Naissaar ( German : Nargen ; Swedish : Nargö ) is an island northwest of Tallinn (Purpose Viimsi Parish ) in Estonia . The island covers an area of 18.6 square kilometers (7.2 square miles). It is 8 kilometers (5.0 miles) long and 3.5 kilometers (2.2 miles) wide, and lies about 8.5 kilometers (5.3 miles) from the mainland. The highest point on the island is Kunilamägi, which is 27 meters (89 feet) above sea level . The island is predominantly of coniferous forest and piles of stones and boulders. As of 2005, the island had a population of ten. Now the island has three dozen or so permanent residents and some summer residents. Administratively the island is divided into three villages: Lõunaküla (Storbyn), Tagaküla (Bakbyn) and Väikeheinamaa(Lillängin).
Until the Second World War , 450 people of Estonian-Swedish origin. However, these people fled during the war. Naissaar under Soviet rule was a military area and off-limits to the public.
The fortifications on the island date back to Peter the Great’s fortifying Tallinn , the main fortifications are from the period of Russian rule before World War II. Today, the previous small houses of the Swedish villages are being restored bit-by-bit. Also being restored is a narrow gauge railway that runs from the north to the southern tip of the island.
A notable native of the island was Bernhard Schmidt , the German-Estonian optician who invented the Schmidt telescope in 1930.
The island received a lighthouse in 1788, though the present lighthouse dates to 1960. It is 47 meters tall.
The island’s name means “island of women”. It is possible, therefore, that Naissaar is the island of the Chronicle of Adam of Bremen mentioned around 1075 under the name ” Terra Feminarum “. Estonian Swedish fishermen were well-established on the island by the 15th Century, and the Swedes erected a small fortress there in 1705 during the Great Northern War . After the war Estonia became part of the Russian Empire. The Tsar had a new fortress, with five bastions, built in 1720, for the defense of Tallinn and St. Petersburg.
An epic single-ship action took place off the north end of the island on June 23rd [ OS 11 June] 1808 when the 14-gun Russian cutter Opyt put up an heroic though ultimately unsuccessful fight against the British 44-gun frigate HMS Salsette .
In 1850 the island’s population was 155 people and by 1858 it had grown to 188, most of which were Estonian Swedes. Between 1853 and 1856 the inhabitants built a new chapel that was part of the Swedish parish of St. Michael in Tallinn.
In the early twentieth century, Russia began the process of a modernization of its fortifications in the Gulf of Finland. However, the outbreak of the First World War halted the plans for Naissaar. Still, in 1914 the Russians opened a narrow-gauge railway line, with a total trackage of 37.7 km.
World War I
In December 1917, a group of Russian sailors commanded Naissaar and proclaimed an independent “socialist republic”, known as the Soviet Republic of Soldiers and Fortress-Builders of Nargen ,  under the leadership of Stepan Petrichenko . The Russian sailors, numbering about 80-90 men, formed a government and levied taxes on the local population. The Russians built a new fort during the First World War. Some autonomy Estonia Acquired in April 1917 by a decree of the Russian provisional government , though Estonia Remained under the suzerainty of the Russian Empire. However, after the October Revolution the Bolshevik rebels suspended Estonia’s provisional government, the Maapayev .
At this point the new Estonian government appealed to the German army for assistance. The “republic” ceased to exist two months later, on February 26, 1918, when Germanforces occupied the island, causing the Russians to flee.  The sailors fled to Kronstadt , where Petrichenko came to play an important role in the Kronstadt uprising .
After the departure of the German troops, the Estonian Provisional Government was carried out in 1919.  The island then became part of the new Estonian Republic in 1920.
Between the wars
The Estonian Republic too used Naissaar as a naval base. In 1934, 450 people lived on the island, of whom 291 were Estonians, most of whom were in the Estonian army. The army of the Republic of Estonia continued to use the railway for military purposes throughout the 1930s.
World War II
The Red Army occupied Naissar in 1940, only to have the Wehrmacht displace it a few months later. The population of the Germans, and when the Red Army drove the Germans out in 1944, the last of the Swedish-speaking fishermen took refuge in Sweden.
During the period of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic , the Soviet Union established its largest factory for naval mines in the Baltic on the island. The Soviets, declared the island of military and off-limits to the public. The Soviets also used the railway to connect the factory to the port.
When the Soviets left Naissaar in early 1993, they burned the explosives in the naval mines, leaving a multitude of metal casings scattered throughout the island. Many of these were scavenged as scrap iron, but a field of mines is still visible near the wharf at Mädasadam. Another legacy of the arms industry is that the soil of the island is contaminated by oil and heavy metals.
In 1995 Naissaar was converted into a nature reserve .
- Jump up^ (in Estonian) “Naissaare kroonika” . Archived from the original on 2005-03-06 . Retrieved 2007-10-24 . : “nõukogu kuulutab saare soldiery ja kindluseehitajate sotsialistlikuks vabariigiks.”
- Jump up^ (in Estonian) “Jalutuskäik saladusliku Naissaare lõunarajal” . Eesti Loodus . Retrieved 2007-10-24 .
- Jump up^ (in Estonian) “Naissaare kroonika” . Archived from the original on 2005-03-06 . Retrieved 2007-10-24 .
- Jump up^ Jackson, Battle of the Baltic, page 9