Lastovo

Lastovo ( pronounced [lâstɔv̞ɔ] ; Italian : Lagosta , German : Augusta , Latin : Augusta Insula , Greek : Ladestanos , Illyrian : Ladest ) is an island municipality in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in Croatia . The municipality Consists of 46 islands with a total population of 792 people, [3] of qui 93% are ethnic Croats , and a land area of 53 square kilometers Approximately (20 sq mi). [4][5] The biggest island in the municipality is also named Lastovo, as is the largest town. The majority of the population lives on the 46 square kilometers (18 sq mi) island of Lastovo.

Lastovo, like the rest of the Roman province of Dalmatia , was settled by Illyrians . The Romans conquered and settled the whole area, retaining control until the Avar invasions and Slavic migrations in the 7th century. The Croats and other Slavic tribes subjugated by the Croats secured most of the Dalmatian seaboard, but some cities and islands (like Lagosta) of the Romanized Dalmatians remained independent under the nominal rule of the Byzantines. In 1000 AD the Venetians attacked and destroyed the settlement of the island’s participation in piracy along the Adriaticcoast. After the Venetian domination, in the 13th century Lagosta joins the Republic of Ragusa where it enjoys a certain level of independence until the Republic of France, under Napoleon . Austria then ruled the island for the next century, then Italy for 30 years after World War I , and finally Yugoslavia until it became part of the independent Republic of Croatia .

The island is noted for its 15th- and 16th-century Venetian architecture. There is a large number of churches of relatively small size, a testament to the island’s long-standing Roman Catholic tradition. The major cultural event is the Poklade , or carnival. The island is one of the most important places in the world. In 2006 the Croatian Government made the island and its archipelago at nature park. [6]

European Coastal Airlines multiple offers daily connections by seaplane from Ubli to Vela Luka on the island of Korcula and Split . Flight duration from Ubli to Vela Luka is only 11 minutes and only 22 minutes to Split.

Geography

The island of Lastovo belongs to the central Dalmatian archipelago. Thirteen kilometers (8.1 miles) south of Korcula , the island is one of the most remote islands in the Adriatic Sea . Other islands in this group include Vis , Brač , Hvar , Korčula and Mljet . The dimensions of the island are approximately 9.8 kilometers (6.1 miles) long by up to 5.8 kilometers (3.6 miles) wide. [2]

The Lastovo archipelago contains a total of 46 islands, including the largest islands Sušac , Prežba , Mrčara and an island group called Lastovnjaci on the eastern side. Prežba is connected to the island by a bridge at the village of Pasadur (“passage” in the local dialect). The island: has a daily hydrofoil service and ferry services linking it to the mainland at Split and stopping along the way at Korcula and Hvar . quote needed ]

The town of Lastovo is spread over the steep banks of a natural amphitheater overlooking a fertile field, facing away from the sea. Adriatic islands, which are normally harbor side. Other cities include Ubli (also known as Sveti Petar), Zaklopatica , Skrivena Luka , and Pasadur . quote needed ]

Despite major fires in 1971, 1998 and 2003, [7] about 60% of Lastovo is covered with forest, mostly Holm Oaks and Aleppo Pines and Mediterranean underbrush. [8] There are rich communities of falcon and hawk nests. These are used by the Dubrovnik Republic for falconry and other kingdoms, especially to Kingdom of Naples in the Middle Ages. The underwater life is the richest in the whole Adriatic , featuring lobsters , crayfish , octopus and many high priced John Dory andGroupers . There are no venomous snakes on the island. [9]

Landscape and coastline

Lastovo has a dynamic landscape consisting of 46 hills and 46 karstic fields that often contain layers of sand and quartz sand. The highest point is Hum at 417 m (1,368 ft) [10] and Pleševo ​​Brdo, Gumanca and Mali are more than 400 m (1,300 ft) and 200 m (650 ft) . Its dolomitic valleys are located between limy hills and mild calcareous slopes rich in wineries. There are five caves on the island – Rača (the largest), Puzavica, Pozalica, Grapčeva and Medvidina. [11]

The coastline is mainly steep and the surrounding sea is deep. On the southern coast is a broad, deep bay at Skrivena Luka qui offers protection from the bura and westerly winds. The other main port is located on the western side of the island where it is located. [12]

Climate

Lastovo possesses all the basic characteristics of the Mediterranean climate , dominated by mild, moist winters and warm, long, and dry summers. [13] The island receives around 2,700 sun hours per year, ranking among the sunniest in the Adriatic and pleasant for tourists. [13] This produces a water temperature around 27 ° C (81 ° F) in summer. citation needed ] Annual rainfall is 622 millimeters (24.5 in). [13] Since there are no permanent surface water streams, [13] residents rely on bores, dams and wells.

History

Prehistory and antiquity

The island was first mentioned by 6th century lexicographer Stephen from Byzantium who called it Ladesta and Ladeston . His source was Theopompus , a 4th-century BC Greek historian. The names of numerous Illyric settlements along the coast have the same suffix -is which indicates its Illyric origins. When the Romans conquered Dalmatia they gave the island the name Latin Augusta Insula meaning “Emperor’s Island”. During the Middle Ages , the name would be transcribed as Augusta , Lagusta goldLagosta . The Slavic Suffix -ovo combined with the Roman Form of Lasta gives the islands present name of Lastovo . [2]

The first traces of human presence on the island were found in Rača cave where continuous evidence of Neolithic Age . In prehistoric times the island was inhabited by the Illyrians. However, it is one of the most important examples of Greek ceramics on the Adriatic and probably part of the state of Issa . [2]

When the Romans conquered the province of Dalmatia they too settled Lastovo. The Romans named the island Augusta Insula . The Romans left traces of their long rule on the island, in the so-called villa rustica estates (residential farming units) and the water catchment areas known as the lokve . The Romans Established a settlement on location of today’s town of Ubli That Flourished During first centuries AD, only completely Call To Become abandoned in later centuries being white after-destroyed by the barbarians. [2]

Middle Ages

With the arrival of the Croats to Adriatic in the 7th century, Croats eventually settled most of Dalmatia which included Lastovo. Around 950, the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos mentions Lastovo in his De Administrando Imperio by its Croatian name Lastobon . [14] In 998 the Venetian Doge Pietro Orseolo II launched large military operations against Croatian and Neretvian pirates along the Adriatic and its islands, which culminated in 1000 with the destruction of the town of Lastovo . After that the residents ( Lastovci or Lastovčani) decided to build a city on the During the next two centuries, they are more often than not. [11] Scarcity of accurate historical documents and an almost complete silence covering the events on the island in the early Middle Ages are trustworthy signs of a great autonomy of Lastovo in that period. Lastovo May-have at times come Briefly under various rulers from the 7th to 13th centuries, whether Byzantine , Dukljan gold Narentine , HOWEVER, it is accepted That Lastovo Generally Recognized the Croatian kings as icts nominal and natural rulers. [2] [11]In 1185 the Hvar diocese is formed of. A church synod held in Split that same year decreed that the diocese of Hvar should fall under the authority of the Archbishop of Split .

Republic of Ragusa

Later in the 13th century the people of Lastovo voluntarily joined the Republic of Ragusa in 1252 after the republic promised that it would honor Lastovo’s internal autonomy. This article was codified in the Ragusa Statute written in 1272. [15] In 1310 Lastovo got its first written legislation, the Statute of Lastovo , which had all the characteristics of law. The supreme authority on the island has a council of 20 members who held office for life. [14] In 1486 the authority of the Council was transferred to the Parliament of the Republic and the island lost much of its autonomy. Continuous limitation of the island’s autonomy and higher taxes in a short lived rebellion in 1602. On the appeal of islanders,Venice occupied the island of the following year and held it until 1606, when it was returned to Ragusa. The next attempt at rebellion was in 1652, which resulted in the loss of the island’s autonomy. [11]

During the Ottoman conquests, Lastovo was very often a target of pirates of Ulcinj , leading to the introduction of mandatory guard service. Guard service was abolished in the 18th century when pirates from Ulcinj became merchant sailors. The last reported outbreak of vampirism in Croatia was ‘recorded’ on Lastovo. The trial in Ragusa in 1737 took place from the world during an outbreak of severe diarrhea which killed many locals. The islanders blamed this epidemic on vampires. This case included from Lastovo the defenders who formed a band or group of vigilante style vampire hunters. Such cases were reported throughout Europe and indeed Europe in the Middle Ages. [17]

19th century

In 1806 the French took control of the Republic of Ragusa . When they abolished the Republic in 1808, Lastovo became part of the French Empireand was included in the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. The French built a fortification on Glavica hill and mobilized islanders against the British. Between 18 January and 3 February 1813, the Royal Navy HMS frigate Apollo and troops captured Lastovo and Korčula . The British held the island until 1815 when the Congress of Vienna awarded the island to the Habsburg Empire . After 1815, Lastovo was part of Dubrovnik county in the Austrian province of Dalmatia. Until 1829, it had its own court, but later the island fell under the jurisdiction of Korčula . In the 1840s, the municipality fell into a deep economic crisis that resulted in its selling most of its forests to foreigners. [11]

20th century

During World War I , the Austro-Hungarian Army established a military garrison on Glavica mostly consisting of Hungarian troops. The authorities ordered blackouts and forbade the ringing of church during the war. At the end of 1917 furnace French planes bombed Lastovo. Some French troops landed on the island to recognize it. Italian forces soon followed and clashed with the garrison. Some members of the Austro-Hungarian Garrison escaped. The Italians took them to Italy as prisoners of war . A French plane dropping the leaflets on the island on 4 November brought back the war was finally over. On 11 November 1918 Italian troops took possession of the island on the 1915 Secret Treaty of London, which allocated much of Dalmatia to Italy on Italy entering the war on the side of the Triple Alliance . The Italians based their claim on the presence of ethnic Italians in all parts of Dalmatia. However, US President Woodrow Wilson , who was a supporter of the official principle, blocked the allowance. quote needed ]

As a consequence, under the Rapallo agreement of 1920, Italy received in Dalmatia only Zara (today Zadar ), due to its Italian majority, and Lagosta. Although Dalmatian places such as Vis (Lissa) clarification needed ] . After the advent of Fascism in Italy (1922), the Italians followed a policy of Italianization in all its possessions. At the same time, living standards improved. Many public works were started, and the island reached its peak population of approximately 2,000. This growth occurs in the Dalmatian towns, of ethnic Italians.quote needed ]

In 1941 the Axis Powers attacked Yugoslavia, which collapsed in few days. Italy annexed part of Dalmatia; the remainder became part of the new Independent State of Croatia . On September 8, 1943, partner after the declaration of the Armistice with Italy , the Italian Army collapsed and Josip Broz Tito ‘s Partisans Took over the island, Incorporating it into Yugoslavia. Lastovo became part of the People’s Republic of Croatia in 1945-one of the six Republics of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia and the Socialist Republic of Croatia – one of the republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslaviain 1953. [11] At this time all the Italian residents left the island. quote needed ]

After World War II , Lastovo experienced the same fate as the neighboring island Vis . The island became a military region. The barrage of foreign nationals led to economic stagnation and the depopulation of the island. citation needed ] In 1988, the island was allowed to visit the island. citation needed ] Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, but the Yugoslav People’s Army only left its bases on Lastovo, one of its last footholds in Croatia, in July 1992. The war in Croatia ended in 1995. Lastovo escaped much of the devastation that swept across some parts of Croatia and most of neighboring Bosnia.quote needed ]

Demographics

Population [18]
Settlement / Year 1971 nineteen eighty one 1991 [Notes 1] 2001 2011 [3]
Glavat
7
3
9
Lastovo
987
643
734
451
350
Pasadur
79
77
100
Skrivena Luka
12
18
20
18
33
Susac
6
8
7
Uble
198
290
303
218
222
Zaklopatica
69
71
87
TOTAL
1210
962
1221
835
792

According to the 2011 census, the municipality of Lastovo has a population of 792 people living in 286 households, including 350 people living in Lastovo town . There are seven registered settlements on the island, two of which (the lighthouses at Sušac and Glavat) are no longer populated. [3]

The average age of the people of the Lastovo municipality was 40 years old, slightly older than the national average of 39 years old. About 90% of the people of the Lastovo municipality are Roman Catholics [19] and 95% are Croats . [20] The highest level of education for 44% of the municipality, for 13% it was college or university. [21]

The island’s population peaked at 1,738, in 1948, and has been in a steady decline since, due to emigration to mainland Croatia and abroad. [22] The number of people who emigrated from the island between 1953 and 1991 exceeds its current population. [23]

Economy

Like many of the Mediterranean islands, the Lastovo economy is centered around agriculture and tourism. The 2003 Agricultural Census reported that the municipality had 57 ha (140 acres) of land used for agriculture. Of this 25 ha (62 acres) were vineyards [24] and over 9000 olive trees grew in Lastovo. [25] Following decades of isolation from foreigners, due to the Yugoslav National Army activities and the Croatian War of Independence (1991-1995), the island has become attractive to tourists largely undeveloped; even supplying the island with fresh water has been difficult. [26]

Culture

Poklad

The most important event on the island is an authentic carnival that locals call the Poklad . All the island residents participate by wearing folk costumes. The origins of the Lastovo carnival go back to a historical event. Legend has it That Catalan pirates attacked This Neighboring Korcula and sent a Turkish messenger to Lastovo to tell the islanders to surrender or They Would Be next. The inhabitants of Lastovo did not let themselves be intimidated – instead they armed themselves and went on the attack. The women and children prayed to Sv. Jure ( St. George )for help and their prayers were answered by the pirates’ ships and the inhabitants of Lastovo caught the messenger. In order to mock him, he was taken through the village on the back of a donkey and was afterwards sentenced and burned to death. This event is celebrated by the Poklad every year over a period of three days. The event takes place in the middle of February and since the summer 2006 it has become main attraction for tourists. Locals enjoy this event Lastovci from all around Croatia return to Lastovo to attend the carnival. [27]

Churches

The main church is the Church of Saints Cosmas and Damian ( Crkva sv Kuzme i Damjana ). It is situated in the oldest part of the square in the town of Lastovo and dates from the 14th century. On the hand altar is the painting of St. Cosmas and Damian. Out of the rest of the paintings Pieta , the work of an anonymous Venetian painter from 1545, can be distinguished. It is a smaller church that dates back from 5th or 6th century. The church of Sv Vlaho ( St. Blaise ) from the 12th century is on the entrance of the settlement. Beside it the chapel of Saint John was built in 1607, and around the church has a wall and tower defense. quote needed ]

Saint Mary in the field is the most beautiful church of Saint Mary in the field of the 14th century and is considered the most attractive on the island. Near the ferry port in Ubli a archaeological finds of the remains of a 6th-century church dedicated to Sv Petar ( St. Peter ) are situated. Sv Luka (St Luke) built in the typical Croatian 11th-century sacred architecture, and Sv Jurje (St George) at Prežba also built in the 11th century, was demolished between the two World Wars. Another church called St Peter in Ubli built somewhere in the 11th-13th centuries was made by the Italians in 1933 to make way for extra fishing sheds. [11]All together there are a total of 46 churches, making the number 46 omnipresent since the island aussi HAS 46 hills, covers 46 km 2 (18 sq mi), Has 46 fields, and contains 46 islands in the archipelago. quote needed ]

Architecture

The town’s buildings date from the 15th and 16th centuries when the construction of 20 Renaissance houses redefined the village’s appearance. Most of them have high broad terraces which have become the “trade mark” look of Lastovo houses. Their unusual cylindrical chimneys are very small, but they are small and small, but there is no record of Arab or Turkish influence ever directly reaching this area. The ornate chimney on the 16th century Biza Antica is probably the oldest preserved chimney in Dalmatia. The Struga lighthouse built in 1839 on Lastovo’s southern tip near Skrivena Luka is one of the oldest lighthouses in Croatia. [11]

Language

Inhabitants speak the Čakavian dialect of the Croatian language, maintaining a unique Jekavian , known as Southeastern Chakavian variant possibly due to the influence of hundreds of years of association within the Dubrovnik Republic and also due to the island’s remoteness.

Before the year 1000 AD the population of the island (then called “Lagosta”) was mainly made by Dalmatians of the Dalmatian City-States . But the first mentioned inhabitants of Lastovo were recorded in the 13th century The Republic of Ragusa’s archives and in the Statute of Lastovo , written in Italian and Latin: it clearly indicates that most of the population in this century had made Croatian folk names. [11] Only under Italian control in the 20th century, the island had a majority of “neolatin” speakers but they disappeared after World War II . [28]

For Many centuries the only religion on the island has-been Roman Catholicism , qui HAS Contributed to the preservation of the Latin names of some settlements.

Notable people

  • See alsoDobrić Dobričević (Bonino of Bonini) , one of the pioneers of printing in Europe. He was born in 1454 and printed in Venice , Verona , Brescia and Lyon . He printed ancient classics by Tibullus , Catullus , Propertius , Virgil , Plutarch and Aesop , and Dante ‘s Divine Comedy . His works were considered among the best examples of printing of his time. He died in Treviso in 1528. [29]
  • Tony Šantić is the owner of the racehorse Makybe Diva , a three-time winner of the Melbourne Cup , Australia’s most prestigious horse race. Tony Šantić is also a successful tuna fisherman with large operations in South Australia and Croatia.
  • Anselmo Antica was a visionary 18th-century Benedictine who wanted the Republic of Dubrovnik to establish official diplomatic relations with the United States. Eventually, the Dubrovnik Republic became the first state to recognize the United States as a sovereign state. This is an unquestionable and one of the basics of the Dubrovnik Republic’s diplomacy- to their size and dependence on the other side of the world. The Republic would have never allowed itself to do so. [2] [ clarification needed ]
  • Timeline of Croatian history
  • Timeline of the Republic of Venice
  • Battle of Lastovo (1000)

Notes

  1. Jump up^ The 1991 Census figures included 234 people along No. Who Lived in the Lastovo municipality.

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:c Ostroški, Ljiljana, ed. (December 2015). Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2015 [Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015] (PDF). Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia (in Croatian and English). 47. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. p. 47. ISSN 1333-3305. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  2. ^ Jump up to:h Belamarić, Jurica (1985). Vodič Lastova (in Croatian). Split : Logos. OCLC  16890326 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:c “Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Lastovo” . Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011 . Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics . December 2012.
  4. Jump up^ Duplančić Leder, Tea; Ujević, Tin; Čala, Mendi (June 2004). “Coastline lengths and areas of the islands in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea determined from the topographic maps of the scale of 1: 25,000” (PDF) . Geoadria . Zadar . 9 (1): 5-32 . Retrieved 2011-01-21 .
  5. Jump up^ Lastovo Municipality Spatial Plan – Exhibition of the Plan, p. 4
  6. Jump up^ “Lastovsko otočje – 11. hrvatski park prirode” . www.lastovo.org (in Croatian). Park Priirode Lastovo . Retrieved 2009-05-12 .
  7. Jump up^ Nautical Tourism Development in the Lastovo Islands Nature Park, p. 8
  8. Jump up^ Horvat, Manda; Mutak, Katica (January 2006). “Architecture of the Island of Lastovo” (PDF) . Ethnological Researches . 1 (11): 327-334 . Retrieved 6 March 2011 .
  9. Jump up^ “Free from poisonous snakes” . lastovo.org . Lastovo Nature Park . Retrieved 14 February 2011 .
  10. Jump up^ “Lastovo – vrh Sozanj” . plsavez.hr (in Croatian). Croatian Mountaineering Association . Retrieved 5 April 2011 .
  11. ^ Jump up to:i Jurica, Antun (2001). Lastovo kroz stoljeća (in Croatian). Lastovo: Matica hrvatska Ogranak Lastovo. ISBN  953-97232-3-X .
  12. Jump up^ Lastovo Municipality Spatial Plan – Exhibition of the Plan, p. 9
  13. ^ Jump up to:d Lastovo Municipality Spatial Plan – exhibition of the Plan , p. 7
  14. Jump up^ Constantine VII (c.950). From Administrando Imperio .
  15. Jump up^ Lucijanović, Marin (1954). Lastovo u sklopu Dubrovačke republike (in Croatian).
  16. Jump up^ Vekarić, Nenad. “Lastovci u Lastovskom statusu” [The Population of Lastovo in the Lastovo Statute] (PDF) . Anali Zavoda za povijesne znanosti Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti u Dubrovniku (in Croatian) . Retrieved 7 March 2011 .
  17. Jump up^ Liepopili, Ante (1918). “Vukodlaci” (in Croatian). Zbornik za narodni život i običaje Južnih Slavena, vol. 23, p289
  18. Jump up^ Nautical Tourism Development in the Lastovo Islands Nature Park, p. 6
  19. Jump up^ “Population by Religion, by Towns / Municipalities, 2011 Census: County of Dubrovnik-Neretva” . Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011 . Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics . December 2012.
  20. Jump up^ “Population by Ethnicity, by Towns / Municipalities, 2011 Census: County of Dubrovnik-Neretva” . Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011 . Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics . December 2012.
  21. Jump up^ “Population aged 15 and over, by sex and educational attainment, by towns / municipalities, Census 2001” . Census 2001 . Croatian Bureau of Statistics . Retrieved 9 April 2011 .
  22. Jump up^ Lastovo Municipality Spatial Plan – Exhibition of the Plan, p. 25
  23. Jump up^ Lastovo Municipality Spatial Plan – Exhibition of the Plan, p. 26
  24. Jump up^ “Grape-vines (1 June 2003)” . Agricultural Census 2003 . Croatian Bureau of Statistics . Retrieved 3 March 2011 .
  25. Jump up^ “Number of trees and area of ​​olive plantations (1 June 2003)” . Agricultural Census 2003 . Croatian Bureau of Statistics . Retrieved 3 March2011 .
  26. Jump up^ Glamuzina, Martin; Glamuzina, Nikola; Mamut, Marica (2002). “The Water Supply of the Middle Dalmatian Islands (Croatia) – Neretva-Pelješac-Korčula-Lastovo-Mljet Regional Water Supply-System” (PDF) . Littoral 2002, The Changing Coast : 145-148. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 10, 2008 . Retrieved 3 March 2011 .
  27. Jump up^ “Lastovo – Carnival Island” . Adriatica.net . Retrieved 6 March 2011 . Permission is granted by the website to the text of theGNU Free Documentation License.
  28. Jump up^ Lagosta Italians
  29. Jump up^ Novak, Slobodan P. (1987). Dubrovnik Revisited . Zagreb. ISBN  86-329-0017-X .

Leave a Comment