Mljet

Mljet ( pronounced [mʎɛt] ; Latin : Melita , Italian : Meleda ) is The Most southerly and easterly of the larger Adriatic islands of the Dalmatia area of Croatia . The National Park includes the western part of the island, Veliko jezero, Malo jezero, Soline Bay and a sea belt 500 m wide from the most prominent cape of Mljet covering an area of ​​54 km 2 . [1] The central parts of the park are Veliko jezero with the Isle of St. Mary, Malo jezero and the villages of Goveđari, Polače and Pomena .[2] [3]

Population

According to the 2011 census, Mljet has a population of 1,088. [3] Ethnic Croats make up 97.93% of the population. quote needed ]

History

Mljet was discovered by ancient Greco-Roman geographers , who wrote the first records and descriptions. The island was first described by Scylax of Caryanda in the 6th century BC; others prefer the text, Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax . In both texts, it is named Melite and supported by Apollonius of Rhodes . [4] [5] Agathemerus and Pliny the Elder call the island Melita. [5]

Agesilaus of Anaxarba in Cilicia , the father of Oppian , was banished to Mljet by the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (AD 145-211) [6] (or to Malta by Lucius Verus : see Oppian ).

Mljet is mentioned around 950 by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos in his Ruling of the Empire as one of the islands held by the Narentines . The island was a controversial issue of ownership between them and Zachlumia until the stronger unifications of the Serbian realm in the 12th century. Ancient Greeks called the island “Melita” or ” honey ” which over the centuries evolved to become Slavic name, Mljet ( pronounced [mʎɛt] ).

Has been regarded as the “Melita” on which St. Paul was shipwrecked ( Acts of the Apostles 27: 39-28: 11), this view being first expounded in the 10th century, by Roman Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus . Saint Paul’s shipwreck is located on the Mediterranean island of Malta . Mljet and Malta had the same name in the Greek and Roman sources; the mention of a viper in Acts 28: 3-5 was thought to be in favor of Mljet (but there are snakes on both Mljet and Malta ). A harbor named after the saint exists on both islands.

The Benedictines from Pulsano in Apulia became the feudal lords of the island in 1151, having come from Monte Gargano in Italy . They came ashore in the Sutmiholjska cove and in 1187-1198 the Serbian Prince Desa of the House of Vojislavljević built and donated to the Church and Monastery of Saint Mary on the islet in the Big Lake (Veliko Jezero) towards the north-west end of the island. Pope Innocent III issued a document consecrating the church in 1198. citation needed ]

The Benedictines renounced their rule over Mljet in 1345, keeping a third of the land. The island got a statute and a municipality in Babino Polje . It was formally annexed by the Republic of Ragusa in 1410. According to the Contract with the Benedictines, the municipality had to pay 300 perpers each year. quote needed ]

In the 16th century, the monastery Was the center of the Mljet Congregation (Congregatio Melitensis gold Melitana), gathering all the monasteries of Benedictine monks in the area of the Republic of Ragusa. The first president of the Congregation was Mavro Vetranović , the abbot of the Mljet monastery and the famous poet. Another great poet was abbot there- Ignjat Đurđević in the 18th century. As time went by, the Benedictine monastery on Mljet lost its importance, while the seat of the Mljet Congregation moved to Sveti Jakov near Ragusa . quote needed ]

In 1809, during the rule of Napoleon , the Mljet monastery was disbanded. When Austria took over the island, it places the forestry office in the building. Between the world wars, the building was owned by the Ragusa (Dubrovnik) Bishopric. In 1960 it became a hotel, and in 1998 it was returned to the bishopric. The island has a long history of eco-damage. Veliko Jezero, thus turning these freshwater lakes into seawater-based ones. {{}}

The second incident involves mongooses . Small Asian mongooses were introduced to the island in the early 20th century in order to reduce the size of the snake population (the island was apparently completely overrun). Whilst the mongooses completed this task, they also enjoyed the island of the island. To this day, the island is notably short of hedgerow birds, such as sparrows . Mongooses are a hazard for domestic poultry, and are also known to cause damage in vineyards and orchards. [7]

Geography

Mljet lies south of the Pelješac peninsula, from which it is divided by the Mljet Channel. Its length is 37 kilometers (23 mi); its average breadth 3.2 kilometers (2.0 mi). It is of volcanic origin, citation needed ] with Numerous Chasms and gorges, qui of the longest, the Babino Polje, connects the north and south of the island. Port Polače, the main harbor in the north, is a port of call for tourist ferries. Mljet contains one hotel-The Odisej (from the Greek Odysseus ) in the north-west corner of the island. quote needed ]

The northwestern part of the island includes an inland lake and a small island within it. It has been a national park since November 12, 1960. Over 84% of the island of 98.01 square kilometers (37.84 sq mi) is forest. [8] The island’s geological structure consists of limestone and dolomite forming ridges, crests and slopes. A few depressions on the island of Mljet are below sea level and are Known As Blatine ( “mud-lakes”) gold slatine ( “salt-lakes”). During the rainy season, the weather is full of water and turn to brackish during dry seasons. quote needed ]

The climate is Mediterranean ; January is 9 ° C (48 ° F) and in July about 24 ° C (75 ° F). Precipitation (mostly falling between October and April) averages between 35 and 45 inches annually, with the hills receiving the highest amounts. quote needed ]

Settlements

According to the 2011 census, the settlements of Mljet have the following population: [3]

  • Babino Polje (270): largest settlement, police station, school
  • Goveđari (151)
    • Babine Kuće
    • Pristanište
    • Soline
  • Pomena (52)
  • Polače (113): ferry port, Roman ruins
  • Blato (39)
  • Ropa (37): auto camp
  • Kozarica (28)
  • Sobra (131): ferry port
  • Prožura (40)
    • Prožurska Luka (40)
  • Maranovići (43)
  • Okuklje (31)
  • Korita (46)
  • Saplunara (67): beach

Transportation

The island of Mljet has no airport. Dubrovnik Airport on the mainland provides the international connection for the island. Mljet has ferry lines with Pelješac peninsula and Dubrovnik. Jadrolinija ferry service is provided by Jadrolinija . Sobra, the main port on the island, is connected to Dubrovnik-Gruž and Ston via a car ferry. There are two types of ferries available (2.5 hours and 90 minutes to Dubrovnik, respectively).

The two-lane paved road runs across the island. Scheduled nozzles on Mljet travel just ounce or twice a day.

References

  1. Jump up^ Duplančić Leder, Tea; Ujević, Tin; Čala, Mendi (June 2004). “Coastline lengths and areas of the islands in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea determined from the topographic maps of the scale of 1: 25,000” (PDF) . Geoadria . Zadar . 9 (1): 5-32 . Retrieved 21 January 2011 .
  2. Jump up^ Naklad Naprijet,The Croatian Adriatic Tourist Guide, pg. 338, Zagreb (1999),ISBN 953-178-097-8
  3. ^ Jump up to:c “Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Mljet” . Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011 . Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics . December 2012.
  4. Jump up^ Sanader, Mirjana (2007). Kroatien in der Antike (in German). Von Zabern. p. 58. ISBN  3-8053-3740-X . In der Antike hieß sie Melite (Pseudo-Skylax 23), obwohl sie bei Apollonios Rhodios (4, 5629) auch als Meleda erwähnt wird.
  5. ^ Jump up to:b Bryant, Jacob (1715-1804) A New System, Gold, An Analysis of Antient Mythology: Wherein year Attempt is Made to Divest Tradition of Fable and the Truth to Reduce to Its Original Purity , The Third Edition in Six Volumes, printed for J. WalkerWJ and J. Richardson ; by R. Faulder Press , 1807., Vol. V., pp 357-358. (in English)
  6. Jump up^ Text from ancientlibrary.com
  7. Jump up^ “Mungos – ljuti neprijatelj prirode” . Zadarskilist.hr (in Croatian) . Retrieved 8 June 2012 .
  8. Jump up^ “Priručnik o kartama staništa Dalmacije” (PDF) (in Croatian and English). June 2009. p. 97 . Retrieved 14 February 2011 .
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). ” Meleda “. Encyclopædia Britannica . 18 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 93.

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