possible by snowmobile in winter, or by ship all year round. All settlements have Longyearbyen has a bus system. [96]

Svalbard Airport, Longyear , located 3 Kilometers (2 mi) from Longyearbyen, is the only airport offering air transportation on the archipelago. Scandinavian Airlines has daily scheduled services in Tromsø and Oslo . Low-cost carrier Norwegian Air Shuttle also has a service between Oslo and Svalbard, operating three or four times a week; There are also irregular charter services to Russia. [97] Finnair announced the beginning of service from Helsinki, but this is not the case. [98][99] [100] Lufttransport provides regular corporate charter services from Longyearbyen to Ny-Ålesund Airport and Svea Airport for Kings Bay and Store Norske; These flights are in general not available to the public. [101] There are heliports in Barentsburg and Pyramid, and helicopters are frequently used by the governor and a lesser extent the Arktikugol mining company. [102]

Climate

The climate of Svalbard is dominated by its high latitude, with the average summer temperature at 4 to 6 ° C (39 to 43 ° F) and January averages at -16 to -12 ° C (3 to 10 ° F). [103] The West Spitsbergen Current , the northernmost branch of the North Atlantic Currentsystem, moderates Svalbard’s temperatures, especially during winter. Winter temperatures in Svalbard are up to 2 ° C (4 ° F) higher than those at similar latitudes in Russia and Canada. The warm Atlantic water keeps the waters open and navigable most of the year. The warmer temperatures in the interior of the fjord and the valleys, with temperatures of 2 ° C (4 ° F) and warmer summer temperatures of 3 ° C (5 ° F). On the south of Spitsbergen, the temperature is slightly higher. During winter, the temperature difference between south and north is typically 5 ° C (9 ° F), and about 3 ° C (5 ° F) in summer. Bear Island has average temperatures even higher than the rest of the archipelago. [104]

Svalbard is where cold, moistening the air, creating low pressure, changeable weather and strong winds, particularly in winter; in January, a strong breeze is registered 17% of the time at Isfjord Radio , but only 1% of the time in July. In summer, PARTICULARLY away from land, clarification needed ] fog is common, with visibility under 1 km (0.6 mi) registered 20% of the time in July and 1% of the time in January, at Hopen and Bjørnøya. [105] Precipitation is frequent, but falls in small quantities, typically less than 400 millimeters (16 in) per year in western Spitsbergen. More rain falls on the uninhabited east side, where there can be more than 1,000 millimeters (39 in).[105]

Svalbard Airport, with a remarkable average temperature of 0.0 ° C (32.0 ° F), 7.5 ° C (13.5 ° F) above the 1961-90 average, and more comparable to a location at the Arctic circle. The coldest temperature of the year is as high as -18 ° C (0 ° F), warmer than the average minimum in a normal January, February or March. There was also the same number of days with rain falling as snow falling, when there are more snowboarders. [106]

Nature

In addition to humans, the first terrestrial mammalian species inhabit the archipelago: Arctic fox , Svalbard reindeer , and accidentally introduced southern voles , which are found only in Grumant. [107] Attempts to introduce the Arctic hare and the muskox have both failed. [108] There are fifteen to twenty types of marine mammals , including whales , dolphins , seals , walruses , and polar bears . [107]

Polar bears are the iconic symbol of Svalbard, and one of the main tourist attractions. [109] The animals are protected by the law. They are also advised to carry a firearm for use as a last resort. [110] [111] A British schoolboy was killed by a polar bear in 2011. [112] Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land share a common population of 3,000 polar bears, with Kong Karls Land being the most important breeding ground.

The Svalbard reindeer ( R. tarandus platyrhynchus ) is a distinct sub-species; it was previously almost extinct, it can be legally hunted (as can Arctic fox). [107] There are limited numbers of domesticated animals in the Russian settlements. [113]

Svalbard, most of which are migratory. The Sea Barents are among the most seabirds, with about 20 million individuals during late summer. The most common are little auk , northern fulmar , thick-billed murre and black-legged kittiwake . Sixteen species are on the IUCN Red List . Particularly Bjørnøya, Storfjorden , Nordvest-Spitsbergen and Hopen are important breeding ground for seabirds. The Arctic tern has the furthest migration, all the way to Antarctica . [107]Only two songbirds migrate to Svalbard to breed: the snow bunting and the wheatear . Rock ptarmigan is the only bird to overwinter. [114] Remains of Predator X from the Jurassic period have been found; it is the largest dinosaur-era marine reptile ever found-a pliosaur estimated to have been almost 15 m (49 ft) long. [115]

Svalbard has permafrost and tundra , with both low, middle and high Arctic vegetation . 165 species of plants have been found on the archipelago. [107] Only those areas which are in the summer, which accounts for about 10% of the archipelago. [116] Vegetation is most abundant in Nordenskiöld Land, around Isfjorden and where affected by guano . [117] While there is little precipitation, giving the archipelago a steppe climate, plants still have good access to water because of the cold climate evaporation. [105] [107]The growing season is very short, and may last only a few weeks. [118]

There are seven national parks in Svalbard: Forlandet , Indre Wijdefjorden , Nordenskiöld Land , Nordre Isfjorden Land , Nordvest-Spitsbergen , Sassen-Bünsow Land and Sør-Spitsbergen . [119] The archipelago has fifteen bird sanctuaries, one geotopic protected area and six nature reserves-with Nordaust-Svalbard and Søraust-Svalbard both being larger than any of the national parks. Most of the nature reserves and three of the national parks were created in 1973, with the remaining areas gaining protection in the 2000s. [120]All human traces dating from before 1946 are automatically protected. [110] The protected areas make up 65% of the archipelago. [88] Svalbard is on Norway’s attempt for nomination as a UNESCO World Heritage Site . [121]

The total solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 included Svalbard and the Faroe Islands in the band of totality. Many scientists and tourists observed it.

Education

Longyearbyen School serves ages 6-18. It is the primary / secondary school in the northernmost location on Earth . Once pupils reach ages 16 or 17 most families move to mainland Norway. [122] Barentsburg has its own school serving the Russian community; by 2014 it had three teachers, and its welfare funds had declined. [123] A primary school served the community of Pyramids in the pre-1998 period. [124]

There is a non-degree providing tertiary educational institution in Longyearbyen, [122] University Center in Svalbard (UNIS), the tertiary school in the northernmost location on Earth. [125]

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