Arran or the Isle of Arran ( / æ r ən / ; Scottish Gaelic : Eilean Arainn pronounced [elan arɪɲ] ), at 432 square kilometers (167 sq mi), is the Largest island in the Firth of Clyde and the seventh Largest Scottish island. Historically part of Buteshire , it is in the unitary council area of North Ayrshire . In the 2011 census it had a resident population of 4,629. Though culturally and physically similar to the Hebrides , it is separated from the Kintyrepeninsula. It is divided into highland and lowland areas by the Highland Boundary Fault and has been described as a “geologist’s paradise”. 
Arran has been continuously inhabited since the early Neolithic period, and numerous prehistoric remains have been found. From the 6th century onwards, Goidelic-speaking peoples from Ireland colonized it and it became a center of religious activity. During the troubled Viking Age , Arran became the property of the Norwegian crown, until finally absorbed by the kingdom of Scotland in the 13th century. The 19th-century ” clearances ” led to significant depopulation and the end of the Gaelic language and way of life. The economy and the population have recovered in recent years, the main industry being tourism. There is a diversity of wildlifeendemic to the area.
The island includes miles of coastal pathways, numerous hills and mountains, forested areas, rivers, small lochs and beaches. Its main beaches are at Brodick , Whiting Bay , Kildonan, Sannox and Blackwaterfoot . The village of Lagg has Scotland’s only official nudist beach, known as one of the quietest nudist beaches in the world. [ quote needed ]
Most of the islands of Scotland have been occupied consecutively by at least four languages since the Iron Age . Many of the names of these islands have more than one possible meaning as a result. Arran is therefore not unusual in that the derivation of the name is far from clear. Mac an Tàilleir (2003) states that “it is said to be unrelated to the name Aran in Ireland” (which means “kidney-shaped”, see Irish ára “kidney”).  Unusually for a Scottish island, Haswell-Smith (2004) offers a BrythonicWhat is the meaning of the term “high place”? Which means that it is much faster than ever before. 
Any other Brythonic place names that may have been removed by Gaels spread from Ireland, via their adjacent kingdom of Dál Riata . During the Viking Age the island, along with MOST Scottish islands, est devenu the property of the Norwegian crown, at qui time it May-have-been Known as “Herrey” or “Hersey”. As a result of this Norse influence, many current place names are on the Viking origin. 
Geography and geology
The island lies in the Firth of Clyde between Ayr and Ardrossan , and Kintyre . The profile of the north Arran hills as seen from the Ayrshire coast is referred to as ” Sleeping Warrior “, due to their resemblance to a resting human figure.   The highest of these hills is Goat Fell at 873.5 meters (2,866 ft).  There are three other Corbetts , all in the north east: Caisteal Abhail , Cìr Mhòr and Beinn Tarsuinn. Beinn Bharrain is the highest peak in the north west at 721 meters (2,365 ft). 
The largest valley on the island is Glen Iorsa to the west, while Glen Sannox ( Gaelic : Gleann Shannaig ) and Glen Rosa ( Gaelic : Gleann Ròsa ) to the east surround Goat Fell. The site is 350 meters (1,150 ft), and has a Chruach reaches 512 meters (1,680 ft) at its summit.   There are two other Marilyns in the south, Tighvein and Beinn Bhreac.
Arran is sometimes referred to as “Scotland in miniature”, as it is divided into “Highland” and “Lowland” areas by the Highland Boundary Fault which runs north east to south west Scotland.  Arran is a popular destination for geologists , who comes to see intrusive igneous landforms such as sills and dykes , and sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Mesozoic .
Most of the interior of the northern half of the island is taken up by a large granite batholith that was created by substantial magmatic activity around 58 million years ago in the Paleogeneperiod.  This includes an outer ring of granite coarse and an inner core of finer grained granite, which was intruded later. This granite was intruded into the Late Proterozoic to Cambrian metasediments of the Dalradian Supergroup. Other Paleogene igneous rocks on Arran include extensive felsic and composite sills in the south of the island, and the central ring complex, an eroded caldera system surrounded by a near-continuous ring of granitic rocks. 
Sedimentary rocks dominate the southern half of the island, especially Old and New Red Sandstone . Some of these sandstones contain fulgurites – Permian lightning strikes.  Large aeolian sand dunes are preserved in Permian sandstones near Brodick , showing the presence of an ancient desert. Within the central complex are subsided blocks of Triassic sandstone and marl , Jurassic shale, and even a rare example of Cretaceous chalk.  During the 19th century baryteswas mined near Sannox . First discovered in 1840, nearly 5,000 tons were produced between 1853 and 1862. The mine was closed by the 11th Duke of Hamilton on the grounds that it “spoiled the solemn grandeur of the scene” but was reopened after the First World War and operated until 1938 when the vein ran out. 
Visiting in 1787, the geologist James Hutton found his first example of an unconformity to the north of Newton Point near Lochranza , which provided evidence for his Plutonist theories of uniformitarianism and about the age of the Earth . This spot is one of the most famous places in the study of geology.  
The Pleistocene glaciations are almost entirely covered in Scotland, and the highest peaks have been nunataks at this time.  After the last retreat of the ice at the Pleistocene epoch sea levels were up to 70 meters (230 ft) lower than at present and it is likely that circa 14,000 BP the island was connected to mainland Scotland.  Sea level exchange and the isostatic rise of land Makes charting post-glacial coastlines a complex task, it is obvious goal que le island is ringed by post glacial raised beaches .  King’s Cave on the south west coast is an example of an emerging landform on such a raised beach. This cave, which is over 30.5 meters (100 ft) long and up to 15.3 meters (50 ft) high, lies well above the present day sea level.    There are tall sea cliffs to the north east and large rock slides under the heights of Torr Reamhar, Torr Meadhonach and at Scriden ( An Scriodan ) at the far north end of the island.   
Arran has several villages, mainly around the shoreline. Brodick ( Old Norse : “Broad Bay”) is the site of the ferry terminal, several hotels, and the majority of shops. Brodick Castle is a seat of the Dukes of Hamilton . Lamlash , however, is the largest village on the island and has had a population of 1,010 compared to 621 for Brodick.  Other villages include Lochranza , qui in the Blackwood-Davidson family HAD Their main seat, Lochranza Castle and Catacol in the north, Corrie in the north east, Blackwaterfoot in the south west,Kildonan in the south and Whiting Bay in the south east.
Brodick is the largest settlement on the island, with more than 650 residents. It has hotels, shops and restaurants, and attractions That include the Arran Brewery , Brodick Castle Brodick Beach and Goat Fell .
Lamlash has a similar population and amenities, with the addition of views and connections to the Holy Isle. It is the location of the High School and Hospital.
Lochranza in the north has the ferry connection to Claonaig on the Kintyre Peninsula. Other points of interest include Lochranza Castle and the Isle of Arran Distillery , which opened in 1995 and has become a busy tourist attraction.
Blackwaterfoot on the west coast is a smaller community with a few shops and the Kinloch Hotel. The town is located near Machrie Moor stone circles and Kings Caves.
There are many golf clubs in Brodick, Lamlash, Whiting Bay and Shiskine . [ quote needed ]
Arran HAS three smaller satellite islands: Holy Isle lies to the east opposite Lamlash, Pladda is located off Arran’s south coast and tiny Hamilton Island lies just off Clauchlands Item 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of Holy Isle. Eilean na h-Aire de Bàine off the south west of Arran at Corriecravie is a skerry connected to Arran at low tide.
Other islands in the Firth of Clyde include Bute , Great Cumbrae and Inchmarnock .
The influence of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream creates a mild oceanic climate. Generally temperatures are cool, averaging about 6 ° C (43 ° F ) in January and 16 ° C (61 ° F) in July at sea level. The southern half of the island, being less mountainous, has a more favourable climate than the north, and the east coast is more sheltered from the prevailing winds than the west and south.
Snow seldom lies at sea level and is less frequent than on the mainland. As in most islands of the west coast of Scotland, annual rainfall is between 1,500 mm (59 in) and 1,900 mm (75 in) in the north and east. The mountains are wetter still with the summits receiving over 2,550 mm (100 in) annually. May and June are the sunniest months, with upwards of 200 hours of bright sunshine being recorded on average. 
The weather in Western Scotland can vary from 13 ° C to 25 ° C and the winter temperatures from 0 ° C to 13 ° C. The rainfall is high throughout the year
During Summer months, days are long with daylight lasting around 9pm with relative light around 11pm however in the winter months can be around 4pm with total darkness by 5 / 6pm depending on the time of year
Temperatures in winter temperatures around 7 ° C / 8 ° C in winter averages around 14 ° C and is warm enough longer than air.
Arran has a particular concentration of early Neolithic Clyde Cairns, a form of Gallery grave. The typical style of these structures is a rectangular or trapezoidal stone and earth mound that encloses a chamber lined with larger stone slabs. Pottery and bone fragments found inside the chambers suggest they were used for interment and some have forecourts, which may have been an area for public display or ritual. There are two good examples in Monamore Glen west of the village of Lamlash, and similar structures called the Giants’ Graves above Whiting Bay. There are numerous standing stones dating from prehistoric times, including six stone circles on Machrie Moor (Gaelic: Am Machaire).
Pitchstone deposits on the island were used locally for making various items in the Mesolithic era.  In the Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age from the Isle of Arran or items made from it were transported around Britain. 
Several Bronze Age sites have been excavated, including “Ossian’s Mound” near Clachaig and a cairn near Blackwaterfoot that produced a bronze dagger and a gold fillet.  Torr a ‘Chaisteal Dun in the south west near Sliddery is the ruin of an Iron Age fortified structure dating from about AD 200. The original walls would have been 3 meters (9.8 ft) or more thick and enclosed a circular area about 14 meters (46 ft) in diameter. 
Gaels, Vikings and the Middle Ages
An ancient Irish poem called Agalllamh na Senorach , first recorded in the 13th century, describes the attractions of the island.
- Arran of the many stags
- The sea strikes against her shoulders,
- Companies of men can feed there,
- Blue spears are reddened among her boulders.
- Merry hinds are on her hills,
- Juicy berries are there for food,
- Refreshing water in her streams,
- Nuts in plenty in the wood. 
The monastery of Aileach founded by St. Brendan in the 6th century may have been on Arran and St. Molaise was also active, with Holy Isle being a center of its activities.  The caves below Keil Point ( Gaelic : Rubha na Cille ) contain an ancient altar. This stone has two petrosomatoglyphs on it, the prints of two right feet, said to be of Saint Columba. 
In the 11th century Arran became part of the Sodor (Old Norse: ‘Suðr-eyjar’), or South Isles of the Kingdom of Mann and the Isles , but on the death of Godred Crovan in 1095 all the isles came under the direct rule of Magnus III of Norway . Lagman (1103-1104) restored local rule. After the death of Somerled in 1164 Arran and Bute were ruled by his son Angus.  In 1237, the Scottish isles broke away completely from the Isle of Man and became an independent kingdom. After the indecisive Battle of Largs between the kingdoms of Norway and Scotland in 1263, Haakon Haakonsson, King of Norwayreclaimed Norwegian lordship over the “provinces” of the west. Arriving at Mull , he rewarded a number of his Norse-Gaelic vassals with grants of lands. Bute was given to Ruadhri and Arran to Murchad MacSween. [Note 1] Following Haakon ‘s death later that year Norway ceded the islands of western Scotland to the Scottish crown in 1266 by the Treaty of Perth . A substantial Viking grave has been discovered near King’s Cross south of Lamlash, containing whalebone, iron rivets and nails, fragments of bronze and a 9th-century bronze coin, and another grave date of similar date yielded to a sword and shield.   Arran was also part of the medievalBishopric of Sodor and Man .
Blackwaterfoot is the King’s Cave (see above) where Robert the Bruce is said to have taken shelter in the 14th century.  Bruce returned to the island in 1326, courtesy of Fergus MacLouis for assistance rendered during his time of concealment there. Brodick Castle played a prominent part in the island’s medieval history. Probably dating from the 13th century, it was captured by English forces during the Wars of Independence before being taken back by Scottish troops in 1307. It was badly damaged by action of English ships in 1406 and sustained an attack by John of Islay , the Lord of the Isles in 1455. Originally a seat of theClan Stewart of Menteith passed to the Boyd family in the 15th century.   For a short time during the reign of King James V in the 16th century the Isle of Arran was under the rule of Robert Maxwell, 5th Lord Maxwell . 
At the beginning of the early modern period James, 2nd Lord Hamilton became a privy counselor to his first cousin, James IV of Scotland and helped to arrange a marriage to Princess Margaret Tudor of England. As a reward He Was created Earl of Arran in 1503. The local economy for much of this period Was based on the run rig system, the basic crops being white oats, barley and potatoes. The population slowly grew to about 6,500. In the early 19th century Alexander, 10th Duke of Hamilton (1767-1852) embarked on a program of clearancesthat had a devastating effect on the island’s population. These “improvements” have typically been converted to a single farm. In some cases, it was promised in Canada for each adult emigrant male. In April 1829, for example, 86 islanders boarded the Caledonia brigade for the two-month journey, half being paid for by the Duke. HOWEVER, on arrival in Quebec only 41 hectares (100 acres) Was Made available to the heads of extended families. Whole villages were removed and the Gaelic culture of the island devastated. The writer James Hogg wrote: “Oh, Wae’s me, I hear the Duke of Hamilton’s crofters are a gaun away, and his mother’s brother, the Isle o Arran.A memorial to this has been constructed on the shore at Lamlash, paid for by the Canadian descendant of the emigrants.  
On 10 August 1941 RAF Consolidated B-24 Liberator LB-30A AM261 was flying from RAF Heathfield in Ayrshire to Gander International Airport in Canada. However, the B-24 crashed into the hillside of Mullach Buidhe north of Goat Fell where all 22 passengers and crew died. 
|1841||6,241||nineteen eighty one||3,845|
Arran’s resident population was 4.629 in 2011, a decline of just over 5.045 recorded in 2001  against a background of Scottish island populations as a whole growing by 4% to 103,702 for the same period. 
|[ show ]Pronunciation|
Gaelic was still widely spoken on Arran at the beginning of the 20th century. The 1901 Census reported 25-49 per cent Gaelic speakers on the eastern side of the island and 50-74 per cent on the western side of the island. By 1921 the proportion for the whole island had dropped to less than 25 per cent.  However, Nils Holmer quotes the Féillire (a Gaelic almanack ) reporting 4,532 inhabitants on the island in 1931 with 605 Gaelic speakers, showing that Gaelic had declined to about 13 percent of the population.  Arran Gaelic died in the 1990s. Current Gaelic speakers on Arran originate from other areas in Scotland. In 2011, 2.0 per cent of Arran residents and three years of Gaelic. 
Arran Gaelic is reasonably well documented. Holmer in the field of 1938, reporting Gaelic being spoken by “a fair number of old inhabitants”. He interviewed 53 informants from various locations and his description of the dialect, The Gaelic of Arran , was published in 1957 and runs to 211 pages of phonological, grammatical and lexical information. The Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland , which collected Gaelic dialect data in Scotland between 1950 and 1963 also interviewed 5 native speakers of Arran Gaelic. 
The Arran dialect falls into the southern group of Gaelic dialects (referred to as “peripheral” dialects in Celtic studies) and thus shows: 
- a glottal stop replacing an old Irish hiatus , eg rathad ‘road’ / rɛʔət̪ /  (normally /rˠa.ət̪/ )
- the dropping of / h / between the flames eg athair ‘father’ / aəɾ /  (normally / ahəɾʲ / )
- the preservation of a long l, n and r, eg fann ‘weak’ / fan̪ˠː /  (normally / faun̪ˠ / with diphthongization ).
The most unusual feature of Arran Gaelic is / w / glide after labials before a front vowel , eg maith ‘good’ / mwɛh /  (normally / mah / ).
Mac an Tàilleir (2003) notes that the island has a poetic name Arainn nan Aighean Iomadh – “Arran of the many stags” and that a native of the island or Arainneach is also nicknamed coinean mòr in Gaelic, meaning “big rabbit”.  Locally, Arainn was pronounced / ɛɾɪɲ / . 
From the 17th to the late 20th century, Arran was part of the County of Bute .  After the 1975 reorganization of local government Arran became part of the Cunningham District in Strathclyde Region. 
This two-tier system of local government lasted until 1996 when the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994 , in effect, abolishing the regions and districts and replacing them with 32 unitary authorities .  Arran is now in the North Ayrshire area, along with some of the constituting islands of the old County of Bute.
For Some statistical Purposes Arran est dans le Registration county of Ayrshire and for ceremonial Purposes dans le lieutenancy area of Ayrshire and Arran.
In the House of Commons, since 2005 Arran has been part of the Ayrshire North and Arran constituency , portraying 2015 by Patricia Gibson of the SNP . It was previously part of the constituency of Cunningham North from 1983 to 2005, and from Ayrshire North and Bute from 1918 to 1983.
In the Scottish Parliament , Arran is part of the constitution of Cunningham North , currently represented by Kenneth Gibson of the Scottish National Party (SNP). Labor held the seat until 2007, when the SNP gained a majority of just 48, making it the most marginal seat in Holyrood until 2011 when the SNP significantly increased their majority to 6117 over the Labor Party . 
NHS Ayrshire and Arran is responsible for the provision of health services for the island. Arran War Memorial Hospital is a 17-bed acute hospital at Lamlash. The Arran Medical Group provides primary care services and supports the hospital. The practice is based at Brodick Health Center and has three basic surgeries and four branch surgeries. 
The Isle of Arran is connected to the Scottish mainland by two Caledonian MacBrayne ferries, MV Caledonian Isles from Brodick to Ardrossan and MV Catriona (summer only) from Lochranza to Claonaig . The MV Isle of Arran provides additional sailings from Brodick to Ardrossan during the summer season.  Summer day trips are also available on the paddle steamer PS Waverley and a local service operated by a local resident connects Lamlash to the neighboring Holy Isle.
Brodick Ferry Terminal is undergoing £ 22 million of works to improve connections to the island. The new terminal will be expanded, and will be expanded in August 2017. the new ferry will be served by a new 45-million dual-fuelled ferry from 2018 – the MV Glen Sannox – which will have a capacity of 1,000 people.
There are three through roads on the island. The 90 kilometers (56 mi) coast road circumnavigates the island. In 2007, 48 kilometers (30 mi) stretch of this road, previously designated as A841, was de-classified as a C road. Traveling south from Whiting Bay, the C147 goes round the south coast to Lochranza. At this point the road becomes the A841 down the east coast back to Whiting Bay. 
At least 200 meters (660 ft) pass to the Boguillie between Creag Ghlas Laggan and Caisteal Abhail, located between Sannox and Lochranza. 
The other two roads run from the east to the west side of the island. The main cross-island road is the 19 kilometers (12 mi) B880 from Brodick to Blackwaterfoot, called “The String”, which climbs over Gleann an t-Suidhe. About 10 Kilometers (6 mi) from Brodick, a minor road branches off to the right to Machrie. The single track road “The Ross” runs 15 kilometers (9 mi) from Lamlash to Lagg and Sliddery via Glen Scorodale ( Gaelic : Gleann Sgoradail ). 
The island can be explored using a public bus service operated by Stagecoach .  The main bus terminal on the island is located in Brodick at the Ferry Terminal, the newly upgraded facility.
The main industry of the island is tourism, one of the main attractions being the Brodick Castle , owned by the National Trust for Scotland . The Auchrannie Resort, which contains 2 hotels, 3 restaurants and 2 leisure complexes, is one of the biggest companies on the island.  Local businesses include the Arran Distillery , which was opened in 1995 in Lochranza, the distillery is open to the world – a second visitor center has been announced for the South of the island in 2019. Other businesses include Arran Aromatics, which produces a range of luxury toiletries, perfumes candles. Arran Dairies, Arran Cheese Shop, James’ Chocolates and Wooleys of Arran. The island has a number of golf courses including the 12 hole Shiskine links course which was founded in 1896. 
Farming and forestry are other important industries. 2008 plans for a large salmon farm holding 800,000 or more fish in Lamlash Bay have been criticized by the Community of Arran Seabed Trust . They feared the facility could jeopardize Scotland’s first marine No Take Zone, which was announced in September 2008.  
The Arran Brewery is a microbrewery founded in March 2000 in Cladach , near Brodick . The brewery produces 8 regular cask and bottled beers. The wheat beer, Arran Blonde (5.0% abv ) is the most popular brand, and includes Arran Dark and Arran Sunset,  with a seasonal ale called Fireside only brewed in winter. The brewery is open for tours, with tastings in the shop.  The business went into liquidation in May 2008 and subsequently to Marketing Management Services International Ltd. in June 2008. The brewery is now back in production and the beers widely available in Scotland
The Scottish Gaelic dialect of Arran died when the last speaker Donald Craig died in the 1970s. However, there is now a Gaelic House in Brodick, set up at the end of the 1990s. Brodick Castle features on the Royal Bank of Scotland £ 20 rating and Lochranza Castle was used as a model for the castle in The Adventures of Black Island Tintin Adventure .
Arran has one newspaper, The Arran Banner . It was listed in the Guinness Book of Records in November 1984 under the title of “local newspaper which achieves the closest to saturation circulation in its area”. The entry reads “The Arran Banner, founded in 1974, has a readership of more than 97 percent in Britain’s seventh largest off-shore island.”  There est aussi year monthly online publication called Expired Voice for Arran That subsequently assembled Mainly items are contributed by community members. 
In 2010 an “Isle of Arran” version of the game Monopoly was launched. 
The knitting style used to create Aran sweaters is Often mistakenly associated with the Isle of Arran Rather than the Irish Aran Islands . 
The island has three endemic species of trees , the Arran whitebeams .  These trees are the Scottish or Arran whitebeam ( Sorbus arranensis ), the mountain ash bastard or cut-leaved whitebeam ( Sorbus pseudofennica )  and the Catacol whitebeam ( Sorbus pseudomeinichii ). If rarity is measured by numbers alone they are among the most endangered species in the world. They are protected in Glen Diomhan off Glen Catacol , at the north end of the island by a fenced off national nature reserve , and are monitored by staff of Scottish Natural Heritage . Only 236Sorbus pseudofennica and 283 Sorbus arranensis were recorded as mature trees in 1980.  They are typical trees of the mountain slopes, close to the tree line. However, they will grow at lower altitudes, and are being preserved within Brodick Country Park.
Over 200 species of bird have been recorded on Arran including black guillemot , eider , peregrine falcon and the golden eagle .  In 1981 there were 28 ptarmigan on Arran, but in 2009 it was reported that it was impossible to record any record.   Similarly, the red-billed chough No. along breeds on the island. 
Red deer are numerous on the northern hills, and there are populations of red squirrel , badger , otter , adder and common lizard . Offshore there are harbor porpoises , basking sharksand various species of dolphin . 
The northern part of Lamlash Bay has become a Marine Protected Area and a “no take zone” under the Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 which means that it can not be used in the area.  In 2014 the Scottish Government created Scotland’s first Marine Conservation Order in order to protect delicate maerl beds off south Arran after-fishermen had breached voluntary agreement not to trawl in the vicinity. 
- Sir Kenneth Calman (born 1941) – Chancellor of Glasgow University , Scottish and UK Chief Medical Officer and author of the Calman Commission on Scottish Devolution 
- Flora Drummond (1878-1949) – suffragette
- Lieut. Collar. James Fullarton , BC, KH (1782-1834) – fought at the Battle of Waterloo .
- Daniel Macmillan (1813-1857) – He and his brother Alexander founded Macmillan Publishers in 1843. He was Grandfather of Prime Minister Harold Macmillan .
- Jack McConnell (born 1960) – First Minister of Scotland (2001-2007)
- Megan McGill – actress and comedian
- Robert McLellan (1907-1985) – playwright and poet in Scots
- Alison Prince (born 1931) – children’s writer
- JM Robertson (1856-1933) – politician and journalist