Korcula

Korcula ( Croatian: [kɔːrtʃula] ( listen )About this sound  ; Italian : Curzola , Greek : Κόρκυρα Μέλαινα , Korkyra Melaina , Latin : Corcyra Nigra, Korkyra Melaina , Old-Slavic Krkar ) is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea . It has an area of ​​279 km 2 (108 sq mi); 46.8 km (29.1 mi) long and is average 7.8 km (4.8 mi) wide [2] – and lies just off the Dalmatiancoast. Its 15,522 inhabitants (2011) make it the most populous Adriatic island after Krk [3] and the most populous Croatian island not connected to the mainland by a bridge. The population is almost entirely ethnic Croats (95.74%). [4] The island is twinned with Rothesay in Scotland.

Geography

The island of Korčula belongs to the central Dalmatian archipelago, separated from the Pelješac peninsula by a narrow Strait of Pelješac, between 900 and 3,000 meters (3,000 and 9,800 feet) wide. It stretches in the east-west direction, in length of 47 kilometers (29 miles); on average, it is 8 km (5.0 miles) wide. With an area of ​​279 square kilometers (108 sq mi), it is the sixth largest Adriatic island . The highest peaks are Klupca , 568 meters (1,864 ft) and Kom , 510 meters (1,670 ft) high.

Main settlements on the island are towns of Korčula , Vela Luka and Blato . Villages along the coast are Brna , Lumbarda , Račišće , and Prižba ; Žrnovo , Pupnat , Smokvica and Čaraare located inland. The island is divided into the municipalities of Korčula, Smokvica, Blato and Lumbarda. The climate is Mediterranean; average temperature in January is 9.8 ° C (49.6 ° F) and in July 26.9 ° C (80.4 ° F); the average annual rainfall is 1,100 mm (43.3 in). The island is largely covered with Mediterranean flora including extensive pine forests.

The main road runs along the spine of the island connecting the settlements of Lumbarda on the eastern to Vela Luka on the western end, with the exception of Račišće, which is served by a separate road running along the northern coast. citation needed ] Ferries connect the city of Korčula with Orebić on the Pelješac peninsula and Drvenik on the mainland (near Makarska ). Another line connects Vela Luka with Split and the island of Lastovo. Fast passenger catamarans connect those two ports with Split and the islands of Hvar and Lastovo . The main Adriatic ferry line connects Korčula with Split,Dubrovnik , Zadar and Rijeka . During the summer there are direct ferries to Italian Adriatic ports. quote needed ]

History

Ancient history

According to legend, the island was founded by Trojan hero Antenor in the 12th century BC who is also famed as the founder of the city of Padua .

The island was first settled by Mesolithic and Neolithic peoples. There is archaeological evidence at the sites of Vela Spila (Big Cave) [5] and at Jakas Cave near the village of Zrnovo. The findings at Vela Spila are on display at the Center for Culture in Vela Luka. The fate of these peoples is not known but the sites provide a window into their way of life. quote needed ]

The second wave of human settlement by Illyrians . [6] It is believed that the Illyrians arrived in Balkans approximately 1000 BC. [7] They were semi-nomadic tribal people living from agriculture. There are numerous old stone buildings and fortresses left behind by the Illyrians. [8]

Melaina Korkyra ( Greek : Μέλαινα Κόρκυρα , “Black Corcyra”) was the ancient Cnidian Greek colony founded on Korčula. [9] Greek colonists from Corcyra ( Corfu ) formed a colony on the island in the 6th century BC The Greeks named it “Black Corfu” after their homeland and the dense pine-woods on the island. Greek artifacts, including carved marble tombstones can be found at the local Korčula town museum.

A stone inscription found in Lumbarda ( Lumbarda Psephisma ) and which is the oldest written stone monument in Croatia, records that Greek settlers from Issa ( Vis ) founded another colony on the island in the 3rd century BC. The two communities lived peacefully until the Illyrian Wars (220 BC to 219 BC) [10] with the Romans.

The island became part of the Roman province of Illyricum [11] after the Illyrian Wars. Roman migration followed by Roman citizens on the island. Roman villas appeared through the territory of Korčula and there is evidence of an organized agricultural exploitation of the land. There are archaeological remains of Roman Junianum [12] on the island and old church foundations. [13]

In 10 AD Illyricum was split into two provinces, Pannonia and Dalmatia. [14] Korčula became part of the ancient Roman province of Dalmatia .

Middle Ages

In the sixth century it came under Byzantine rule. The Great Migrations of the 6th and 7th centuries in Croatian [15] invasions into this region. Along the Dalmatian coast, the Croatian peoples of the Neretva River enters the Adriatic , and the island of Korčula (Corcyra), which protects the river mouth. The Christianization of the Croats began in the 9th century, but the early Christianity only later; in the early Middle Ages the Croatian population of the island was grouped with the paganNarentines or Neretvians, who quickly learned maritime skills in this new environment and became known as pirates. quote needed ]

Initially, Venetian merchants were willing to pay an annual fee to keep their shipping safe from the infamous Neretvian pirates of the Dalmatian coast. After the 9th century, the island was briefly under nominal Byzantine suzerainty. In 998 the Principality of Pagania came under Venetian control. Doge Pietro II Orseolo launched a naval expedition along the coast and assumed the title Duke of Dalmatia. [16] Afterwards Korčula came under the control of the Great Principality of Zahumlje .

In the 12th century Korčula was conquered by a Venetian nobleman, Pepone Zorzi, and incorporated briefly into the Venetian Republic. Around this time, the local rulers Korcula Began to exercise diplomacy and legislate a town charter to secure the independence of the island, PARTICULARLY with regard to internal affairs, Given icts Powerful neighbors. quote needed ]

The brothers of Stephen Nemanja , Miroslav and Stracimir, launched on August 10, 1184, raiding its fertile western part. The island’s inhabitants called for help from the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik), which in turn captured all of Stracimir’s galleys. [17]

The Statute of Korčula was first drafted in 1214. [18] [19] The Great Principality of Raška , the Great Principality of the Republic, and the Grand Principality of Raška The Great Principality of Zahumlje and the Republics of Ragusa Venice. Captains were created for each of the island’s five settlements for organized defense. Korčula had fewer than 2,500 inhabitants at that time. quote needed ]

In 1221, Pope Honorius III gave the island to the Princes of Krka (the Šubićs ). During the 13th century the hereditary Counts of Korčula were loosely governed in turn by the Hungarian crown and by the Republic of Genoa , and also enjoyed a brief period of independence; but, in 1255, Marsilio Zorzi conquered the island and razed or damaged some of its churches in the process, forcing the Counts to return to Venetian supreme rule. [20]

What is more is that the Republic of Genoa defeated Venice in the documented Battle of Curzola [21] [22] off the coast of Korčula in 1298 and a galley commander, Marco Polo, was taken prisoner by the victors to eventually spend his time in a Genoese prison writing of his travels. However, some Italian scholars believe that it may have been captured in a minor clash near Ayas . quote needed ]

After the writings of Pope Martin IV in 1284 and Pope Honorius IV in 1286 to the Archbishop of Ragusa , the Archbishop installed a certain Petar as Bishop of Ston and Korčula – stacnensis ac Crozolensis . In 1291, Ivan Kručić was in Korčula’s city as Bishop of Korčula. Kručić contested his overlord, Archbishop of Hvar, and wanted to unite Ston with his church domain. In 1300, Pope Boniface VIII finally founded the Korčula Bishopric under the Archbishopric of Ragusa . In 1333, the Republic of Ragusa purchased Ston with Pelješacfrom the Serbian Empire , the suzerainty of Roman Catholic Church with the peninsula was given to the Bishopric of Korčula. quote needed ]

Curzola, as the Venetians called it, surrendered to the Kingdom of Hungary in 1358 according to the Treaty of Zadar , but it surrendered to the Bosnian King Stefan Tvrtko I in the Summer of 1390. However, the Kingdom of Hungary restored the rule of the island, and in December 1396 Croatian-Hungarian King Sigismund gave it to Đurađ II Stracimirović of the Balšić dynasty of Zeta, who kept it up to his death in 1403, when it was returned under the Hungarian crown. In 1409 it became a part of the Venetian Republic, purchased by the neighboring Republic of Venice in 1413-1417, it still declared itself under the name of Venice in 1420. In 1571 it defended itself so gallantly against the Ottoman attackers at the Battle of Lepanto That it Obtained the appointment Fidelissima from the Pope . [23]

Venetian and Austrian rule

Korčula had for years supplied the timber for the walls of Venice, and had been a favorite station of her fleets. From 1776 to 1797 Korčula succeeded Hvar as the main Venetian fortified arsenal in this region. According to the Treaty of Campoformio in 1797 in which the Venetian Republic was divided between the French Republic and the Habsburg Monarchy , Korčula passed on to the Habsburg Monarchy. quote needed ]

The French Empire invaded the island in 1806, joining it to the Illyrian Provinces . The Montenegrin Forces of Prince – Episcope Peter I Njegosconquered the island with Russian naval assistance [24] in 1807 during his attempt to construct another Serbian Empire . The defeat of Austria however at the battle of Wagram in 1809 On February 4, 1813, however, British troops and naval forces under Thomas Fremantlecaptured the island from the French. This short period of British rule left an important mark on the island; the new stone West quay Was built, as well as a semi-circular paved terrace with stone benches on the newly built road Towards Lumbarda , and a circular Martello tower , “forteca” on the hill of St. Blaise above-the town. [25] [26] According to the terms of the Congress of Vienna, the British left the island to the Austrian Empire in 1815 on July 19 in terms of the Congress of Vienna . Korcula accordingly became part of the Austrian crown land of Dalmatia . [27] From 1867, Korčula was in the Cisleithanianpart of Austro-Hungary .

20th century

During the First World War , the island was promised to the Kingdom of Italy in the 1915 Treaty of London in return for Italy joining the war on the side of Great Britain and France. However, after the war, Korčula became a part of the State of Slovenia, Croats and Serbs in 1918. It was ruled by Italy from 1918 to 1921, after which it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes , known from 1929 on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia . In 1939, it became a part of the Croatian Banate . quote needed ]

After the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia in April 1941, Italy annexed the island. [28] After the Armistice between Italy and the Allied Powers in September 1943, it was briefly held by the Yugoslav supporters who enjoyed considerable support in the region. [28] Korcula Was Then occupied by German Forces qui controlled the island up to Their withdrawal in September 1944. [29] With the liberation of Yugoslavia in 1945, the Federal People’s Republic of YugoslaviaWas FORMED, and Korcula est devenu apart of the People’s Republic of Croatia , one of the six YugoslavRepublics. The state changed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1953, and so did the Republic into Socialist Republic of Croatia . After 1991, the island became part of the independent Republic of Croatia . quote needed ]

Culture

The 17th century saw the rise of Petar Kanavelić who wrote love songs, occasional epic poems and dramas. He also translated from Italian the major poetic works of that time. He is regarded as one of the greatest Croatian writers of the 17th century. [30] In 1673 he became the representative of the Korčula community in Venice. There is a primary school named after him in the town of Korčula.

Moreška is a traditional sword dance [31] [32] from the town of Blato. It is one of the many proud traditional swords that are performed on the island. It arrived in Korčula around the 16th century. Korčula has a rich musical history of Klape groups. Klapa is a form of a cappella style of singing. The tradition goes back centuries, but the style as we know it today, originated in the 19th century. Oliver Dragojević is a famous Croatian pop singer who comes from the island.

Korčula has a tradition of stonemasonry , [33] [34] which reached its peak during the rule of the Venetian Republic (1420-1797). [35] The island also has a very strong art tradition. [36]

Festivals

Korkyra Baroque Festival

The Korkyra Baroque Festival is a new annual international event, which will be launched from the 7th to the 16th of September 2012. The festival will showcase the world’s leading ensembles and soloists specialized in Baroque music, including the Academy of Ancient Music (Great Britain ), The Music Parlament (France), Currende and Erik Van Nevel (Belgium), La Venexiana (Italy), Red Priest (Great Britain), Croatian Baroque Ensemble(Croatia) and others. Twelve concerts will be held over the days with a series of supporting events focusing on Baroque music. Along with the festival’s high artistic credentials the event will also promote the richness of Korčula’s cultural monuments and the town as a unique architectural treasure.

Notable residents

  • Arneri family were landowners from 15th century, who built the Arneri Palace in the town of Korčula
  • Matko Talovac (about 1400-1445), ban (viceroy) of Slavonia from 1435 to 1445, from the town of Korčula.
  • Jakov Baničević (1466-1532), Renaissance humanist , friend of Desiderius Erasmus and secretary to Maximilian I of Habsburg , from Žrnovo .
  • Frano Kršinić (1897-1981), sculptor, from Lumbarda .
  • Ivan Milat Luketa (1922-2009), painter, from Blato.
  • Sir Fitzroy Maclean , (1911-1996), soldier, writer and politician, from Scotland . [37]
  • Blessed Marija Petkovic (1892-1966), founder of the Daughters of Mercy Catholic Order, from Blato.
  • Petar Šegedin (1909-1998), writer, from Žrnovo.
  • Zvonimir Šeparović ( b.1928 ), legal scholar, train diplomat, from Blato.
  • Dinko Tomašić (1902-1975), sociologist, from Smokvica .
  • Maksimilijan Vanka (1889-1963), Croatian American painter who had a home in Korčula [38]
  • Bill Rancic ( b.1971 ), is a Croatian American entrepreneur who was hired by The Trump Organization at the conclusion of the first season of the reality television show, The Apprentice , and owns a villa on the island.

Transport

Korčula is connected to the mainland by a regular ferry that runs between Dominče, just outside Korčula Town and Orebić . [39] There are many other local ferry services including Vela Luka and Lastovo . [40] The main Croatian ferry operator Jadrolinija runs a service linking Korčula Town with Rijeka , Split , Hvar , Mljet , Dubrovnik and (from May to September) Bari . [40] An operator Linijska nacionalna plovidba runs a seasonal service linking Korčula with Drvenik.

There are also buses that link to the mainland cities, which reach Korčula using the Orebić ferry service. [41]

Korčula town also has mooring facilities. The western harbor gives shelter from the wind but not against the ‘ bora ‘ and north-westerlies. Boat owners are advised to move to the eastern harbor or Luka Cove. The port is open to international seaborne traffic as a permanent Port of entry ; it offers all types of repairs to hulls and engines at the Brodograditelj Shipyard.

See also

  • croatia
  • Dubrovnik-Neretva county
  • Dalmatia
  • Republic of Venice
  • Tentative list of World Heritage Sites in Croatia

References

Notes

  1. Jump up^ “Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Korčula” . Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011 . Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics . December 2012.
  2. Jump up^ Duplančić Leder, Tea; Ujević, Tin; Čala, Mendi (June 2004). “Coastline lengths and areas of the islands in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea determined from the topographic maps of the scale of 1: 25,000” (PDF). Geoadria. Zadar. 9 (1): 5–32. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  3. Jump up^ Ostroški, Ljiljana, ed. (December 2015). Statistiki ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2015 [ Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015 ](PDF) . Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia (in Croatian and English). 47 . Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics . p. 47. ISSN  1333-3305. Retrieved 27 December 2015 .
  4. Jump up^ “Population by Ethnicity, by Towns / Municipalities, 2011 Census: County of Dubrovnik-Neretva” . Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011 . Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics . December 2012.
  5. Jump up^ T. Težak-Gregl (December 2005). “Božidar Čečuk i Dinko Radić: Vela spila: A prehistoric site Vela Luka laminate – island of Korčula” . Opuscula Archaeologica Papers of the Department of Archeology . Department of Archeology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb. 29 (1). ISSN  0473-0992 . Retrieved 27 February 2012 .
  6. Jump up^ The Cambridge Ancient History Vol. 11: The High Empire, AD 70-192 by Peter Rathbone
  7. Jump up^ John Wilkes,The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe); ISBN 0-631-19807-5(1996)
  8. Jump up^ History of Korčula, Korčula.net; accessed 4 December 2015.
  9. Jump up^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Center for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, Index
  10. Jump up^ Wilkes, JJ The Illyrians, 1992, p. 120,ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 160
  11. Jump up^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 2002; ISBN 0852297874.
    • The Roman province of Illyricum stretched from the River Drilon (the Drin, in modern Albania) in the south to Istria (modem Slovenia and Croatia)
  12. Jump up^ Croatian Adriatic:History, Culture, Art & Natural beauties
  13. Jump up^ “Church of Our Lady of Poja”, crkve.prizba.net; accessed 4 December 2015.
  14. Jump up^ John Everett-Healu. “Dalmatia” profile,Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names, Oxford University Press (2005). Encyclopedia.com
  15. Jump up^ A History of the Croatianby Francis Ralph Preveden (1955)
  16. Jump up^ Frederic Chapin Lane,Venice, a Maritime Republic, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1973; ISBN 978-0-8018-1445-7,p. 26.
  17. Jump up^ Robin Harris,Dubrovnik: A History(page 37)], books.google.com; accessed 4 December 2015.
  18. Jump up^ Korčulanski Status:Status Grada i Otoka Korčule iz 1214 Godine. English chapter-page 195
  19. Jump up^ Korčula Statute Archived16 March 2013 at theWayback Machine., Korculainfo.com; accessed 4 December 2015.
  20. Jump up^ Korčula info Archived4 October 2009 at theWayback Machine., 1911encyclopedia; accessed 4 December 2015.
  21. Jump up^ David S. Kelly, “Genoa and Venice: An Early Commercial Rivalry” in William R. Thompson, ed.,Great Power Rivalries, Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina, 1999,ISBN 978-1-57003- 279-0, pp. 125-71,p.142.
  22. Jump up^ Angeliki E. Laiou,Constantinople and the Latins: The Foreign Policy of Andronicus II, 1282-1328, Harvard Historical Studies 88, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard, 1972; ISBN 978-0-674-16535-9,p. 108
  23. Jump up^ Korčulakorcula.net; accessed 4 December 2015.
  24. Jump up^ Dalmatia and Montenegroby J. Gardner Wilkinson
  25. Jump up^ “Travel Guide to Korčula – Croatia” . KorčulaINFO.com . Retrieved 7 June 2013 .
  26. Jump up^ “200th Anniversary of British Navy’s occupation of Korčula” . Croatian Times . CMS . Retrieved 7 June 2013 .
  27. Jump up^ Dalmatia Archived7 June 2013 at theWayback Machine., 1911encyclopedia.org; accessed 4 December 2015.
  28. ^ Jump up to:b Barcot 2011 , p. 314.
  29. Jump up^ Barčot 2011, p. 356.
  30. Jump up^ Hrvatski Biografski Leksikon
  31. Jump up^ “The Moreska Dance”. korculainfo.com. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
  32. Jump up^ “Moreska” . korcula.net . Retrieved December 31, 2009 .
  33. Jump up^ Dimension Stone, New Perspectives for a Traditional Building Material by Richard Prikryl. Chapter: Historical Review of Exploitation & Use of Stone in Croatia / page 32.
  34. Jump up^ Korcula and Stone Masonry Archived24 November 2009 at theWayback Machine. Korčulainfo.com
  35. Jump up^ Isolation, Migration & Health / Population Structure in the Adriatic:33rd Symposium Volume of the Society by Derek Frank Roberts, Norio Fujiki, Torizuka K. & Kanji Torizuka
  36. Jump up^ “Korčula Art” . korculainfo.com . Retrieved December 31, 2009 .
  37. Jump up^ Obituary of Veronica Lady Maclean, timesonline.co.uk, 19 January 2005. Accessed 10 July 2011
  38. Jump up^ Maksimilijan Vanka reference, korculainfo.com; accessed 4 December 2015.
  39. Jump up^ “Korčula-Orebić-Korčula Ferry” . Korčula Info . Retrieved 2008-08-23 .
  40. ^ Jump up to:b “Korčula Ferries” . Korčula Info . Retrieved 2008-08-23 .
  41. Jump up^ “Korčula nozzles” . Korčula Info . Retrieved 2008-08-23 .

Leave a Comment