Hiiumaa

Hiiumaa ( Estonian pronunciation: [hiːumɑː] ; German & Swedish : Dago ; Danish : Dago ; Finnish : Hiidenmaa ) is the second Largest island (989 km²) in Estonia . It is in the Baltic Sea , north of the island of Saaremaa , part of the West Estonian archipelago . Its largest town is Kärdla . Along with several smaller neighboring islands, the island makes up Hiiu County ; one of the 15 counties of Estonia.

The Hiiu Shoal (Nekmangrund) is located on Hiiumaa Island.

Names

Hiiumaa is the main island of Hiiu County , called Hiiumaa or Hiiu maakond in Estonian . The Swedish and German name of the island is Dagö (“Day” island), Dagø in Danish – a layerof its old Finnish name Päivänsalo (“Day” island); compare Ösel (Yosalo – night island) for Saaremaa . In modern Finnish , it is called Hiidenmaa , literally Hiisi ‘s Land . In Old Gutnish , it was Dagaiþ(day isthmus), from which the local North Germanic name ” Daë ” is derived.

History

Archaeological evidence of the first human settlement in Hiiumaa dates to the 4th century BC. The first documented record of the island of Dageida was made by contemporary chroniclers in 1228, when Hiiumaa and the rest of Estonia were conquered by Germanic crusaders . In 1254, Hiiumaa was divided between the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek and the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order , acting on behalf of the Hanseatic League .

The island was part of Swedish Estonia from 1563 to 1721, after which it passed to the Russian Empire as part of the Governorate of Estonia , though Dagö’s Swedish population kept most of their privileges. Most of the island’s Swedish-speaking population was emigrated or ” Estonianised” during the period of Imperial Russian rule. Estonian Swedes are also known as “aibofolke” (meaning island people in Swedish) or “rannarootslased” (meaning coastal Swedes in Estonian).

World War I

Hiiumaa was occupied during World War I by the Imperial German Army , in Operation Albion . After the war, it became a part of independent Estonia.

World War II

The waters near Hiiumaa were active during World War II: [2]

  • 23 June 1941 – The Soviet Destroyer Gnevny was sunk by a German seamine .
  • 25 June- the Soviet minesweeper T-208 Shkiv was destroyed by a German seamine.
  • 27 June- Two German motor torpedo boats, S43 and S106 , Were destroyed by Soviet seamines.
  • July-the Soviet submarine M-81 was destroyed by a German seamine north of Hiiumaa.
  • 7 July- the Soviet minesweeper T-216 was sunk.
  • July-the Soviet minesweeper T-201 Zarjad was sunk.
  • 10 August- the German submarine U-144 was sunk by a torpedo from the Soviet submarine SC-307 .

Hiiumaa Island was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940, by Nazi Germany in 1941, and by the Soviets again in 1944. It was part of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic until the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. During the Soviet era, Hiiumaa was declared a restricted zone, closed to foreigners and to most mainland Estonians. Since 1991, the island has been a part of independent Estonia.

Geography

Hiiumaa is an island in Estonia located north of Saaremaa in the Baltic Sea . It is the northernmost island in the Muhu archipelago, which includes Saaremaa and Muhu . The Soela Strait separates Hiumaa from Saaremaa to its south, and the Muhu Strait separates it from the mainland of Estonia . [3]

Transport

Road transport from Estonian mainland to Hiiuma involves a 90-minute (28 km) ferry crossing from Rohuküla to Heltermaa , which is 25 km by road from Kärdla . There are about 10 ferry departures a day operated by TS Laevad . [4] In the summer weekends, getting around on the ferry usually requires advance booking. There are about 20 days in Tallinn (the capital of Estonia) and Kärdla. [5] In the winter, the island can be reached, permitting conditions, via a 26.5 km ice road (the longest in Europe ) across the frozen Baltic Sea. [6] [7]

Hiiumaa is served by Kärdla Airport , with regular flights to Tallinn. Bicycle rental is also available in Kärdla and there is a road bike built from Kärdla towards Kõrgessaare .

Climate

[ hide ]Climate data for Hiiumaa (Ristna, located in western part of the island)
month Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Record high ° C (° F) 8.4
(47.1)
7.1
(44.8)
13.5
(56.3)
21.5
(70.7)
27.8
(82)
28.0
(82.4)
31.5
(88.7)
31.0
(87.8)
24.6
(76.3)
17.9
(64.2)
11.5
(52.7)
9.6
(49.3)
31.5
(88.7)
Average high ° C (° F) 0.9
(33.6)
-0.2
(31.6)
2.0
(35.6)
6.8
(44.2)
12.3
(54.1)
16.4
(61.5)
20.2
(68.4)
20.0
(68)
15.1
(59.2)
10.2
(50.4)
5.3
(41.5)
2.5
(36.5)
9.3
(48.7)
Daily mean ° C (° F) -0.9
(30.4)
-2.1
(28.2)
-0.1
(31.8)
3.7
(38.7)
8.7
(47.7)
13.1
(55.6)
17.0
(62.6)
16.8
(62.2)
12.7
(54.9)
8.3
(46.9)
3.6
(38.5)
0.8
(33.4)
6.8
(44.2)
Average low ° C (° F) -3
(27)
-4.4
(24.1)
-2.4
(27.7)
0.9
(33.6)
5.4
(41.7)
10.1
(50.2)
14.1
(57.4)
13.8
(56.8)
9.9
(49.8)
6.0
(42.8)
1.6
(34.9)
-1.3
(29.7)
4.2
(39.6)
Record low ° C (° F) -28.4
(-19.1)
-24.9
(-12.8)
-19.9
(-3.8)
-9.1
(15.6)
-3
(27)
0.6
(33.1)
5.9
(42.6)
4.6
(40.3)
-2.3
(27.9)
-5.6
(21.9)
-15.1
(4.8)
-17.3
(0.9)
-28.4
(-19.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 55
(2.17)
39
(1.54)
37
(1.46)
31
(1.22)
33
(1.3)
47
(1.85)
55
(2.17)
69
(2.72)
62
(2.44)
72
(2.83)
79
(3.11)
60
(2.36)
639
(25.16)
Average relative humidity (%) 85 85 84 81 79 81 81 81 81 82 84 84 82
Mean monthly sunshine hours 28.2 59.3 119.4 190.9 293.1 297.6 303.2 251.0 166.2 96.1 36.3 19.0 1864.4
Source: Estonian Weather Service (sun, 1971-2000) [8] [9] [10] [11]

Cooking

Smoke cooked plaice is a traditional delicacy summer time.

Notable

  • Aleksander Maaker (1890-1968), the last traditional player of the torupill (Estonian bagpipe)
  • Juhan Maaker (1845-1930), Estonian folk musician
  • Lydia Mei (1896-1965), Estonian artist
  • Natalie Mei (1900-1975), Estonian artist
  • Erkki-Sven Tüür (b 1959), Estonian composer of contemporary classical music.
  • Roman von Ungern-Sternberg (1885-1921), White Military Commander in the Russian Civil War .

See also

  • List of islands of Estonia
  • List of islands in the Baltic Sea
  • Estonian Swedes

References

  1. Jump up^ Comparison of self-government units, Statistical Council’s Regional Portal (checked November 7th, 2012)
  2. Jump up^ Jorma Mäntykoski, Kalevi Keskinen (1991). The Finnish Navy At War in 1939-1945 (Suomen Laivasto Sodassa 1939-1945) . Espoo: Tietoteos Ky. P. 154. ISBN 951-8919-05-4 .
  3. Jump up^ “Hiiumaa”. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/place/Hiiumaa. Accessed 8 March 2017.
  4. Jump up^ Praamid.ee. Ferry schedules and booking.
  5. Jump up^ “Bus schedules and booking” . BussiReisid. Archived from the original on 13 September 2008.
  6. Jump up^ Estonia claims Europe’s longest ice highway. The Independent . 19 February 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
  7. Jump up^ “BBC: No seatbelts allowed on Europe’s longest ice road” . Retrieved 18 February 2014 .
  8. Jump up^ “Climate normals-Temperature” . Estonian Weather Service . Retrieved 28 September 2016 .
  9. Jump up^ “Climate normals-Precipitation” . Estonian Weather Service . Retrieved 28 September 2016 .
  10. Jump up^ “Climate normals-Humidity” . Estonian Weather Service . Retrieved 28 September 2016 .
  11. Jump up^ “Kliimanormid-Päikesepaiste kestus” (in Estonian). Estonian Weather Service. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012 . Retrieved 28 September 2016 .

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