Jersey

Jersey ( / dʒ ɜːr z i / , French: [ʒɛʁzɛ] ; Jèrriais : JERRI dʒɛri ) Officially the Bailiwick of Jersey ( French : Bailliage Jersey ; Jèrriais : Bailiwick Jerri ) is a Crown dependency [9] Located near the coast of Normandy , France . [10] Jersey was part of the Duchy of Normandy, whose dukes went on to become kings of England from 1066. After Normandy was lost by the kings of England in the 13th century, and the ducal title surrendered to France, Jersey and the other Channel Islands remained attached to the English crown.

The bailiwick Consists of the island of Jersey, the Largest of the Channel Islands , along with surrounding uninhabited islands and rocks Collectively named the Dirouilles , The Ecrehos, The Minquiers , the Pierres de Lecq , [11] and other reefs. Although the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey are often referred to collectively as the Channel Islands, the “Channel Islands” are not a constitutional or political unit. Jersey has a separate relationship to the Crown from the other Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man , all of them are held by the monarch of the United Kingdom. [12]

Jersey is a self-governing parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy , with icts own financial , legal and judicial systems, [5] and the power of self-determination . [13] The Lieutenant Governor on the island is the personal representative of the Queen .

Jersey is not hand of the United Kingdom, [14] and HAS year international identity separate from That of the UK, [15] aim the UK is constitutionally responsible for the defense of Jersey. [16] The definition of United Kingdom in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together. [17] The European Commission has confirmed in its written reply to the European Parliament in 2003 [18] that Jersey is within the Union as a European Territory for which the UK is responsible. Jersey is not fully part of the European Unionbut has a special relationship with it, being in the European Community for the purposes of free trade in goods. [19]

British cultural influence on the island is obvious in its use of English as the main language and the British pound as its primary currency. Additional cultural commonalities include driving the BBC and ITV regions, a school curriculum following that of England, and the popularity of British sports, including football, cricket and rugby. [20] [21]

Toponymy

Main article: Name of Jersey

Origin of the name

The Channel Islands are listed in the Antonine Itinerary as the following: Sarnia , Caesarea , Barsa , Silia and Andium , but Jersey can not be identified as being directly related to the present names. [22] The name Caesarea has-been used as the Latin name for Jersey (aussi icts in French Version Caesarea ) since William Camden ‘s Britannia , [23] and is used in titles of organizations and institutions today. The Latin name Caesarea was also applied to the colony ofNew Jersey as Nova Caesarea . [24] [25]

Andium , Agna and Augia were used in antiquity.

Scholars variously surmise That Jersey and Jerri derived from Jard (Old Norse for “earth”) or Earl (Earl), gold Perhaps a personal name, Geirr ( “Geirr’s Island”). [26] The ending -eydenotes an island [27] [28] (as in Guernsey or Surtsey ).

History

Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England; the island’s recorded history extends over a thousand years.

St Brelade’s Cotte is a Palaeolithic site inhabited by Jersey in an island. Jersey was a center of Neolithic activity, as demonstrated by the concentration of dolmens . Evidence of Bronze Age and early Iron Age settlements can be found in many locations around the island. In June 2012 it was announced what could be Europe’s largest hoard of Iron Age coins had been found in Grouville by two persons using metal detectors . The hoard may be worth up to £ 10. It was reported that the hoard weighed on three quarters of a ton and could contain up to 50,000 Romanand Celtic corners . [29] In 2012 the same two men had found 60 Iron Age coins in the same area. [30]

Additional archaeological evidence of Roman influences has-been found, In Particular at Les Landes , the coastal headland website at The Pinnacle , Where remains of a primitive structure are Attributed To Gallo-Roman temple worship ( fanum ). [31]

Jersey was part of Neustria with the same Gallo-Frankish population as the continental mainland. Jersey, the whole Channel Islands and the Cotentin Peninsula (probably with the Avranchin ) came under the control of the duke of Brittany during the Viking invasions, because the king of the Franks was unable to defend them, however they remained in the archbishopric of Rouen . Jersey was invaded by Vikings in the 9th century. In 933 it was annexed to the future Duchy of Normandy , together with the other Channel Islands, Cotentin and Avranchin, by William Longsword , count of Rouenand it became one of the Norman Islands. When William’s descendant, William the Conqueror , conquered England in 1066, the Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England were governed under one monarch. [32] The Dukes of Normandy is a large family of Norman and French families living on their estates. King John lost all his territories in Normandy in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus , but retained possession of Jersey and the other Channel Islands. [33]

In the Treaty of Paris (1259), the English king formally surrendered his claim to the duchy and ducal title, and since then the islands have been internally self-governing territories of the English crown and latterly the British crown. [34]

On 7 October 1406, 1,000 Pero Niño invaded Jersey, landing at St Aubin’s Bay and defeated the 3,000 defenders but failed to capture the island. [35] : 50-1

In the late 16th century, Islanders traveled to the North Atlantic to participate in the Newfoundland fisheries . [36] In recognition for help during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, King Charles II of England gave Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret , bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies in between the Hudson and Delaware rivers, which he promptly named New Jersey . It is now a state in the United States. [37] [38]

Aware of the military importance of Jersey, the British government had the island be heavily fortified. On 6 January 1781, a French invasion force of 2,000 men set out to take over the island, but only half of the force arrived and landed. The Battle of Jersey lasted half an hour, with Britain successfully defending the island. There were about 30 casualties on each side, and the British took 600 Both British and French commanders were slain. [39]

Trade laid the foundations of prosperity, aided by neutrality between England and France. [40] The Jersey way of life involved farming, milling , fishing, shipbuilding and production of woollen goods. 19th century improvements in transport links brought tourism to the island.

During the Second World War , some citizens were evacuated to the UK but most remained. Jersey was occupied by Germany from July 1, 1940 until May 9, 1945, when Germany surrendered. [41] During this time the Germans constructed many fortifications using Soviet slave labor. After 1944, supplies from mainland France were interrupted by the D-Day landings , and food on the island became scarce. The SS Vega was sent to the island of Red Cross . The Channel Islands were one of the last places in Europe to be liberated. 9 May is Liberation Day, where there are celebrations in Liberation Square .

Politics

Jersey’s unicameral legislature is the Assembly of the States of Jersey . It includes 49 Elected members: 8 Senators (Elected on an island-wide basis), 12 Constables (Often called Expired ‘constables’ heads of parishes ) and 29 Deputies (Representing constituencies), all Elected for four-year terms as from the October 2011 elections . [42] There are also five non-voting members appointed by the Crown: the Bailiff , the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey , the Dean of Jersey , the Attorney General and Solicitor General. [43]Voters had the lowest vote in the world, with just 33% of the electorate voting in 2005, putting it below the 77% European average for that year. [44]

The government is a Council of Ministers , consisting of a Chief Minister and nine ministers. [45] Each minister may make up to two assistant ministers. [46] Chief Executive is head of the civil service. [47] Some government functions are carried out in the island’s 12 parishes .

The Bailiff is President (presiding officer) of the United States Assembly, [48] head of the judiciary and as head of the island carries out various ceremonial roles.

As one of the Crown dependencies, Jersey is autonomous and self-governing, with its own independent legal, administrative and fiscal systems. [49] In 1973, the Royal Commission on the Constitution set out the duties of the Crown as including: ultimate responsibility for the ‘good government’ of the Crown dependencies; ratification of island legislation by Order in Council (Royal Assent) international representation, subject to consultation with the island authorities before concluding any agreement which would apply to them; ensuring the islands meet their international obligations; and defense. [50]

Queen Elizabeth II reigns in Jersey as Queen of the United Kingdom and her other Realms and Territories; The dukedom of Normandy was surrendered to France by the Treaty of Paris in 1259. [51]

” The Crown ” is defined by the Law Officers of the Crown as the “Crown in right of Jersey”. [52] The Queen’s representative and adviser in the island is the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey. It is a point of contact between Jersey ministers and the United Kingdom government and carries out executive functions in relation to immigration control, deportation, naturalization and the issue of passports. [53] Since September 2011, the incumbent Lieutenant Governor has been General Sir John McColl .

Legal system

Main article: Law of Jersey

Jersey is a separate jurisdiction for the purposes of conflict of laws , separate from the other Channel Islands, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. [54]

Jersey law has-been Influenced by Several different legal traditions, In Particular Norman Customary law , English common law and modern civil French law . [55] Jersey’s legal system is thus described as ‘mixed’ or ‘ pluralistic ‘, and sources of law are in English and French, but since the 1950s the English is the working language of the legal system.

The principal court is the Royal Court , with appeals to the Jersey Court of Appeal and, ultimately, to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council . The Bailiff is head of the judiciary; the Bailiff and the Deputy Bailiff are appointed by the Crown. Other members of the island’s Judiciary are appointed by the Bailiff.

Parishes

Administratively, Jersey is divided into 12 parishes . All border on the sea. They were named after the christian saints to whom their ancient parish churcheswere dedicated:

  • Grouville (historically St. Martin de Grouville ; incorporating Les Minquiers )
  • Saint Brelade
  • Saint Clement
  • Saint Helier
  • Saint John
  • Saint Lawrence
  • St. Martin (historically St. Martin the Younger ; incorporating the Ecréhous )
  • Saint Mary
  • Saint Ouen
  • Saint Peter
  • Saint Savior
  • Trinity

The parishes of Jersey are further divided into twenty (or, in St. Ouen, picking ) divisions that are historic. Today they are used chiefly for purposes of local administration and electoral constituency.

The Constable is the head of each parish, elected to a public election for a four-year term in the Assembly of the States of Jersey . The Public Attorney (2 in each parish) is the legal and financial representative of the parish of the Public Elections (Amendment) (Jersey) Law 2003 ; parish elected the Procurators in accordance with the law (1804) concerning parish assemblies). A Public Attorney is elected for three years as a public trustee for the funds and property of the Parish Assembly. The Parish Assembly is the decision-making body of local government in each parish; it consists of all entitled voters of the parish.

Each parish elects its own force of Honorary Police consisting of Centeniers , Vingteniers and Constable’s Officers . Centeniers are elected to a public election within each parish for a term of three years. The Centenier is the only officer authorized to charge and lease offenders. Formerly, the senior Centenier of each parish (deputy Chief of Police ) deputed for the Constable in the States of Jersey when the Constable was unable to attend a sitting of the States. This function has now been abolished.

International relations

Although diplomatic representation is reserved to the Crown, Jersey has been developing its own international identity over recent years. It negotiates directly with foreign governments on the subject of the jurisdiction of the States of Jersey. Jersey maintains the Bureau of the Channel Islands in Caen , France, with a permanent non-diplomatic representation. A similar office, the House of Normandy in St. Helier, represents the General Council of Manche and the Regional Council of Normandy . It also houses the Consulate of France. In July 2009, Channel Islands Tunnel was proposed to connect Jersey with Lower Normandy. [56]

Jersey is a member of the British-Irish Council , the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the Parliamentary Assembly of La Francophonie . Jersey wants to become a full member of the Commonwealth in its own right. [57]

International identity

In 2007, the Chief Minister and the Lord Chancellor signed an agreement [15] that established a framework for the development of the international identity of Jersey.

In January 2011, the Chief Minister is responsible for external relations; he is now often described as the ‘foreign minister’. [58] [59]

Tax information exchange agreements (TIEAs) have been signed by the island with several countries. [60]

Relationship with the European Union

See also: Special Member State Territories and the European Union

Jersey is neither a Member State nor an Associate Member of the European Union . It does, however, have a relationship with the United States by Article 335 (5) (c) TFEU giving effect to Protocol 3 to the UK’s Treaty of Accession in 1972. [61] However, Jersey does not appear on the list of European States and Territories outside the Union and the Communities prepared by the European Council and the Commission. This is a result of the Treaty Arrangements under the Act of Accession in 1972. It would have been fully within the European Communities like GibraltarThe United Kingdom was responsible for the United States, but it was responsible for the United States.

Under Protocol 3, Jersey is part of the European Union Customs Union of the European Community . The common customs tariff, levies and other agricultural import measures apply to trade between the island and non-Member States. There is free movement of goods and trade between the United States and States . EU rules on freedom of movement for workers do not apply in Jersey. [62]However, Article 4 of the Protocol requires the authorities to give the same treatment to all natural and legal persons of the Communities. In Pereira, the ECJ held that the scope of this article in the Treaties in a territory where the Treaties are fully applicable. The island is within the scope of the Treaty to a limited extent, as a European Territory. To infer, the French Ambassador and finance minister have attempted to argue, namely, that the island is outside the European Union and Communities without qualification. The French blacklisting of the island was hastily revoked when this was pointed out. As a result, Jersey is not part of the single market in financial services. It is not required to implement EU Directives on such matters as the movement of capital, company law or money laundering. HOWEVER, the island’s close proximity (135 km south) and Its close association with the financial sector of the UK has come under Increasing scrutiny in recent years, with Several mainline publications (eg, The Wall Street Journal ) labeling the island a tax haven . [63]

British citizens who have only a connection to Jersey, and the United Kingdom or another member state of the European Union, are not considered by the States to be European Union citizens . [64] They have ‘Islander status’ and their Jersey-issued British passports are endorsed with the wording of the provision of services . [65]

However, it is not yet clear that the United States is a member of the United States. That restriction on the exercise of certain freedoms does not apply to any Community or Union rights. The freedom of movement under the EC prior to and including the right to move and reside. These rights are primary citizenship rights, not a mere freedom. It may not be necessary for a treaty to be amended from time to time by the CJEU, and supplementary implementation measures from the Council, given the effective right of entry into the EU through Article 4 of the Protocol.European Parliament . Jersey and Guernsey Joint Venture in Brussels in 2010 to promote their common interests with European Union institutions. [66]

The effect of the UK leaving the European Union is uncertain. The UK has confirmed that the Crown will depend on the Brexit negotiations .

Separation debate

See also: Devolution in the United Kingdom and European microstates

The question of an independent Jersey has been discussed in the Assembly of the States of Jersey. In 2005-08, a working group of the States of Jersey examined the options for independence, concluding that Jersey is equipped to face the challenges of independence. [67] Proposals for Jersey independence continues to be discussed outside the States. [68] [69]

In October 2012, the Council of Ministers issued a “Common policy for external relations” [13] which noted that it is not a policy to seek independence from the United Kingdom, but rather to ensure that best interests of islanders to do so “. The Council of Ministers is hereby established to ensure that the Council of Ministers is in charge of the relationship with the United Kingdom and / or European Union.

Geography

Jersey is an island measuring 118.2 square kilometers [4] (66.436 virgate [4] / 44.87 sq mi), Including reclaimed land and intertidal area. It lies in the English Channel , about 12 nautical miles (14 km ; 14 mi ) from the Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy , France, and about 87 nautical miles (161 km; 100 mi) south of Great Britain . [70] It is the largest and southernmost of the Channel Islands, with a maximum elevation of 143 m (469 ft) above sea level at WA 57795 06708 (current UTM30 grid) citation needed ].

Climate

The climate is temperate with mild winters and mild to warm summers. [71]

The Atlantic Ocean has a moderating effect on temperature in the United States. This influence has a warming influence in the summer. The highest temperature recorded was 36.0 ° C (96.8 ° F) on August 9, 2003, and the lowest temperature recorded was -10.3 ° C (13.5 ° F) on January 5, 1894. By comparison, higher temperatures are found in mainland United Kingdom, qui Achieved 38.5 ° C (101.3 ° F) in Faversham , Kent is 10 August 2003. The impact of the Atlantic Ocean and coastal winds Ensure That Jersey is Slightly cooler than the southern and central parts of Englandduring the summer months. Snow falls rarely in Jersey; Some years will pass with no snow at all.

The land consists of a plateau sloping from long sandy bays in the south to rugged cliffs in the north. The plateau is cut by valleys running generally north-south.

The following table contains the official Met Office station for 1981-2010 for Jersey, being located 7.2 kilometers (4.5 mi) from St. Helier.

[ hide ]Climate data for Jersey station, 84 m elevation, 1981-2010
month Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Record high ° C (° F) 14.0
(57.2)
18.0
(64.4)
20.3
(68.5)
25.0
(77)
28.0
(82.4)
33.0
(91.4)
33.9
(93)
36.0
(96.8)
30.2
(86.4)
26.0
(78.8)
21.0
(69.8)
16.0
(60.8)
36.0
(96.8)
Average high ° C (° F) 8.3
(46.9)
8.4
(47.1)
10.4
(50.7)
12.5
(54.5)
15.8
(60.4)
18.4
(65.1)
20.4
(68.7)
20.6
(69.1)
18.7
(65.7)
15.4
(59.7)
11.7
(53.1)
9.2
(48.6)
14.2
(57.6)
Average low ° C (° F) 4.3
(39.7)
3.8
(38.8)
5.3
(41.5)
6.5
(43.7)
9.3
(48.7)
11.8
(53.2)
13.9
(57)
14.3
(57.7)
12.9
(55.2)
10.6
(51.1)
7.5
(45.5)
5.0
(41)
8.8
(47.8)
Record low ° C (° F) -10.3
(13.5)
-9.0
(15.8)
-3.3
(26.1)
-1.6
(29.1)
0.0
(32)
5.9
(42.6)
9.0
(48.2)
7.7
(45.9)
6.0
(42.8)
-2.6
(27.3)
-3.0
(26.6)
-4.0
(24.8)
-10.3
(13.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 93.1
(3.665)
68.9
(2.713)
66.1
(2.602)
56.4
(2.22)
55.6
(2.189)
47.5
(1.87)
44.6
(1.756)
49.5
(1.949)
63.9
(2.516)
103.4
(4.071)
105.4
(4.15)
113.9
(4,484)
865.8
(34,087)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.6 91.6 134.0 196.5 236.7 245.4 252.7 235.3 184.6 118.8 79.9 63.2 1904.8
Source # 1: Met Office [72]
Source # 2: Voodoo Skies [73]

Economy

Main article: Economy of Jersey

Jersey’s economy is based on financial services (40% of GVA in 2012), tourism and hospitality (hotels, restaurants, bars, transport and communications totalling 8.4% of GVA in 2012), retail and wholesale (7% of GVA in 2012), construction (6.2% of GVA in 2012) and agriculture (1.3% of GVA in 2012). [4]

Thanks to specialization in a few high-return sectors, the power of the world is high. Gross national income in 2009 was £ 3.7 billion (approximately £ 40,000 per head of population). [4] However, this is not indicative of any individual resident’s purchasing power, and the actual standard of living in Jersey is comparable to that in the United Kingdom outside central London. The island is recognized as one of the leading offshore financial centers. The growth of this sector, however, has been characterized by a number of factors that have come to the fore in which the “leadership has been captured by global finance, and whose members will threaten and intimidate anyone who dissents.” [44] In June 2005 the States introduced the Competition (Jersey) Law 2005 [74] to regulate competition and stimulate economic growth. This competition is based on that of other jurisdictions.

There are 717,600 visitors spending £ 243 million in tourism there. [75] Duty-free goods are available for purchase from the island.

In 2009 57% of the island’s area was agricultural land (an increase on 2008). Major agricultural products are potatoes and dairy produce; agriculture’s share of GVA increased 5% in 2009, a fifth successive year of growth. [4] Jersey cattle are a small breed of cowboy known for its rich milk and cream; the quality of its meat is also appreciated on a small scale. [76] [77] The herd total in 2009 was 5,090 animals. [4] Fisheries and aquaculture make use of Jersey’s marine resources to a total value of over £ 6 million in 2009. [4]

Farmers and growers often sell food and flowers on the roadside, relying on the honesty of customers. In the 21st century, diversification of agriculture and amendments in the roadside stalls.

53,460 people were employed in Jersey as of December 2010: 24% in financial and legal services; 16% in wholesale and retail trades; 16% in the public sector; 10% in education, health and other private sector services; 10% in construction and quarrying; 9% in hotels, restaurants and bars. [4]

Jersey along with Guernsey has its own lottery called the Channel Islands Lottery that was launched in 1975.

On February 18, 2005, Jersey was granted Fairtrade Island status. [78]

Taxation

Because value added tax (VAT) has not been levied in the UK, or in the UK or in France, providing an incentive for tourism from neighboring countries. The absence of VAT, as well as the fact that it is a low-value product, is such that it is exported, thus avoiding the need for such products. In 2005, the States of Jersey announced the limits of non-resident companies trading in this way. Low-value logging relief provided by the Channel Islands to the UK until 1 April 2012, at which time this policy of the UK government was binned.Until the 20th century, the States relied on indirect taxation to finance the administration of Jersey. The Levying of Taxes in the United Kingdom was granted by Charles II and remained in the hands of the Assembly of the Governor, Bailiff and Jurats until 1921, when that body was taxed to the Assembly of the States, leaving the Assembly of the Governor, Bailiff and Jurats to serve simply as a benchmark for the sale of alcohol (this fiscal reform also stripped the Lieutenant-Governor of most of its effective remaining administrative functions). The Income Tax Law of 1928 Introducing income tax Was the first law Drafted Entirely in English. Income tax has been levied at a flat rateof 20% set by the Germans occupying during the Second World War.

Although Jersey did not have VAT, the States of Jersey introduced a goods and services tax (GST) on May 6, 2008, at a standard rate of 3%. The GST is at 5%, shopping in Jersey is still more expensive than in the UK. Food is not free, unlike with VAT.

Zero-Ten legislation will be compliant with the Code of Conduct in the Business of Taxation and the Assignment of Anti-avoidance Legislation as of December 31, 2011, which is being criticized by certain unnamed members of the Code of Conduct Group , a subsidiary body of ECOFIN . The Code of Conduct Group, [79] at least in theory, keeps most of its documentation and discussion confidential. The European Commission It has been confirmed that the Code is not a legal instrument, and therefore is not legally binding, only become of limited “political” authority once adopted by the Group at the end of the Presidency.

Official Jersey is as a tax haven by Many organizations with the Financial Secrecy Index ranking as 16th Jersey, one rank behind the United Kingdom as of 2015 .

Currency

Twin cash machines at Bank of England or Jersey banknotes. Since the intervention of the Treasurer of the States in 2005, cash machines generally (with the exception of those at the airport and Elizabeth Harbor) no longer exempted British notes.
Main article: Jersey pound
Jersey stamps commemorating the 150th anniversary of the birth of General William Mesny

Jersey issues its own postage stamps and Jersey banknotes and coins that circulate with UK coinage, Bank of England notes, Scottish notes and Guernsey currency within the island. Jersey currency is not legal tender outside Jersey: However, in the United Kingdom it is acceptable to tender [80] and may be surrendered to banks within that country for exchange of Bank of England-issued currency on a like-for-like basis.

Cornering

Designs on the reverse of Jersey coins :

  • 1p The Hocq Tower (coastal defense)
  • 2p L’Hermitage, site where St. Helier lived
  • 5p Seymour Tower (offshore defense)
  • 10p The Pouquelaye of Faldouet ( dolmen )
  • 20p The Corbiere Lighthouse
  • 50p Gros Castle (ruins)

The currency of Jersey is the pound of the island. Pound coins are issued, but are much less widely used than pound notes. Designs on the reverse of the Jersey pound corners include the built in jerseys and a series of the twelve parishes’ crests. The motto around the milled edge of Jersey pound coins is Insula Caesarea ( Island of Jersey ). Two pound coins are also issued, but in very small quantities.

In July 2014, the Jersey Financial Services Commission approved the establishment of the world’s first regulated Bitcoin fund, at a time when the digital currency was being accepted by some local businesses. [81]

Demographics

Censuses have been undertaken in Jersey since 1821. In the 2011 census, the total resident population was estimated to be 97,857, of which 34% live in Saint Helier , the island’s only town. [82] Only half the island’s population was born in Jersey; 31% of the population were born elsewhere in the British Isles, 7% in continental Portugal or Madeira, 8% in other European countries and 4% elsewhere. [83]

The people of Jersey are often referred to as Jerseymen or Jerseywoman. Some Jersey-born people identify as British.

Historical population
year Pop. ±%
1871 56.627
1951 55.244 -2.4%
1961 59.489 + 7.7%
1971 69.329 + 16.5%
nineteen eighty one 76.050 + 9.7%
1991 84.082 + 10.6%
2001 87.186 + 3.7%
2011 97.857 + 12.2%
2014 100.080 + 2.3%

Immigration

Jersey belongs to the Common Travel Area [84] and the definition of “United Kingdom” in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together. [17]

For immigration and nationality purposes, the United Kingdom treats Jersey as though it was part of the UK. Jersey is constitutionally entitled to restrict immigration [85] by non-Jersey residents, but control of immigration to the point of entry can not be introduced to British, certain Commonwealth and EEA nationals. [86] Immigration is therefore controlled by a mixture of restrictions on Those without residential status purchasing or renting property in the island and restrictions on employment. Migration policy is a move to a residential and employment status. [86] Jersey maintains its own immigration [87]and border controls. United Kingdom immigration legislation may be extended by Jersey and with the consent of the United States. [88]Although Jersey citizens are full British citizens, an endorsement restricting the right of establishment in European Union states other than the UK is placed in the passports of British citizens connected to the Channel Islands Islands and Isle of Man. [89] Those who have a parent or grandparent born in the United Kingdom, or who have lived in the United Kingdom for five years, are not subject to this restriction.

Historical broad-scale immigration was facilitated by the introduction of steamships (from 1823). By 1840, up to 5,000 English people , mostly half-pay officers and their families, had settled in Jersey. [23] In the aftermath of 1848, Polish, Russian, Hungarian , Italian and French political refugees came to Jersey. Following Louis Napoleon’s coup of 1851, more French proscrits arrived. By the end of the 19th century, well-to-do British families, attracted by the lack of income tax, were settling in Jersey in increasing numbers, establishing St Helier as a predominantly English-speaking town.

Seasonal work in agriculture had depended on Bretons and mainland Normans from the 19th century. The growth of tourism attracted staff from the United Kingdom. Following liberation in 1945, agricultural workers were mostly recruited from the United Kingdom – Normandy and Brittany employed domestic labor.

Until the 1960s, the population was around 60,000 (excluding the Occupation years). Economic growth spurred immigration and population growth, which is now (2013) about 100,000. From the 1960s Portuguese workers arrived, mostly working in INITIALLY seasonal industries in agriculture and tourism.

Immigration has made aspects of Jersey a distinctive urban character, particularly in the parish of St Helier, which has a lot to do with it. [90]

Religion in Jersey

Main article: Religion in Jersey

Religion in Jersey has a complex history, drawn from widely different Christian denominations. In 2015, Jersey’s first ever national survey of religion found that two fifths of Jersey people have no religion , with only small handfuls of Jersey people belonging to the non-Christian religions. In total, 54% said they had some form of religion, and 7% were not sure. [91]

The established church is the Church of England , from 2015 under the See of Canterbury (previously under the Winchester diocese). In the countryside, Methodism found its traditional stronghold. A substantial minority of Roman Catholics can also be found in Jersey. There are two Catholic private combined primary and secondary schools: De La Salle College in Saint Savior is an all-boys school, and Beaulieu Convent School in Saint Savior is an all-girls school; and FCJ primary school in St. Savior. A Catholic order of Sisters has a presence in school life.

Culture

Until the 19th century, indigenous Jèrriais – a variety of Norman – was the language of the island, but it was used for official business. During the 20th century, British cultural influence saw an active language shift take place and Jersey today is predominantly English-speaking . [20] JERRIA nonetheless survives; around 2,600 islanders (three percent) are reckoned to be habitual speakers, and some 10,000 (12 percent) in all claim some knowledge of the language, particularly among the elderly in rural parishes. There have been efforts to revive in the United States, and the highest number of declared speakers is in the capital.

The dialects of Jerris differ in phonology and, to a greater extent, lexis between parishes, with the most marked differences between those of the west and east. Many place names are in French, English and French place names are also to be found. Angling of the place names increased with the migration of English people to the island.

Some Neolithic carvings are the earliest works of artistic character in Jersey. Only fragmentary wall-paintings remain from the rich mediaeval artistic heritage, after the wholesale iconoclasmof the Calvinist Reformation of the 16th century.

The island is particularly famous for the Battle of Flowers , a carnival held annually since 1902. [92] Other festivals include The Feast of Knotted [93] (Christmas festival), The Cidermaking Festival, [94] ] The Battle of Britain , Jersey Live Music Festival, Film Festival Branches, food festivals, and parish events.

The island’s patron saint is Saint Helier . [95]

Media

Main article: Media of Jersey

Broadcast

BBC Radio Jersey provides a radio service, and BBC Channel Islands . ITV Channel Television is a regional ITV franchise with the Bailiwick of Guernsey and its headquarters in Jersey.

Channel 103 is a commercial radio station. Bailiwick Radio broadcasts two music services, Classics and Hits, online at bailiwickradio.com , Apple & Android apps and on TuneIn . Radio Youth FM is an internet radio station run by young people.

Bailiwick Express is one of Jersey’s digital online news sources.

Daily newspaper

Jersey has only one newspaper, the Jersey Evening Post , which is printed six days a week, and has been published since 1890.

Music

The traditional folk music of Jersey was common in the country until the mid-20th century. It is not possible to divide these parallels or variants, especially in France. Most of the time, with a minority in Jèrriais.

In contemporary music, Nerina Pallot has enjoyed international success. Music festivals include Jersey Live , Jersey Dead, Rock in the Park, Avanchi presents Jazz in July, the music section of the Jersey Eisteddfod and the Liberation Jersey Music Festival. [97]

Cinema

In 1909, TJ West established the first cinema in the Royal Hall in St. Helier, which became known as West’s Cinema in 1923 (demolished 1977). The first talking picture , The Perfect Alibi , was shown on 30 December 1929 at the Picture House in St. Helier. The Jersey Film Society was founded on 11 December 1947 at the Blue Cafe, West’s Cinema. The large Art Deco Forum Cinema was opened in 1935 – during the German occupation this was used for German propaganda films.

The Odeon Cinema was opened on June 2, 1952, and was later rebranded in the early 21st century as the Forum Cinema. Its owners, however, struggles to meet tough competition from the Cineworld Cinemas group, which opened a 10 screen multiplex on the waterfront center in St. Helier on reclaimed land in December 2002 and the Odeon closed its doors in late 2008. The Odeon is now a listed building .[98][99]

Since 1997, Kevin Lewis (formerly of the Cine Center and the New Forum) HAS Arranged the Jersey Film Festival, a charity event showing the latest and classic movies aussi outdoors in 35 mm is a big screen. The 2011 festival was held in Howard Davis Park, St Savior, on the 13-19 August 2011. [100]

First held in 2008, the Branchage Jersey International Film Festival [101] attracts filmmakers from all over the world.

Food and drink

Jersey: mussels (called mussels in the island), oysters , lobster and crabs – especially spider crabs – ormers and conger .

Jersey milk being very rich, cream and butter have played a large part in insular cooking. (See Channel Channel milk ) However, there is no indigenous tradition of cheese making, contrary to the custom of Normandy, but some cheese is produced commercially. Jersey fudge , mostly imported from Jersey cattle herds, is a popular food product with tourists.

Jersey Royal potatoes are the local variety of new potato , and the island is famous for icts early crop of Cats (small potatoes) from the south-facing Cotils (steeply sloping fields). Originally grown using vraic as a natural fertilizer giving Them Their Own individual taste, only a small portion Of Those grown in the island still use this method. They are eaten in a variety of ways, often simply boiled and served with butter or when fresh.

Apples historically were an important crop. Bourdelots are apple dumplings, purpose The Most typical specialty is black butter ( lé nièr beurre ), a dark spicy spread Prepared from apples, cider and spices. Cider used to be an important export. After decline and near-disappearance in the late 20th century, apple production is being increased and promoted. Besides cider, apple brandy is produced. Other production of alcohol drinks includes wine, [102] and in 2013 the first commercial vodkas made from Jersey Royal potatoes were marketed. [103]

Among other traditional dishes are cabbage loaf, Jersey wonders ( the mèrvelles ) fliottes, bean crock ( pais in crazy ), nettle ( ortchie ) soup, buns vraic.

Sport

In its own right Jersey participates in the Commonwealth Games and in the biennial Island Games , which it hosted in 1997 and more recently in 2015 . [104]

In sporting events in which the United Nations does not have international representation, but there is no need for international representation. another Home Nation.

Jersey is an associate member of the International Cricket Council (ICC). The Jersey cricket team plays in the inter-insular match among others. The Jersey cricket team competes in the World Division 4, held in Tanzania in October 2008, after being finished and run by the World Division 5 held in Jersey. They also competed in the European Division 2, held in Guernsey during August 2008. The youth cricket teams have been promoted to play in the European Division 1 alongside Ireland, Scotland, Denmark, the Netherlands and Guernsey . In two tournaments at this level Jersey have finished 6th.

For horseracing, Les Landes Racecourse can be found at Les Landes in St. Ouen next to the ruins of Grosnez Castle .

The Jersey Football Association oversees football in Jersey. The Jersey Football Combination has nine teams in its top division. National football team jersey plays in the annual Muratticompetition among others.

Rugby Union in Jersey comes under the auspices of the Jersey Rugby Association (JRA), which is a member of the Rugby Football Union of England. Jersey Reds compete in the English rugby union system ; [105] After four seasons, they were second in the RFU Championship in 2012-13. [106]

Jersey has two public indoor swimming pools. Swimming in the sea, windsurfing and other marine sports are practiced. Jersey Swimming Club has an annual swim from Elizabeth Castle to St. Helier Harbor for over 50 years. A round-island swim is a major challenge that a select number of swimmers have achieved. The Royal Channel Island Yacht Club is based in Jersey.

There is one facility for extreme sports and some facilities for youth sports. Jersey has one un-roofed skateboarding park. Coastal cliffs provide opportunities for rock climbing .

Two professional golfers from Jersey have won the Open Championship seven times between them; Harry Vardon won six times and Ted Ray won once. Vardon and Ray also won the US Open ounce each. Harry Vardon’s brother, Tom Vardon , had won on various European tours.

Literature

Wace is Jersey ‘s earliest known author. Printing arrived in Jersey only in the 1780s, aim the island supported a multitude of regular publications in French (and Jèrriais) and English Throughout The 19th century, qui in poetry, Most usually topical and satirical, Flourished (see Jèrriais literature ) .The first Jèrriais book to be published was rhymes and poems of various authors brought together and put in order , edited by Abraham Mourant in 1865. Writers born in Jersey include Elinor Glyn , John Lempriere , Philippe The Dying Sweat , Robert Pipon Marett and Augustus Asplet Le Gros . Frederick Tennysonand Gerald Durrell were among the authors who made their home. Contemporary authors based in Jersey include Jack Higgins .

Education

Main article: Education in Jersey

Schools

See also: List of schools in Jersey

The States of Jersey provides education through state schools and also supports private schools. The Jersey curriculum follows that of England. [21] It follows the National Curriculum for a few differences to suit the island, [107] for example all year 4 students study at 6-week Jersey Studies course. [108]

Further and higher education

Jersey has a college of higher education and university center, Highlands College . Highlands is also a sixth form provider, working alongside Hautlieu School which offers the only non-fee-paying sixth form, and works collaboratively with a range of organizations including the Open University , University of Plymouth and London South Bank University . In particular students can study at Highlands for the two-year degree in financial services and for a BSc in social sciences, both validated by the University of Plymouth .

The Institute of Law is Jersey’s law school , providing a search for students seeking to qualify as Jersey advocates and solicitors. It also provides teaching for students enrolled on the University of London LLB degree program, via the International Programs . The Institute of Law also has a double degree in LLB from the University of London and a M1 Law degree from Toulouse 1 Capitol University; the 2 combines 4 years of French and English studies. The Open University supports students in Jersey, but they pay higher fees than UK students. Private sector higher education providers include Jersey International Business School .

Environment

Three areas of land are protected for their ecological or geographical interest Sites of Special Interest (SSI). Jersey has four designated Ramsar sites : The Stones of Lecq, The Minquiers, The Keystones and The Dirks and the South East Coast of Jersey (a large area of ​​intertidal area). [109]

Jersey is the home of Durrell Wildlife Park (formerly known as the Jersey Zoological Park) founded by the naturalist, zookeeper and author Gerald Durrell .

Biodiversity

Four species of small mammal are considered native: [110] the wood mouse ( Apodemus sylvaticus ), the Jersey bank fly ( Myodes glareolus caesarius ), the Lesser white-toothed shrew ( Crocidura suaveolens ) and the French shrew ( Sorex coronatus ). Three wild mammals are well-established introductions: the rabbit (introduced in the mediaeval period), the red squirrel and the hedgehog (both introduced in the 19th century). The stoat ( Mustela erminea ) became extinct in Jersey between 1976 and 2000. The Green lizard ( Lacerta bilineatais a protected species of reptile; Jersey is its only habitat in the British Isles. [111]

The red-billed pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax became extinct in Jersey around 1900, when changes in farming and grazing practices were made. Birds on the Edge project has entre States of Jersey , Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trustand Jersey National Trust is working to restore Jersey’s coastal habitats and reinstate the red-billed chough (and other bird species) to the island [112]

Jersey is the only place in the British Isles where the agile frog Rana dalmatina is found. [113] The remaining population of agile frogs on Jersey is very small and is restricted to the south west of the island. The species is the subject of an ongoing program to save it from extinction in Jersey via a collaboration between the States of Jersey , the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust and the Jersey Amphibian and Reptile Group (JARG), with support and sponsorship from several other organizations. The program includes captive breeding and release, public awareness and habitat restoration activities. [114]

Alder ( Alnus glutinosa ), silver birch ( Betula pendula ), sweet chestnut ( Castanea sativa ), hazel ( Corylus avellana ), hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna ), beech ( Fagus sylvatica ), ash ( Fraxinus excelsior ), aspen ( Populus tremula ), wild cherry ( Prunus avium ), blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa ), holm oak ( Quercus ilex ), oak ( Quercus robur ), sallow ( Salix cinerea ), elder ( Sambucus nigra ), elm ( Ulmus spp.) and medlar (Mespilus germanica ). The cabbage palm ( Cordyline australis ) has been planted in many areas and may be seen in many gardens. [115]

Notable marine species [116] include the ormer , conger , bass, undulate ray , gray mullet , ballan wrasse and garfish . Marine mammals include the bottlenosed dolphin [117] and gray seal . [118]

Historically the island has a wide variety of cabbage, Jersey cabbage , also known as Jersey kale or cow cabbage. [119]

Japanese Knotweed Fallopia japonica is an invasive species that threatens Jersey’s biodiversity. [120] It is easily recognizable and has hollow stems with small white flowers that are produced in late summer. [121] Other non-native species on the island include the Colorado beetle , burnet rose and the oak processionary moth. [120]

Emergency services

Emergency services [122] are provided by the States of Jersey Police with the support of the Honorary Police as necessary, States of Jersey Ambulance Service, [123] Jersey Fire and Rescue Service [124] and the Jersey Coastguard. [125] The Jersey Fire and Rescue Service and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operate an inshore rescue and lifeboat service; Channel Islands Air Search provides rapid response to the surrounding waters. [126]

The States of Jersey Fire Service was formed in 1938 when the United States took over the Saint Helier Fire Brigade, which had been formed in 1901. The first lifeboat was equipped, funded by the States, in 1830. The RNLI established a lifeboat station in 1884 . [127] Border security and customs controls are Undertaken by the States of Jersey Customs and Immigration Service . Jersey HAS ADOPTED the 112 emergency number Alongside Existing icts 999 emergency number .

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