Lundy

Lundy is the largest island in the Bristol Channel . It lies 12 miles (19 km) off the coast of Devon , England, [3] in the district of Torridge , about a third of the distance from Devon, England to South Wales . Lundy gives its name to a British sea area and is one of the islands of England . [4] Lundy has-been designated by Natural England as national character area 159, one of England’s natural areas . [5]

In 2007, Lundy had a resident population of 28 people, including volunteers. These include a warden, ranger, island manager and farmer, as well as bar and house-keeping staff. Most live in the village of Marisco at the south of the island. Most visitors are day-trippers , but there are also many of them.

In a 2005 opinion poll of Radio Times Readers, Lundy was named as Britain’s tenth greatest natural wonder. The Entire island has-been designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest [6] and It was England’s first statutory Marine Nature Reserve , and the first Marine Conservation Zone , [7] Because of ict single flora and fauna. [8] It is managed by the Landmark Trust on behalf of the National Trust .

History

The name Lundy is believed to be the Norse word for “puffin island” (compare Lundey ), monday being the Old Norse word for a puffin and ey , an island, [9] an alternative explanation has been suggested with Lund referring to a copse, or wooded area. [10]

Lundy HAS evidence of visitation or occupation from the Neolithic period onward, with Mesolithic flintwork, Bronze Age burial mounds , four inscribed gravestones from the early medieval period, [11] [12] and an early medieval monastery (Possibly dedicated to St Elen or St Helen ).

Beacon Hill Cemetery

Beacon Hill Cemetery was excavated by Charles Thomas in 1969. [13] The cemetery contains four inscribed stones, dated to 5th or 6th century AD. The site was originally enclosed by a curvilinear bank and ditch, which is still visible in the south west corner. HOWEVER, the other walls Were Moved When the Old Light Was constructed in 1819. Celtic Christian enclosures of this kind Were common in Western Britain and are Known As Llans in Welsh and Lanns in Cornish . There are surviving examples in Luxulyan , in Cornwall; Mathry , Meidrim and Clydauin Wales; and Stowford , Jacobstowe , Lydford, and Instow , in Devon.

Thomas proposed a five-stage sequence of site

  • (1) An area of round huts and fields. These huts may have fallen into disuse before the construction of the cemetery.
  • (2) The construction of the severe focal, an 11 by 8 ft (3.4 by 2.4 m) rectangular stone enclosure containing a single serious cist . The interior of the enclosure is filled with small granite pieces. Two more serious cistors located on the west of the enclosure may also date from this time.
  • (3) Perhaps 100 years later, the focal point was opened and the infill removed. The body may have been moved to a church at this time.
  • (4) & (5) Two further stages of serious construction around the serious focal.

23 severe cist were found during this excavation. Considering that the excavation only uncovered a small area of ​​the cemetery, there may be as many as 100 serious.

Inscribed stones

Four Celtic inscribed stones in Beacon Hill Cemetery:

  • 1400 OPTIMI, [13] or TIMI; [14] the name Optimus is Latin and male. Discovered in 1962 by DB Hague. [15]
  • 1401 RESTEVTAE, [13] or RESGEVT [A], [14] Latin , female ie Resteuta or Resgeuta. Discovered in 1962 by DB Hague. [15]
  • 1402 POTIT [I], [13] or [PO] TIT, [14] Latin, male. Discovered in 1961 by KS Gardener and A. Langham. [15]
  • 1403 -] IGERNI [FIL] I TIGERNI, [13] or-I] GERNI [FILI] [T] I [G] ERNI, [14] Brittonic , male ie Tigernus son of Tigernus. Discovered in 1905. [15]

Knights Templar

The Templars were awarded to the Knights Templar by Henry II in 1160. The Templars were a major international maritime force at this time, with interests in North Devon, and almost certainly an important port at Bideford or on the River Taw in Barnstaple . This was probably because of the increasing threat posed by the Norse sea ​​raiders; however, it is unclear whether they ever took possession of the island. Ownership was disputed by the King Stephen’s reign. The Mariscos were fined, and the island was cut off from necessary supplies. [16]Evidence of the Templars’ King John , on his accession in 1199, confirmed the earlier grant. [17]

Marisco family

In 1235 William of Marisco was implicated in the murder of Henry Clement, a messenger of Henry III . [18] Three years later, an attempt was made to kill Henry III by a man who later became an agent of the Marisco family. William of Marisco fled to Lundy where he lived as a virtual king. He built a stronghold in the area known as Bulls’ Paradise with 9 feet (3 m) thick walls. [17] In 1242, Henry III sent troops to the island. They scaled the island’s cliff and captured William of Marisco and 16 of his “subjects”. Henry III built the castle (also referred to as the Marisco Castle) in an attempt to establish the rule of law on the island and its surrounding waters. [19]At some point in the 13th century the monks of the Cistercian order at Cleeve Abbey held the rectory of the island. [20]

Piracy

Over the next few centuries, the island was hard to govern. Trouble Followed Both have English and foreign pirates and privateers – Including other members of the Marisco family – Took control of the island for short periods. Ships have been forced to navigate the river in the fast flowing River Severn and Bristol Channel , with its tidal range of 27 feet (8.2 m), [21] [22] one of the greatest in the world. [23] [24] This made the island a profitable rental from qui prey to it passing Bristol -bound merchant ships Bringing Back valuable goods from overseas. [25]

In 1627 Barbary Pirates from the Republic of Sale occupied Lundy for five years. The North African invaders, under the command of Dutch renegade Jan Janszoon , flew an Ottoman flag over the island. Some captured Europeans were held on Lundy before being sent to Algiers as Slavs. [26] [27] [28] [29] From 1628 to 1634 the island was plagued by pirate ships of French, Basque, English and Spanish origin. These incursions were eventually ended by Sir John Penington , but in the 1660s and as late as 1700s the island still fell prey to French privateers. [30]

Civil war

In the English Civil War , Thomas Bushell held Lundy for King Charles I , rebuilding Marisco Castle and garrisoning the island at his own expense. He was a friend of Francis Bacon , a strong supporter of the Royalist cause and an expert on mining and coining. It was the last Royalist territory held between the first and second civil wars. After receiving permission from Charles I, Bushell surrendered the island on 24 February 1647 to Richard Fiennes, representing General Fairfax . [31] In 1656, the island was acquired by Lord Saye and Sele . [32]

18th and 19th centuries

The late 18th and early 19th centuries were years of lawlessness on Lundy, particularly during the ownership of Thomas Benson (1708-1772), a Member of Parliament for Barnstaple in 1747 and Sheriff of Devon , who notoriously used the island for housing convicts who he was supposed to be deporting. Benson leased Lundy from ict owner, John Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Gower (1694-1754) (Who Was an heir of the Grenville family of Bideford and of Stowe, Kilkhampton in Cornwall), at a rent of £ 60 per annum and contracted with the Government to transport a shipload of convicts to Virginia, but diverted the ship to Lundy to use the convicts as his personal slaves. Later Benson was involved in an insurance swindle. He bought and insured the ship Nightingale and loaded with a valuable cargo of pewter and linen. Having cleared the port on the mainland, the ship was in Lundy, where the cargo was removed and stored in a cave built by the convicts, before setting sail again. Some days afterwards, when a homeward-bound vessel was sighted, the Nightingale was set on fire and scuttled. The crew were taken over by the other ship, which landed them safely at Clovelly. [33]

Sir Vere Hunt, 1st Baronet of Curragh , a rather eccentric Irish politician and landowner, and a successful businessman, purchased the island from John Cleveland in 1802 for £ 5,270 (£ 431,800 today). Sir Vere Hunt planted in a small, self-contained Irish colony with its own constitution and divorce laws, coinage and stamps. The tenants came from Sir Vere Hunt’s Irishestates. This led Sir Vere Hunt to seek somebody who would take the island off his hands, failing in his attempt to sell the island to the British Government as a base for troops. After the 1st Baronet’s death, Sir Aubrey (Hunt) of Vere, 2nd Baronet, also had great difficulty in securing any profit from the property. In the 1820s John Benison agreed to purchase the island for £ 4,500 but then refused to complete it as he felt that the 2nd Baronet could not make a good deal . [34]

William Hudson’s Heaven purchased Lundy in 1834, as a summer retreat and for shooting , at a cost of 9,400 guineas (£ 9,870, or £ 870,600 today). He claimed to be a “free island”, and successfully resisted the jurisdiction of the mainland magistrates. Lundy was in consequence sometimes referred to as “the kingdom of heaven”. It belongs to the county of Devon, and has always been part of the hundred of Braunton . [32] Many of the buildings on the island today, including St. Helena’s Church , designed by the architect John Norton , and Millcombe House (originally known as the Villa), date from the Heaven period. The Georgian-styleWas villa built in 1836. [35] HOWEVER, the expense of building the road from the beach (no financial support being white provided by Trinity House , DESPITE Their regular use of the road Following The building of the lighthouses), the villa and the general cost of running the island had a ruinous effect on the family’s finances, which had been damaged by their sugar plantations in Jamaica .

In 1957 a message from the HMS Caledonia was washed ashore between Babbacombe and Peppercombe in Devon . The letter, dated August 15, 1843 read: “Dear Brother, Please e God with be against Michaelmas, Prepare y search for Jenny ivories.” Adiue William, Odessa “. The bottle and letter are on display at the Fairy Cross Portledge Hotel, in Devon, England. The Jenny was a three-masted schooner reputed to be carrying her ivory and gold dust that was wrecked on Lundy (on a place thereafter called Jenny’s Cove) on February 20, 1797. The ivory was actually recovered gold dust were never found.[36] [37]

20th and 21st centuries

William Heaven was succeeded by his Reverend Hudson Grosset Heaven who, thanks to Sarah Langworthy (born Heaven), was able to fulfill his life’s ambition of building a stone church on the island. St Helen’s was completed in 1896, and stands today as a memorial to the Heaven period. It has been designated by English Heritage at Grade II listed building . [38] He is said to be able to afford either a church or a new harbor. His choice of the church was not in the best financial interests of the island. The unavailability of the money for re-establishing the family’s financial soundness, coupled with disastrous investment and speculation in the early 20th century, caused severe financial hardship. [39]

Hudson Heaven died in 1916, and was succeeded by his nephew, Walter Charles Hudson Heaven. [40] With the outbreak of the First World War , matters deteriorated seriously, Lundy to Augustus Langham Christie. In 1924, the Christie family marries the MV Lerina to Martin Coles Harman , who proclaimed himself a king. Harman issued two coins of Half Puffin and One Puffin denominations in 1929, nominally equivalent to the British halfpenny and penny, resulting in his prosecution under the United Kingdom ‘s Coinage Act of 1870 . The House of Lordsfound guilty in 1931, and was fined £ 5 with fifteen guineas (£ 5 + £ 15.75). The coins were withdrawn and became collectors’ items. In 1965 a “fantasy” restrike four-corner set, a few in gold, was issued to commemorate 40 years since Harman purchased the island. [41] Harman’s sound, John Pennington Harman was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross during the Battle of Kohima , India in 1944. There is a memorial to him at the VC Quarry on Lundy. Martin Coles Harman died in 1954.

Residents did not pay taxes to the United Kingdom and had to pass through customs when they traveled to and from Lundy Island. [42] Although the island was ruled as a virtual fiefdom , its owner never claimed to be independent of the United Kingdom, in contrast to later territorial ” micronations “.

Following the death of Harman’s his Albion in 1968. [43] Lundy was put up for sale in 1969. Jack Hayward , a British millionaire, bought the island for £ 150,000 (£ 2,266,000 today) and gave it to the National Trust , [41] ] Who leased it to the Landmark Trust . The Landmark Trust has managed the island since then, deriving its income from arranging day trips, letting out holiday cottages and donations. In May 2015 a sculpture by Antony Gormley was erected on Lundy. It is one of five life-sized sculptures, Land, placed in the heart of the UK by the Landmark Trust, to celebrate its 50th anniversary. The others are at Lowsonford ( Warwickshire ), Saddell Bay ( Scotland ), the Martello Tower ( Aldeburgh , Suffolk ), and Clavell Tower ( Kimmeridge Bay , Dorset ). [44] [45]

The island is visited by over 20,000 day-trippers a year, aim During September 2007 Had To Be closed for Several weeks owing to an outbreak of Norovirus . [46]

Wreck of Battleship Montagu 

A naval footnote in the history of Lundy was the wreck of the Royal Navy battleship HMS Montagu . Steaming in heavy fog, she ran aground near Shutter Rock on the island at 2:00 am on 30 May 1906. [47] Thinking they were aground at Hartland Point on the English mainland, a landing party went ashore for help , only finding out where they were after encountering the lighthouse keeper at the island’s north light.

Strenuous efforts by the Royal Navy to salvage the badly damaged battleship during the summer of 1906, and in 1907 it was decided to give up and sell it for scrap. Montagu was scrapped at the scene over the next fifteen years. Diving clubs still visit the site, where 12-inch (305-millimeter) shells remain on the seabed.

Remains of a German Heinkel 111H bomber

During the Second World War Two Heinkel German He 111 bombers crashed landed on the island in 1941. The first was on March 3, when the crew survived and was taken prisoner. The second was on April 1 when the pilot was killed and the other crew members were taken prisoner. [48] The second plane had bombed a British ship and one engine was damaged by anti aircraft fire, forcing it to crash land. A few remains can be found on the crash site. Reportedly to avoid reprisals the crew concocted a story that they were on a mission recognition. [49]

Geography

The island of Lundy is 3 miles (0.6 km) wide, with an area of ​​1,100 acres (450 ha). [1] [2] The highest point on Lundy Beacon Hill, 469 feet (143 m) above sea level. [50] A few yards off the northeastern coast is Seal’s Rock which is so called after the seals of which the islet . [51] [52] It is less than 55 yards (50 m) wide. [52] Near the jetty is a small pocket beach .

Geology

The island is primarily composed of granite of 59.8 ± 0.4 – 58.4 ± 0.4 million years [53] (from the Palaeocene epoch ), with slate at the southern end; the plateau is loam , with some peat . [6] [54] Among the igneous dykes are a small number consisting of a single orthophyre . Lundyite in 1914, just the term – never precisely defined – has since fallen into disuse. [55] [56]

Climate

Lundy island lies on the borderline where the North Atlantic Ocean and the Bristol Channel meet, so it has quite a mild climate. Lundy has cool, wet winters and mild, wet summers. It is often windy. Fog is a continual experience. [57] The high temperature record is 28.8 ° C (83.8 ° F) on August 2, 1990, [58] and the record low temperature is -4.5 ° C (23.9 ° F) recorded just six months later on 7 February 1991. 57] 59] Lundy Island is in the USDA 9a plant hardiness area. [60]

[ hide ]Climate data for Lundy Island (1973-1994)
month Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Record high ° C (° F) 12.0
(53.6)
12.9
(55.2)
15.4
(59.7)
18.0
(64.4)
21.7
(71.1)
25.0
(77)
27.0
(80.6)
28.8
(83.8)
21.0
(69.8)
19.4
(66.9)
18.0
(64.4)
14.6
(58.3)
28.8
(83.8)
Mean maximum ° C (° F) 10.2
(50.4)
10.2
(50.4)
11.3
(52.3)
14.3
(57.7)
17.4
(63.3)
20.2
(68.4)
21.2
(70.2)
21.5
(70.7)
19.1
(66.4)
16.6
(61.9)
14.5
(58.1)
11.6
(52.9)
23.0
(73.4)
Average high ° C (° F) 8.3
(46.9)
7.4
(45.3)
8.6
(47.5)
10.1
(50.2)
12.8
(55)
15.3
(59.5)
17.3
(63.1)
17.5
(63.5)
15.9
(60.6)
13.5
(56.3)
11.1
(52)
9.1
(48.4)
12.24
(54.03)
Daily mean ° C (° F) 7.2
(45)
6.3
(43.3)
7.4
(45.3)
8.6
(47.5)
11.0
(51.8)
13.0
(55.4)
15.7
(60.3)
16.0
(60.8)
14.6
(58.3)
12.4
(54.3)
9.6
(49.3)
8.1
(46.6)
10.83
(51.49)
Average low ° C (° F) 6.0
(42.8)
5.2
(41.4)
6.3
(43.3)
7.1
(44.8)
9.1
(48.4)
12.7
(54.9)
14.3
(57.7)
14.7
(58.5)
13.4
(56.1)
11.3
(52.3)
8.9
(48)
7.0
(44.6)
9.67
(49.4)
Mean minimum ° C (° F) 1.7
(35.1)
1.1
(34)
2.5
(36.5)
3.5
(38.3)
6.8
(44.2)
9.6
(49.3)
12.0
(53.6)
12.3
(54.1)
10.6
(51.1)
8.3
(46.9)
5.2
(41.4)
3.2
(37.8)
-0.4
(31.3)
Record low ° C (° F) -4.2
(24.4)
-4.5
(23.9)
-0.8
(30.6)
-0.9
(30.4)
3.0
(37.4)
8.0
(46.4)
10.4
(50.7)
8.0
(46.4)
8.0
(46.4)
6.8
(44.2)
2.2
(36)
1.0
(33.8)
-4.5
(23.9)
Average rainy days 19.2 14.5 17.4 13.0 13.0 12.7 13.2 13.1 16.5 18.5 18.8 19.5 189.4
Average snowy days 0.8 1.3 0.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.9
Average relative humidity (%) 84.4 85.6 86.1 85.6 83.4 84.9 84.9 80.2 82.5 81.7 82.0 80.3 83.47
Source: En.tutiempo [61]

Ecology

Flora

There is one endemic plant species, the Lundy cabbage (Coincya wrightii) , a species of primitive brassica . [62]

By the 1980s the eastern side of the island HAD Become overgrown by rhododendrons (Rhododendron ponticum) qui HAD spread from A Few specimens planted in the garden of Millcombe House in Victorian times , goal eradication of this non-native plant has-been Undertaken by volontaires over the past fifteen years in an operation known on the island as “rhody-bashing”. The vegetation on the tray is Mainly dry heath, with an area of waved Calluna heath Reviews towards the northern end of the island, qui est rich in lichens , Such As Teloschistes flavicansand several species of Cladonia and Parmelia. Other areas are either a dry heath or an acidic grassland mosaic, and are characterized by heaths and western gorse ( Ulex gallii ), or semi-improved acidic grassland in which Yorkshire fog ( Holcus lanatus ) is abundant. Tussocky (Thrift) (Holcus / Armeria) communities occur on the western side, and some patches of bracken ( Pteridium aquilinum ) on the eastern side. [6]

Fauna

Terrestrial invertebrates

Two invertebrate taxa are endemic to Lundy, with both feeding on the endemic Lundy cabbage ( Coincya wrightii ). These are the Lundi cabbage flea beetle ( Psylliodes luridipennis ), a species of leaf beetle (family Chrysomelidae) and the Lundy cabbage weevil ( Ceutorhynchus contractus var pallipes ), a variety of true weevil (family Curculionidae). [63] [64] In addition, the Luna cabbage is a hostile form of Psylliodes napi (another species of flea beetle) and a wide variety of other invertebrate species that are not endemic to the island.[64] Another resident invertebrate of note is Atypus affinis , the only British species of purseweb spider . [63] [65]

Birds

The number of puffins ( Fratercula arctica ), which has declined in the late 20th and early 20th centuries, black rats ( Rattus rattus ) (qui-have-been now eliminated) and Possibly aussi as a result of trading fishing for sand eels , the puffins’ principal prey. Since 2005, the numbers have been increasing. In 2007, [66] and six burrows in 2008.

As an isolated island on major migration routes, Lundy has a rich bird life and is a popular site for birdwatching . Large numbers of black-legged kittiwake ( Rissa tridactyla ) nest on the cliffs, razorbill ( Alca torda ), guillemot ( Uria aalge ), herring gull ( Larus argentatus ), black-backed gull ( Larus fuscus ), fulmar ( Fulmarus) glacialis ), shag ( Phalacrocorax aristotelis ), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus ), skylark ( Alauda arvensis ), meadow pipit ( Anthus pratensis ), common blackbird ( Turdus merula ), robin ( Erithacus rubecula ) and linnet ( Carduelis cannabina ). There are also smaller populations of falcon peregrine ( Falco peregrinus ) and raven ( corvus corax ).

Lundy has attracted many birds , in particular species from North America . The island ‘s bird list totals 317 species. [67] This HAS included The Following species contents, each of qui Represents the sole British record: Ancient murrelet , eastern phoebe and eastern towhee . Records of bimaculated lark , American robin and common yellowthroat were also firsts for Britain. [67] Veerys in 1987 and 1997 were Britain’s second and fourth records, a Rüppell’s warblerin 1979 was Britain’s second, an eastern Bonelli’s warbler in 2004 was Britain’s fourth, and a black-faced bunting in 2001 Britain’s third. [67]

Other British Birds rarities that have been sighted are: Little bittern , glossy ibis , gyrfalcon (3 records), little and Baillon’s crakes, collared pratincole , semipalmated (5 records), least (2 records), white -rumped and Baird’s (2 records) sandpipers, Wilson’s phalarope , laughing gull , bridled tern , Pallas’s sandgrouse , great spotted , black-billed andyellow-billed (3 records) cuckoos, European roller , olive-backed pipit , wagtail citrine , Alpine accentor , nightingale thrush , red-flanked bluetail , black-eared (2 records) and desert wheatears, White’s , Swainson’s(3 records), and gray-cheeked (2 records) thrushes, Sardinian (2 records), Arctic (3 records), Radde’s and western Bonelli’s warblers, Isabelline and lesser gray shrikes,red-eyed vireo (7 records), two-barred crossbill , yellow-rumped and blackpoll warblers, yellow-breasted (2 records) and black-headed (3 records) buntings, pink-breasted grosbeak (2 records), bobolink and Baltimore oriole (2 records). [67]

Mammals

Lundy is home to an unusual range of mammals, almost all introduced, including a distinct breed of wild pony, the Lundy pony . Until recently, Lundy and the Shiant Isles in the Hebrides were only two places in the UK where the black rat ( Rattus rattus ) could be found regularly. [68] In the rest of the United Kingdom they are much less frequented than usual in the towns and Thames Estuary. , leaving only 60 peers from the previous 15-20,000 individuals. Soay sheep ( Ovis aries[69][70] It has since been eradicated on the island, in order to protect the nesting seabirds.[71] Other species which have made the island their home include the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), Sika deer (Cervus nippon), pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) and feral goats(Capra aegagrus hircus). Unusually, 20% of the rabbits (Leporidae) on the island are melanistic compared with 4% which is typical in the UK. In mid-2006 the rabbit population was devastated by myxomatosisThe distribution of food and the risk of predation. [72]

Marine habitat

In 1971, Dr. Keith Hiscock, President of the Lundy Field Society, was established by Dr. Keith Hiscock, supported by a team of students from Bangor University . Provision for the Establishment of Statutory Marine Nature Reserves was included in the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 , and on November 21, 1986 the Secretary of State for the Environment issued the statutory appointment at Lundy. [73]

There are many species of marine habitats and wildlife, and some species of seaweed , branching sponges , sea ​​fans and cup corals . [73]

In 2003 the first statutory No Take Zone (NTZ) for marine nature conservation in the UK was set up in the waters of the east of Lundy island. [74] In 2008 This Was Declared as HAVING beens successful in Several ways Including the Increasing size and number of lobsters dans le reserves, and potential benefits for other marine wildlife. [75] However, the no take zone has a mixed reaction from local fishermen. [76]

On 12 January 2010 the island became Britain’s first Marine Conservation Area under the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 , designed to help preserve important habitats and species. [8] [77] [78]

Transport

To the island

There are two ways to get to Lundy, depending on the time of year. In the summer months (April to October), the visitors of the Landmark Trust ‘s own vessel, MS Oldenburg , which sails from both Bideford and Ilfracombe . Sailings are usually three days a week, on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, with additional sailings on Wednesdays during July and August. The voyage takes on average two hours, depending on ports, tides and weather. The Oldenburg was first registered in Bremen , Germany in 1958 and has been sailing to Lundy since 1985. [79]

In the winter months (November to March), the Oldenburg is out of service, and the island is served by a scheduled helicopter service from Hartland Point . The helicopter operates on Mondays and Fridays, with flights between 12 noon and 2 pm. The heliport is a field at Hartland Point, not far from the Beacon.

A grass runway of 435 by 30 yards (398 by 27 m) is available, allowing access to small STOL aircraft skilfully piloted. [80]

Properly equipped and experienced canoeists can kayak to the island from Hartland Point or Lee Bay. This takes 4 to 6 hours depending on wind and tides.

Entrance to Lundi is free for anyone arriving by scheduled transport. Visitors arriving by non-scheduled transportation are charged a fee, currently (May 2016) £ 6.00, and there is an additional charge payable by those using light aircraft. Anyone arriving on Lundy by non-scheduled transportation is also an additional fee for transporting luggage to the top of the island.

On the island

In 2007, Derek Green, Lundy’s general manager, launched an appeal to raise £ 250,000 to save the mile-long Beach Road, which had been damaged by heavy rain and high seas. The road was built in the first half of the 19th century to 120 meters (394 ft) above the only jetty. [81] The fund-raising was completed on 10 March 2009. [82]

Lighthouses

Foundations for a lighthouse laid on Lundy Were in 1787 the first goal lighthouse (now Known as the Old Light ) Was not built up to Trinity House Obtained a 999-year lease in 1819. The 97-foot (30 m) granite tower, one The summit of Chapel Hill was designed by Daniel Asher Alexander and built by Joseph Nelson at a cost of £ 36,000. [87] Because the site, Beacon Hill, is 469 feet (143 m) above sea level, [50] the highest base for a lighthouse in Britain, the light was often obscured by fog. To counter this problem, the Fog Signal Battery [88] was built about 1861.

The lighthouse had two lights; the lower a fixed white light and the upper light flashing white light, showing every 60 seconds. However, this quick revolution gives the impression it was a fixed light with no detectable flashes. This May-have Contributed to the grounding, at Cefn Sidan , of the The Young Emma , bound from Martinique to Cherbourg in 1828. 13 of the 19 on board drowned, Including Adeline Coquelin, the 12-year-old niece of Napoleon Bonaparte’s divorced wife Josephine de Beauharnais . [89]

Owing to the ongoing complaints about the difficulty of sighting the light in fog, the lighthouse was abandoned in 1897 when the North [90] and South [91] Lundy lighthouses were built. The Old Light and the associated keepers are kept open by the Landmark Trust . [92]

The current North Lundy and South Lighthouse were built in 1897 at the extremities of the island to replace the old lighthouse. Both lighthouses are painted white and are run by Trinity House. [93]

The North lighthouse is 56 feet (17 m) tall, slightly taller than the south one, and has a focal plane of 157 ft (48 m). It produces a quick white flash every 15 seconds, [92] and was originally lit by a 75 mm (3 in) petroleum vapor burner. Oil was lifted up by a small quay using a sled and winch, and then transported using a small railway (again winch-powered). The remains of this can be seen, but it was abandoned in 1971 and the lighthouse now uses a discharge bulb fed from the island’s main supply. [93] The northern light was modernized in 1991 and converted to solar power, when the light is on the ground. [93]

The South lighthouse has a length of 174 feet (53 m) and a quick white flash every 5 seconds. [92] It is a small white dot from Hartland Point , 11 miles to the south east. It was automated and converted to solar power in 1994. [89] The old fresnel lens has been in use since 2001 in Dungeness Lighthouse . [93]

Electricity supply

There is a small power station comprenant three Cummins B and C series diesel engines , Offering approx year 150 kVA 3-phase supply to MOST of the island buildings. Waste heat from the jackets engine is used for a district heating pipe. There are also plans to collect the waste heat from the engine to heat the heat to the district heat to improve the efficiency. [94] The power is normally switched off between 0000 and 0630. [95]

Staying on the island

Lundy has 23 holiday properties, sleeping between one and 14 people. These include a lighthouse, a castle and a Victorian mansion. Many of the buildings are built from the island’s granite.

The island also has a campsite, at the south of the island in the field next to the shop. It is hot and cold running water, with showers and toilets, in an adjacent building.

The island is popular with rock climbers, having the UK’s longest continuous slab climb, “The Devil’s Slide”. [96]

Administration

The island is an area of Torridge district of the English county of Devon . [97] It forms part of the ward of Clovelly Bay . [98] [99] It is part of the constituency electing the Member of Parliament for Torridge and West Devon and the South West England constituency for the European Parliament . [99]

Stamps

Owing to a decline in population and lack of interest in the mail contract, the GPO ended its presence on the end of 1927. [100]For the next two years Harman handled the mail to and from the island without charge. On November 1, 1929, it was decided to issue the postage stamps (½ puffin in pink and 1 puffin in blue). One puffin is equivalent to one English penny. The printing of Puffin stamps continues to be available at the Lundy Post Office. One used to have a stick Lundy stamps on the back of the envelope; Royal Mail now allows their use on the front of the envelope, but on the left side, with the right side of the Royal Mail postage stamp or stamps. Lundy stamps are canceled by a circular Lundy handstamp. The face value of the Lundy Island stamps covers the postage of letters and postcards from the island to the Bideford Post Office on the world for their final destination anywhere in the world. The Lundy Post Office gets a bulk rate for mailing letters and postcards from Bideford. Lundy stamps are a type of postage stamp known as “local carriage labels” or “local stamps”. Issues of increasing value were made over the years, including air mail, featuringa variety of people . Many are now highly sought after by collectors. [101] The market value of the early issues has risen substantially over the years. Lundy stamps have become part of the collection British Local Posts collectors. The first catalogs of these stamps Gerald Rosen’s 1970 Catalog of British Local Stamps . Later specialist catalogs include Stanley Newman’s Stamps of Lundy Island , first published in 1984, Phillips Modern British Locals CD Catalog , published since 2003, and Labbe’s Specialized Guide to Lundy Island Stamps, published since 2005 and now in its 11th Edition. Labbe’s Guide is considered the gold standard of Lundy catalogs owing to its extensive approach to varieties, errors, specialized items and “fantasy” issues. [102] There is a comprehensive collection of these stamps in the Chinchen Collection , donated by Barry Chinchen [103] to the British Library Philatelic Collections in 1977 and now held by the British Library . This is also the home of the Landmark Trust Lundy Island Philatelic Archive, which includes artwork, texts and essays as well as postmarking devices and issued stamps. [104]

In popular culture

A ship named Lundy Island , 3,095 tones, was captured and sunk on 10 January 1917 by the Seeadler , a windjammer under the German navy , but flying the Norwegian flag .

Lundy island is prominently featured in the John Bellairs ‘ juvenile gothic mystery, The Secret of the Underground Room . The plot highlights several geographical and historical points of interest, including the (De) Marisco family. The book was first published in 1990. [105]

Lundy features in the 1919 novel Last of the Grenvilles by Frederick Harcourt Kitchin (under his pseudonym, Bennett Copplestone)

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