This is a list of Orkney islands in Scotland . The Orkney archipelago is located 16 kilometers (9.9 mi) north of mainland Scotland and includes over 70 islands and skerries , of which 20 are permanently inhabited. In addition to the Orkney Mainland there are three groups of islands. The North and South Isles is located in Mainland. The Pentland Skerries are a group of small islands in the Pentland Firth , a dangerous stretch of water between mainland Scotland and the larger islands of Orkney, through which the strongest tidal streams in Britain.  The Isle of Stromais often mistakenly included with the Orkney Islands, but is part of Caithness .
The definition of an island in the world is one of every day, but not necessarily at all stages of the sea, excluding human devices such as bridges and causeways.  There are many known cases of the Churchill Barriers . They are Ronaldsay South , Burray , Lamb Holm and Glims Holm . In addition, Hunda is connected to Burray by a causeway.  The barriers were constructed by Italian prisoners-of-war as a way of preventing enemy submarineaccess to the vast natural harbor of Scapa Flow after the sinking of HMS Royal Oak by a German U-boat in 1939 with the loss of 883 lives. The Italian Catholic Catholic Chapel on Lamb Holm has a place of worship during their incarceration. 
Most of the islands have a bedrock formed from Old Red Sandstone , which is about 400 million years old, and was laid down in the Devonian period.  The islands-have qualities Good Agricultural and-have-been Continuously inhabited for Thousands of years,  as Evidenced by the World Heritage Site of the Heart of Neolithic Orkney . The archipelago is exposed to wind and tide, and there are numerous lighthouses as an aid to navigation.  The European Marine Energy Center, which is located at Stromness , is currently testing various waves and tidal energydevices from Billia Croo on the Mainland and Eday .  The islands all fall within the Orkney Islands Council area. Most of the larger islands have development that support the local economy.  
The total population of Orkney increased from 19,245 in 2001 to 21,349 at the time of the 2011 census . 
This area is larger than 15 hectares (approximately 37 acres). Records for the last date of settlement for the smaller islands were incomplete, but they were not included in some of the Neolithic , Pictish or Norse periods.
‘Ward Hill’ or a variation of this is very common on the island. These rentals are named after those high places used for the lighting of warning beacons . 
|Island||Group||Area ( ha ) ||Population ||Last inhabited ||Highest point ||Height (m) |
|Auskerry||North Isles||85||4||West Hill||18|
|Brough of Birsay||Mainland||16 ||0||unknown||Brough Head||42|
|Calf of Eday||North Isles||243||0||unknown||54|
|Calf of Flotta||South Isles||16 ||0||unknown||16|
|It’s okay||South Isles||107||0||1990s||38|
|Copinsay||South Isles||73||0||1970s||Broad Lee||70|
|Damsay||North Isles||18 ||0||unknown||11|
|Eday||North Isles||2745||160||Ward Hill||101|
|Fara||South Isles||295||0||1960s||Thomson’s Hill||43|
|Flotta||South Isles||876||80||West Hill||58|
|Glims Holm||South Isles||55||0||unknown||32|
|Graemsay||South Isles||409||28||West Hill||62|
|Helliar Holm||North Isles||35 ||0||1967||28|
|Holm of Faray||North Isles||27 ||0||unknown||19|
|Holm of Grimbister||North Isles||16 ||3||8|
|Holm of Huip||North Isles||24 ||0||unknown||18|
|Holm of Papa||North Isles||21 ||0||unknown||15|
|Holm of Scockness||North Isles||22 ||0||unknown||18|
|Hoy||South Isles||13468||419 ||Ward Hill||479|
|Inner Holm||South Isles||2 ||1||7|
|Lamb Holm||South Isles||40||See below||1945||20|
|Linga Holm||North Isles||57||0||1842-1890||18|
|Muckle Green Holm||North Isles||28 ||0||unknown||28|
|Muckle Skerry||Pentland Skerries||34 ||0||1994||20|
|North Ronaldsay||North Isles||690||72||23|
|Orkney Mainland||Mainland||52325||17162||Mid Hill||271|
|Papa Stronsay||North Isles||74||0||13|
|Papa Westray||North Isles||918||90||North Hill||48|
|Rousay||North Isles||4860||216||Blotchnie Fiold||250|
|Rysa Little||South Isles||33 ||0||19th century ||20|
|Sanday||North Isles||5043||494||The Wart||65|
|Shapinsay||North Isles||2948||307||Ward Hill||64|
|South Ronaldsay||South Isles||4980||909||Ward Hill||118|
|South Walls||South Isles||1100 ||See Hoy ||Gallow Tuag||57|
|Start Point||North Isles||24||0||unknown||Mount Misery||8|
|Stronsay||North Isles||3275||349||Burgh Hill||44|
|Switha||South Isles||41||0||20th century? ||29|
|Sweyn Holm||North Isles||17 ||0||unknown||15|
|Swona||South Isles||92||0||1974||Warbister Hill||41|
|Westray||North Isles||4713||588||Fitty Hill||169|
The population of the tidal islet of Holm of Grimbister was not recorded by the 2001 census,  although it was inhabited in 2010 and probably earlier.  It did not appear in the 2011 tables. 
The population of Inner Holm in 2001 was one, although the figure was included in the total for Mainland at the time of the 2001 census.
Lamb Holm is “included in the statistical data for the purpose of housing the population of the year 2001 or 2011 censuses”. 
Papa Stronsay had usually been resident population of 10 in 2001  but was apparently not permanently in 2011. 
Smaller islets and skerries
In the vicinity of:
- Auskerry : Lunga Skerries, Oessen Skerry, The Clett.
- Calf of Eday : Lashy Skerries, The Bow.
- Cava: Barrel of Butter.
- Copinsay : Black Holm , Corn Holm , Horse of Copinsay , Skerry Scarf, Sow Skerry, Ward Holm.
- Eday : Holm Green, Red Holm, Rusk Holm .
- Egilsay : Kili Holm .
- Eynhallow : Sheep Skerry.
- Gearsay : Holm of Boray, Holm of Rendall, Little Skerry Seal, Skertours, Taing Skerry.
- Glims Holm : Dulse Skerry, Glimpsholm Skerry.
- Graemsay : Middle Skerry, Skerry of Cletts, Sour Skerry, Sow Skerry.
- Hoy : Grassy Cletts, Inner Skerry, Middle Skerry, Old Man of Hoy , Outer Skerry, The Needle.
- Mainland : Bo Skerry, Bow Skerries, Braga, Brough of Bigging, Holm of Houton , Holm of Rendall, Iceland Skerry, Kirk Rocks, Little Skerry, Mirkady Point, Nevi Skerry , Outer Holm, Oyster Skerries, Skerry Puldrite, Quanterness Skerry, Scare Skerries Skerries Skerries of Skerries Skerries of Coubister Skerries of Lakequoy Skerry of Work Smerogro Skerry Thieves Holm Whyabatten Yesnaby Castle
- Muckle Skerry : Skerry Clettack, Little Skerry, Louther Skerry.
- North Ronaldsay : Altars of Linnay, Green Skerry, Hoe Skerries, Reefdyke, Seal Skerry.
- Papa Stronsay : Jack’s Hole, Jack’s Reef.
- Papa Westray : Cairn Head, Muckle Quoy.
- Rousay : Little Brig, Muckle Brig.
- Sanday : Baa Gruna,
- Shapinsay : Broad Shoal, Grass Holm, Skerry of Vasa.
- Stronsay : Holms of Spurness, Ingale Skerry, Little Linga, The Bow.
- Swona : Selki Skerry, South Clett, The Tails of the Tarff, West Wini Skerry.
- Westray : Holm of Aikerness, Holm Shell, Skea Skerries, Wart Holm.
- Wyre : Wyre Skerries.
The remote islets of Sule Skerry and Sule Stack , which is 37 miles west of the archipelago form part of Orkney for local government purposes.
- List of places in Orkney
- List of Shetland islands
- List of Outer Hebrides
- List of islands of Scotland
- List of the largest islands in the North Sea
References and footnotes
- General references
- Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004). The Scottish Islands . Edinburgh: Canongate. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7 .
- General Register Office for Scotland (28 November 2003) Scotland’s Census 2001 – Occasional Paper No. 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands . Retrieved 26 February 2012.
- National Records of Scotland (15 August 2013) (pdf) Statistical Bulletin: 2011 Census: First Results on Population and Household Estimates for Scotland – Release 1C (Part Two) . “Appendix 2: Population and Households on Scotland’s Uninhabited Islands”. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Omand, Donald (ed.) (2003) The Orkney Book . Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 1-84158-254-9
- Specific references and notes
- Jump up^ Lawrence, Martin (2003)Yachtsman’s Pilot: North and East Scotland. St Ives. Imray, Laurie, Norie and Wilson, p. 108.
- Jump up^ Various other definitions are used in the Scottish context. For example, the General Register Office for Scotland, defined by the Scottish Mainland and the Scottish Mainland. this is not clear from this definition. Haswell-Smith (2004) uses “An Island is a piece of land or land that is more or less”. This is widely agreed to be unhelpful as it is intelligently excludes bridged islands.
- Jump up^ Ordnance Survey maps Glims call Holm ‘Glimps Holm’. Lamb Holm and Glims Holm are also referred to as ‘Lambholm’ and ‘Glimsholm’. See for example Wenham, Sheena “The South Isles”, in Omand (2003) p. 210.
- Jump up^ Wenham, Sheena “Modern Times” in Omand (2003) pp. 108-9.
- Jump up^ McKirdy, Alan Gordon, John & Crofts, Roger (2007)Land of Mountain and Flood: The Geology and Landforms of Scotland. Edinburgh. Birlinn.
- Jump up^ “Walk in Scotland: Orkney and Shetland”Visit Scotland. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
- Jump up^ “Lighthouse Library”Northern Lighthouse Board. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- Jump up^ “EMEC Orkney”European Marine Energy Center. Retrieved 3 February 2007.
- Jump up^ “Directory of Members’DTA Scotland Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- Jump up^ “Orkney Communities are doing it for themselves” Archived2015-12-27 at theWayback Machine. (23 August 2007and seq)Orkney Today. Retrieved 15 September 2007.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f National Records of Scotland (2013)
- Jump up^ “Orkney Placenames – natural elements”Orkneyjar. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
- Jump up^ Haswell-Smith (2004)Scottish Islandssave Those Indicated with a separate footnote.
- Jump up^ For uninhabited islands indicating the last known date of permanent, year round settlement. Information is from Haswell-Smith (2004)Scottish Islands.
- Jump up^ Haswell-Smith (2004)Scottish IslandsandOrdnance Surveymaps.
- Jump up^ Ordnance Surveymaps. Note that the maps mark the height of a high point of the highest point of the island.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m Rick Livingstone’s Tables of the Islands of Scotland(pdf) Argyll Yacht Charters. Retrieved 12 Dec 2011.
- ^ Jump up to:a b An estimate based on Ordnance Survey maps.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Neither the 2001 nor 2011 censuses list South Walls as an island, goal include the total population in Hoy.
- Jump up^ Wenham, Sheena “The South Isles” in Omand (2003) p. 208.
- Jump up^ Haswell-Smith (2004) there is no written record of any post-Neolithic dwelling, although Sheena Wenham (“The South Isles” in Omand (2003) p.208) states the island supported a community “into the 20th century “.
- ^ Jump up to:a b General Register Office for Scotland (2003)
- Jump up^ Ross, Calum (Mar 3, 2010)”Tory candidate pulls out of race for city seat at general election”. Press and Journal. Aberdeen. Retrieved 26 Feb 2012.
- Jump up^ Waugh, Doreen J., “Orkney Place-names” in Omand, (2003) p. 119.