Hvar

Hvar ( pronounced [xv̞âːr] ; local Chakavian dialect : Hvor or For , Greek : Pharos, Φάρος , Latin : Pharia , Italian : Lesina ) is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea , located off the Dalmatian coast, lying between the islands of Brač , Vis and Korčula . Approximately 68 km (42.25 mi) long, [1] with a high east-west ridge of Mesozoic limestone anddolomite , the island of Hvar is unusual in the area for having a large fertile coastal plain, and fresh water springs. Its hillsides are covered in pine forests, with vineyards, olive groves, fruit orchards and lavender fields in the agricultural areas. The climate is characterized by mild winters, and warm summers with many hours of sunshine. [2] The island has 11,103 [3] residents, making it the 4th most populated of the Croatian islands .

Hvar’s location at the center of the Adriatic has long made this island an important base for commanding trade up and down the Adriatic, across to Italy and throughout the Mediterranean. It has been inhabited since pre-historic times, originally by a Neolithic people whose distinctive pottery gave rise to the term Hvar culture , and later by the Illyrians . The ancient Greeksfounded the colony of Pharos in 384 BC on the site of today’s Stari Grad , making it one of the oldest towns in Europe . They were also responsible for setting up the agricultural field divisions of theStari Grad Plain , now at UNESCO World Heritage Site . In medieval times, Hvar (city) rose to importance within the Venetian Empire as a naval base. Prosperity brought culture and the arts, with one of the first public theaters in Europe, noble palaces and many fine communal buildings.

The 16th century was an unsettled time, with the Hvar Rebellion , coastal raids by pirates and the Ottoman army from the mainland, resulting in some unusual fortified buildings on the northern shore to protect the local population. After a brief time under Napoleonic rule , the island became part of the Austrian Empire , a more peaceful and prosperous time. On the coast, harbors were expanded, built, fishing and boat building businesses grew. At the same time, the island’s wine exports increased, with the lavender and rosemary production for the French perfume industry. Unfortunately, this prosperity did not continue in the 20th century as well as the phylloxerablight hit wine production. Many islanders left to make a new life elsewhere. [4] [5] [6]

One industry, tourism , is a major contributor to the island’s economy. The formation of the Hygienic Association of Hvar in 1868 for the development of the infrastructure of hotels, apartments, restaurants, marinas, museums, galleries and cafes . [7] Today, the island of Hvar is a popular destination, one of Conde Nast Traveler magazine’s most popular destinations. [8]

Geography

The island of Hvar is located in the Adriatic Sea , off the Dalmatian coast. To the north, the island of Brač lies across the Hvar Channel ( Hvarski kanal ), to the west is Vis , separated by the Vis Channel, and to the south Korčula lies across the Korčula Channel, while the Pelješac Peninsula is across the Neretva Channel . The eastern end of Hvar is just 6 miles (3.7 mi) from the mainland. Along the southern coast of the island, especially the Paklinski islands at the western end and Šćedro island, while Zečevo island lies off the north coast. [5]

Landscape

Hvar is a high east-west ridge of Mesozoic limestone and dolomite , which was part of the mainland until approximately 11,000 years ago. Around that time, sea levels rose, filling the valleys that are now the channels between the islands. [9] Hvar has a typical karst landscape, which means limited surface water, despite adequate rainfall, which disappears quickly into crevices in the ground. Farming in such areas requires careful conservation of water, and protection of the soil against erosion. The water cisterns in the fields, and the dry-stone walls, especially terracing on the slopes are necessary for the continued success of agriculture on the island. [10]

The island has a typical Mediterranean vegetation , mostly bare with woody scrub at higher, steeper elevations, turning to pine forests with Holm oak (Orno-Quercetum ilicis), Aleppo pines(Pinus halapensis Mill) and Black pines (Pinus nigra dalmatica). The islet of Šćedro is especially rich in various Mediterranean trees and plants. [2]

Hvar island is 68 kilometers (42 mi) long, and only 10.5 kilometers (6.5 mi) at its widest point. It covers an area of ​​297 square kilometers (115 sq mi), the fourth largest of the Adriatic islands, and has a coastline length of 254.2 kilometers (158.0 mi). The highest peak is Sv. Nikola, at 628 meters (2,060 ft). [5]

Hvar (Town of Hvar)
Climate chart ( explanation )
J F M AT M J J AT S O NOT D
68
12
6
62
12
6
64
16
8
59
18
11
38
23
16
24
28
20
18
29
21
20
29
21
55
26
18
78
22
15
102
17
11
98
13
7
Average max. and min. temperatures in ° C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [www.worldclimate.com]
[ show ]Imperial conversion

Administration and population

Hvar Island is part of Split-Dalmatia County in Dalmatia , Croatia . The island has four municipalities (općina), namely Hvar (city) (pop 4138), Stari Grad (pop 2,817), Jelsa (pop 3,656) and Sućuraj (pop 492). Population figures from 2001. [3]

  • Hvar (city) is the largest town on the island (pop 3,672), for many years an independent common and major naval base of the Venetian Empire . Hvar municipality includes the settlements of Brusje (206), Velo Grablje (21), Milna (90) and Sveta Nedilja (148). [3]
  • Jelsa is a market town in the northern part of the island (pop 1,798). Jelsa municipality includes the settlements of Gdinj (119), Gromin Dolac (4), Ivan Dolac (26), Svirče (445), Pitve (81), Poljica (68), Vrboska (526), ​​Vrisnik (215), Zastražišće ( 230), Zavala (144). [3]
  • Stari Grad , also on the north part of the island (pop 1,906), is the site of one of the first permanent settlements on the Adriatic islands during Antiquity . Today, Stari Grad is the main seaport on the island; most visitors arrive here via car ferries from Split . Stari Grad municipality includes the settlements of Dol (348), Rudina (54), Selca (20) and Vrbanj (489). [3]
  • Sućuraj is a small town on the eastern end of the island, nearest to the mainland, where a regular ferry service connects the island with the town of Drvenik . Sućuraj municipality includes the main agricultural communities in the eastern part of the island.

Climate

The climate of Hvar is characterized by mild winters and warm summers. The annual average temperature is 16 ° C (61 ° F), 703 mm (27.7 in) of precipitation, and the average annual temperature is 2800 sunshine hours per year. For comparison Hvar has an average of 7.7 sunshine hours per day while Dubrovnik has 7.2. The temperature of the sea temperature ranges from 14 ° C (57 ° F) to their warmest during summer, when the temperature usually stays between 23 ° C (73 ° F) and 27 ° C (81 ° F). The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is ” Csa ” (Mediterranean Climate). [11]

[ hide ]Climate data for Hvar (1971-2000, extremes 1858-2014)
month Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Record high ° C (° F) 19.6
(67.3)
23.4
(74.1)
24.0
(75.2)
27.8
(82)
33.0
(91.4)
37.0
(98.6)
37.5
(99.5)
37.7
(99.9)
34.4
(93.9)
31.5
(88.7)
25.7
(78.3)
20.6
(69.1)
37.7
(99.9)
Average high ° C (° F) 12.6
(54.7)
13.0
(55.4)
14.9
(58.8)
17.7
(63.9)
22.3
(72.1)
26.4
(79.5)
29.5
(85.1)
29.5
(85.1)
26.0
(78.8)
21.8
(71.2)
16.8
(62.2)
13.7
(56.7)
20.3
(68.5)
Daily mean ° C (° F) 9.1
(48.4)
9.2
(48.6)
11.1
(52)
14.0
(57.2)
18.5
(65.3)
22.3
(72.1)
25.0
(77)
24.8
(76.6)
21.5
(70.7)
17.7
(63.9)
13.3
(55.9)
10.3
(50.5)
16.4
(61.5)
Average low °C (°F) 5.9
(42.6)
5.9
(42.6)
7.7
(45.9)
10.5
(50.9)
14.7
(58.5)
18.3
(64.9)
20.9
(69.6)
20.8
(69.4)
17.7
(63.9)
14.3
(57.7)
10.1
(50.2)
7.2
(45)
12.8
(55)
Record low ° C (° F) -7
(19)
-5.5
(22.1)
-4.6
(23.7)
0.0
(32)
5.1
(41.2)
10.0
(50)
12.8
(55)
9.7
(49.5)
8.0
(46.4)
4.9
(40.8)
-3
(27)
-5
(23)
-7
(19)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 68.4
(2.693)
55.7
(2.193)
62.7
(2.469)
54.1
(2.13)
46.7
(1.839)
34.4
(1,354)
26.4
(1,039)
45.2
(1.78)
63.7
(2.508)
79.3
(3.122)
94.0
(3.701)
83.2
(3,276)
713.7
(28,098)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9.8 9.0 9.4 10.2 7.8 6.8 4.0 4.7 7.0 9.3 11.3 10.4 99.8
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
Average relative humidity (%) 68.7 65.0 66.4 65.5 66.6 63.7 58.8 61.0 65.4 67.8 68.5 69.0 65.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 133.3 155.4 195.3 222.0 288.3 324.0 365.8 334.8 258.0 198.4 135.0 124.0 2734.3
Percent possible sunshine 47 55 56 59 68 76 84 81 71 61 49 46 65
Source: Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service [12] [13]

History

The first inhabitants of Hvar Island were Neolithic people who probably established trade links between Hvar and the eastern shores of the Mediterranean . The Hvar Culture lasted from 3500 to 2500 BC Beginning in the 4th century BC, the Greeks colonized the island. [14] In 384 BC the Greek colonists of Pharos defeated Iadasinoi warriors and their allies, invited by the Hvar indigenes in their resistance to Greek colonization. Their victory over much larger forces was immortalized in one of the oldest known inscriptions of Croatia. Following Roman victory in the Second Illyrian War against Demetrius of Pharos , the island became part of the Roman Empirein 219 BC and the Greek name Pharos was changed to Pharia. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the west, the island was under the control of the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire. The population increased in antiquity with an abundance of archeological finds. A large number of new villas in Stari Grad Plain and also on the previously vacant eastern shores was built.

In the early Middle Ages, Slavic tribes occupied the island. In the first half of the 7th century the Narentines took over the island. Venetian sailors saw the island while sailing towards the south and were threatened by the Narentine pirates from the island. In the 11th century the island joined the Kingdom of Croatia . In the 12th century the rise of the Republic of Venice brought vines and wine cultivation which blossomed into a major industry for the island in the Middle Ages. The island eventually falls under Byzantine rule, and then under Kingdom of Croatia and Hungary. In 1331 the Venetians put the island under protection from threats of piracy. According to the 1358 Treaty of Zadar, the island was handed over to the Kingdom of Hungary . For short time in the summer of 1390 It was Held by the Bosnian king Stephen Tvrtko I . In 1409, the Republic of Venice finally became its long-term owner. In the 16th century, the most serious of the uprising occurred between 1510 and 1514 with the Venetians ruthlessly crushing the locals and sending twenty of their leaders to the hangman. citation needed ] The island has become prosperous, the cultivation of rosemary, lavender and olives.

Hvar is important to the history of Croatia as it was one of the centers of the Renaissance literature , with writers such as Petar Hektorović and Hanibal Lucić . In Stari Grad, tourists can see the Petar Hektorović fortress / villa called Tvrdalj Castle , architectonically designed by the poet himself. Venetian artists, including Tintoretto , Veronese , Bellini and others. In 1797 Hvar was annexed to the fall of the Venetian Republic by the Habsburg Monarchy as per theTreaty of Campo Formio . But forces of the French Empire were captured during the Napoleonic wars before being finally taken by British sailors and sailors in 1812.

The Austrians regained control of the island in 1815 with the Treaty of Vienna . The beginning of the 20th century brought a period of relative prosperity. The Italian army occupied the island from 1918 until 1921, when Hvar with the rest of Croatia joined the Kingdom of Yugoslavia . In 1939, an autonomous Croatian Banate was formed that included the island. During WWII, it was under the control of the Independent State of Croatia , but under military occupation of Fascist Italy until 1943. After 1945, it became part of the People’s Republic of Croatia , a constituent republic of Communist Yugoslavia .Ivan Vučetić , the man Who perfected dactyloscopy at the turn of the 20th century, cam from Hvar island. In the 21st-century, Igor Tudor and politician Tonči Tadić .

Economy

Residents of Hvar mostly work in fishing and tourism industries. Hvar has a very mild Mediterranean climate , beautiful beaches and Mediterranean vegetation that make it one of the most attractive tourist centers in Europe. The island is in the sunniest spot in Europe, with over 2715 hours of sunlight in an average year.

Hvar town is the main tourist center. It features a large public square (St Stephen’s Square / Sv. Stjepana trg ) that is open to the sea. During the tourist season, the port is filled with large yachts . All-night discos attract large crowd of young visitors.

Another major economic activity is the cultivation of lavender , used for aromatic oils and soaps. Hvar is often called the “island of lavender”.

Hvar is also one of the most famous winemaking zones in Croatia. Vineyards on the southern side of the island are famous for red wines produced by the Plavac Mali grape. The central plain between Stari Grad and Jelsa is famous for its white wines.

Names of the island

As a Greek colony , the island is known as Pharos “lighthouse”. However, during the 3rd century BC, the Greek poet Apollonius of Rhodes isreferred to as Piteyeia – a name derived from the Greek word pitys , meaning pine tree . As part of the Roman province of Dalmatia , it was known as Pharia and later, Fara .

From the 7th century onwards, the Byzantine Theme of Dalmatia , including Fara , was settled by the Pannonian Avars and Croats . However, the population remains culturally Illyro-Roman and part of the Byzantine Roman world. Under the linguistic influence of the newcomers, the official name became Quarra – because the Slavic languages did not originally have the f / -sound . Later, the name was Slavicised further as Hvar.

Since the late 11th century, the Italian name of the island has been Lesina Gold, in Venetian , Liesena . These names appear in their Proto-Slavic root les- , meaning “wood” or “forest”. Liesena was the official name of Venetian Dalmatia (16th and 17th centuries).

See also

  • List of ancient cities in Illyria

References

  1. Jump up^ Duplančić Leder, Tea; Ujević, Tin; Čala, Mendi (June 2004). “Coastline lengths and areas of the islands in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea determined from the topographic maps of the scale of 1: 25,000” (PDF) . Geoadria . Zadar . 9 (1): 5-32 . Retrieved 2011-01-21 .
  2. ^ Jump up to:b Island Hvar . Retrieved 19 September 2009 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:e Census of Population, Households and Dwellings, 31st March 2001 . Republic of Croatia: Central Bureau of Statistics. 2001 . Retrieved 14 July 2009 .
  4. Jump up^ Novak, Grga (1960) [1924]. Hvar Kroz Stoljeća (Hvar Through the Centuries) . Historijski Arhiv – Hvar (Historical Archive of Hvar) (in Croatian). I(2nd ed.). Narodni Odbor Opcine Hvar (National Council of Hvar Municipality).
  5. ^ Jump up to:c Hvar . Hrvatski Leksikon (in Croatian). II . Zagreb: Naklada Leksikon doo 1997. p. 490. ISBN  9789539672803 .
  6. Jump up^ Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M .; The Boda, Sharon (1996) [1995]. Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda, eds. International Dictionary of Historical Places (Vol 3: Southern Europe) (2nd ed.). Taylor and Francis. pp. 331-334. ISBN  9781884964022 . Lay summary .
  7. Jump up^ Tourist Board of City of Hvar . Retrieved 14 July 2009 .
  8. Jump up^ Top Islands . Conde Nast Traveler: Readers’ Choice Awards . Retrieved 19 September 2009 .
  9. Jump up^ S.Forbaher. Prehistoric Populations of the Island of Hvar . Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia. Archived from the original on 2014-06-04.
  10. Jump up^ Janislav Kapelj & Sanja Kapelj. The hydrogeological function of the karst poljes on the Adriatic Sea (PDF) . Institute of Geology, Department for Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology, Zagreb, Croatia.
  11. Jump up^ Climate Summary for Hvar, Croatia
  12. Jump up^ “Hvar Climate Normals” (PDF) . Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service . Retrieved 2 December 2015 .
  13. Jump up^ “Mjesečne vrijednosti za Hvar u razdoblju1858-2014” (in Croatian). Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service . Retrieved 3 December2015 .
  14. Jump up^ Wilkes, JJ The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 114, “… in the early history of the colony settled in 385 BC on the island Pharos (Hvar) from the Aegean island Paros In traditional fashion they accept the guidance of an oracle, … “

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