guernsey

Guernsey ( / ɡ ɜːr n z i / ) is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy . It lies roughly north of St Malo and the west of the Cotentin Peninsula . With several smaller local islands, it forms a jurisdiction within the Bailiwick of Guernsey , a Crown dependency . The jurisdiction is made up of ten parishes on the island of Guernsey, three other inhabited islands ( Herm , Jethou and Lihou), and many small islets and rocks. The jurisdiction is not part of the United Kingdom . [4]

The Entire jurisdiction lies dans le Common Travel Area of the British Isles and is not a member of the European Union , aim: has a special relationship with it, being white Treated as share of the European Community with access to the single market for the Purposes of free trade in goods. Taken together with the separate jurisdictions of Alderney and Sark it forms the Bailiwick of Guernsey. The two Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey together form the geographical grouping known as the Channel Islands .

Name

The name “Guernsey”, which is neighbor of ” Jersey “, is of Old Norse origin. The second element of each word, ” -ey “, is the Old Norse for “island”, [5] while the original root, “guern (s)”, is of uncertain origin and meaning, possibly deriving from a personal name such as Grani or Warinn, or from gron , meaning pine tree. [6]

History

Main article: History of Guernsey

Early history

See also: Duchy of Normandy

Around 6000 BC, rising seas created the English Channel and separated the Norman promontories that became the bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey from continental Europe . [7]Neolithic farmers then settled on its coast and built the dolmens and menhirs found in the islands today.

During their migration to Brittany , Britons occupied the Lenur Islands ( the former name of the Channel Islands [8] ) including Sarnia or Lisia (Guernsey) and Angia (Jersey). Traveling from the Kingdom of Gwent , St. Sampson , later the abbot of Dol in Brittany, is credited with the introduction of Christianity to Guernsey. [9]

In 933 AD, the Cotentin Peninsula Including Avranchin qui included the islands, Were Placed by the French King Ranulf under the control of William I . The island of Guernsey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy. [9] In 1204, when King John lost the main portion of the Duchy to Philip II of France , the islands remained part of the kingdom of England. [10] The islands were then recognised by the Treaty of Paris as part of Henry III’s territories. [4]

During the Middle Ages , the island was a haven for pirates that would use the “lamping technique” to ground up its waters. This Intensified During the Hundred Years War , When, starting in 1339 , the island Was occupied by the Capetians On Several Occasions. [9] The Guernsey Militia was first mentioned as operational in 1331 and would help defend the island for a further 600 years. [11]

In 1372, the island was invaded by Aragonese mercenaries under the command of Owain Lawgoch (remembered as Yvon of Wales ), who was in the pay of the French king. Owain and his dark-haired mercenaries were later absorbed into Guernsey legend as invading fairies from across the sea. [12]

Early modern history

In the mid-16th century, the island was influenced by Calvinist reformers from Normandy. During the Marian persecutions , three women, the Guernsey Martyrs , were burned at the stake for their Protestant beliefs. [13]

During the English Civil War , Guernsey sided with the Parliamentarians . The allegiance was not total, however; There were a few Royalist uprisings in the southwest of the island, while Castle Cornet was occupied by the Governor, Sir Peter Osborne , and Royalist troops. In December 1651, with full honors of war, Castle Cornet surrendered – the last Royalist outpost anywhere in the British Isles to surrender. [14] [15]

Wars against France and Spain during the 17th and 18th centuries gave Guernsey shipowners and sea captains the opportunity to exploit the island of Europe by applying for letters of trademark and turning their merchantmen into privateers .

By the beginning of the 18th century, Guernsey’s residents were starting to settle in North America. [16] The threat of invasion by Napoleon prompted many defensive structures to be built at the end of that century. [17] The 19th century saw a rise in the prosperity of the island, due to its success in the global maritime trade , and the rise of the stone industry.

20th century

See also: German occupation of the Channel Islands

During the First World War , about 3,000 island men served in the British Expeditionary Force . Of these, about 1,000 served in the Royal Guernsey Light Infantry regiment formed from the Royal Guernsey Militia in 1916. [18]

For most of the Second World War , the Channel Islands were occupied by German troops . Before the occupation, 80% of Guernsey had been evacuated to England to live with relatives or strangers during the war. Some children were never reunited with their families. [19] The occupying German forcesdeported over 1,000 Guernsey residents to camps in southern Germany, notably to the Lager Lindele (Lindele Camp) near Biberach an der Riß and to Laufen. Guernsey was very heavily fortified during World War II, out of all proportion to the island’s strategic value. Life for the civilians on the island was very difficult, especially after June 1944 when the island was under siege. German defences remain a lasting reminder of those times.

During the late 1940s the island was damaged during the occupation. The tomato industry started up again and thrived until the 1970s when it hit a sharp, terminal decline. Tourism has remained important. Finance businesses grew in the 1970s and expanded in the next two decades and are important employers.

21st century

The effect on Guernsey of the UK leaving the European Union is uncertain. The UK has confirmed that the Crown will depend on the Brexit negotiations .

Geography

Situated around 49 ° 35’N 2 ° 20’W , Guernsey, Herm and some other smaller islands have a total area of ​​71 square kilometers (27 sq mi) and coastlines of about 46 kilometers (29 mi). Elevation varies from sea level to 110 m (360 ft) at Hautnez on Guernsey.

There are many smaller islands, islets, rocks and reefs in Guernsey waters. Combined with a tidal range of 10 meters (33 feet) and fast currents of up to 12 knots , this makes sailing in local waters dangerous. The very large tidal variation provides an environmentally rich inter-tidal zone around the islands, and some sites have received Ramsar Convention designation. [20]

Climate

Guernsey’s climate is temperate with mild winters and warm, sunny summers. It is classified as an oceanic climate , with a dry-summer trend, marginally wetter than Mediterraneansummers. The warmest months are usually around 20 ° C (68 ° F) with some days remaining above 75 ° F (24 ° C). On average, the temperature is 6 ° C (42.8 ° F). Average weekly mean air temperature reaches 16 ° C (60.8 ° F) in August. Snow rarely falls, but is unlikely to fall. Arctic winds can sometimes make it feel like it. The rainiest months are December (average 112 mm (4.4 in)), November (average 104 mm (4.09 in)) and January (average 92 mm (3.62 in)). July is, on average, the sunniest month with 250 hours recorded sunshine; December the least with 58 hours recorded sunshine. [21] 50% of the days are overcast.

A number of records were set in 2014. It was the highest annual average temperature of 12.4 ° C (54.3 ° F). This is 0.3 ° C (0.54 ° F) higher than any other year, due to an almost complete absence of cold snaps during the winter months. Three very wet months, which meant that the winter was the record. Halloween with the temperature at 18.3 ° C (64.9 ° F). [22]

[ hide ]Climate data for Guernsey (1981-2010 normals)
month Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Record high ° C (° F) 15.0
(59)
14.6
(58.3)
18.6
(65.5)
24.3
(75.7)
26.0
(78.8)
31.0
(87.8)
32.6
(90.7)
34.3
(93.7)
27.0
(80.6)
23.6
(74.5)
18.0
(64.4)
17.3
(63.1)
34.3
(93.7)
Average high ° C (° F) 8.7
(47.7)
8.4
(47.1)
10.0
(50)
11.8
(53.2)
14.9
(58.8)
17.5
(63.5)
19.5
(67.1)
19.8
(67.6)
18.0
(64.4)
15.1
(59.2)
11.8
(53.2)
9.5
(49.1)
13.8
(56.8)
Daily mean ° C (° F) 6.9
(44.4)
6.5
(43.7)
7.8
(46)
9.2
(48.6)
12.1
(53.8)
14.5
(58.1)
16.6
(61.9)
17.0
(62.6)
15.5
(59.9)
13.0
(55.4)
10.0
(50)
7.8
(46)
11.4
(52.5)
Average low ° C (° F) 5.0
(41)
4.6
(40.3)
5.6
(42.1)
6.6
(43.9)
9.2
(48.6)
11.5
(52.7)
13.6
(56.5)
14.1
(57.4)
12.9
(55.2)
10.8
(51.4)
8.1
(46.6)
6.0
(42.8)
9.0
(48.2)
Record low ° C (° F) -7.4
(18.7)
-7.3
(18.9)
-5.5
(22.1)
-1.0
(30.2)
0.0
(32)
5.8
(42.4)
8.8
(47.8)
8.9
(48)
7.0
(44.6)
2.3
(36.1)
-0.8
(30.6)
-3.3
(26.1)
-7.4
(18.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 92.5
(3.642)
70.2
(2.764)
67.0
(2,638)
53.1
(2.091)
50.9
(2.004)
45.5
(1.791)
42.1
(1,657)
47.7
(1.878)
57.5
(2.264)
95.0
(3.74)
104.3
(4.106)
112.9
(4.445)
838.7
(33.02)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 19.3 15.7 15.9 13.2 11.9 10.4 11.0 10.6 12.4 17.3 18.8 18.6 175.0
Average snowy days 2.8 4.0 1.3 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.7 11.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61.0 85.6 127.6 194.7 234.5 246.6 250.7 230.1 180.1 117.1 77.8 58.2 1,864
Source: Guernsey Met Office 2014 Weather Report [22]

Geology

Guernsey has a geological history stretching further back to the past than most of Europe. It forms part of the geological province of France known as the Armorican Massif . [24] There is a broad geological division between the north and south of the Island. The Northern Metamorphic Complex is higher than the geologically younger, lower lying Northern Igneous Complex. Guernsey has experienced a complex geological evolution (especially the rocks of the southern complex) with multiple phases of intrusion and recognizable deformation .

Guernsey is composed of nine main rock types, two of which being granites and the rest gneiss . [25]

Politics

Main article: Politics of Guernsey

Guernsey is a parliamentary representative and a British Crown dependency . The Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey is the “representative of the Crown in right of the Republic of the Bailiwick of Guernsey”. [26] The official residence of the Lieutenant Governor is Government House. Since 2016 the incumbent has been Vice Admiral Sir Ian Corder KBE, BC, replacing his predecessor, Marshal Peter Walker , who had died in post. [27]The post was created in 1835 as a result of the abolition of the office of the Governor. Since that point, the Lieutenant Governor has always resided locally. [28]

States of Guernsey

Main article: States of Guernsey

The deliberative assembly of the States of Guernsey ( States of Guernsey ) s’intitule the States of Deliberation ( States of Deliberation ) and Consists of 38 People’s Deputies, Elected from multi- or single-member districts every four years. There are also two representatives of Alderney , a semi-autonomous dependency of the Bailiwick, but Sark sends no representative since it has its own legislature. The Bailiff or Deputy Bailiff presides in the assembly. There are also two non-voting members: HM Attorney (Analyst to the role of Attorney General ) and HM Comptroller (Analyst to Solicitor General)), both appointed by the Crown and collectively known as the Law Officers of the Crown.

bill is the equivalent of a UK bill or a bill , and a law is the equivalent of a UK act of parliament or a French law . A draft law passed by the United States may not be valid unless otherwise approved by Her Majesty in Council and promulgated by means of an order in council . [29] Laws are given to the Royal Sanction at regular meetings of the Privy Council in London, after which they are returned to the islands for formal registration at the Royal Court . The States aussi make delegated legislation Known As Ordinances ( Orders ) and Orders ( orders ) do not require the quiRoyal Assent . Beginning orders are usually in the form of ordinances.

The Policy and Resources Committee is responsible for Guernsey’s constitutional and external affairs, developing strategic and corporate policy and coordinating states business. It also examines proposals and Reports placed before Guernsey ‘s Parliament (The States of Deliberation) by Departments and Non States Bodies. The President of the Committee is the de facto head of government of Guernsey. [30]

Legal system

Main article: Law of Guernsey

Guernsey’s legal system originates in Norman Customary Law, overlaid with principles taken from English common law and equity as well as from statute law Enacted by the competent legislature (s) – usually, but not always, the States of Guernsey. Guernsey has completely completed some internal affairs and some external matters. However, the Crown – that is to say, the UK Government – retains an il-defined reserved power to intervene in the domestic affairs of any of the Crown Dependencies within the British Islands “in the interests of good government”. [31] The UK Parliament is also a source of Guernsey law for those matters which are reserved to the UK, namely defense and foreign affairs.

The head of the judiciary in Guernsey is the Bailiff, who, as Chief Justice, is also the head of the States of Guernsey and has certain civic, ceremonial and executive functions. The Bailiff’s functions may be exercised by the Deputy Bailiff. The posts of Bailiff and Deputy Bailiff are Crown appointments. Sixteen Jurats, who need no specific legal training, are elected by the States of Election from among Islanders. They act as a jury, the judges in civil and criminal cases and the sentence in criminal cases. First mentioned in 1179, there is a list of Jurats who have served since 1299. [32]

The oldest Courts of Guernsey can be traced back to the 9th century. The principal court is the Royal Court and the civil and criminal jurisdiction. Additional courts, such as the Magistrate’s Court, which deals with minor criminal matters, and the Court of Appeal, which hears appeals from the Royal Court, have been added to the Island’s legal system over the years.

External relations

Main article: External relations of Guernsey

Several European countries have a consular presence within the jurisdiction. The French Consulate is based at Victor Hugo’s residence at Hauteville House . [33]

While the jurisdiction of Guernsey has been completely unchanged, the topic of complete independence from the British Crown has been widely and frequently discussed with Guernsey of Dominion to the Bailiffs of Guernsey and Jersey uniting and forming an independent Federal state within the Commonwealth [9]

Parishes

Guernsey has ten parishes , which act as civil administration districts, with limited powers. Each parish is administered by a Douzaine, usually made up of twelve members, known as Douzeniers. Douzeniers are elected for a six-year term, two Douzeniers being elected by parishioners at a parish meeting in November each year. The senior Douzenier is known as the Dean. Two Elected Constables ( Constables ) carry out the decisions of the Dozen, serving for three years and one entre. The longest serving Constable is known as the Senior Constable and his or her colleague as Junior Constable. The Douzaines levy an occupiers [34]

Guernsey’s Church of England parishes fall under the See of Canterbury, having split from the Bishopric of Winchester in 2014. [35] The biggest parish is Castel, while the most populated is St Peter Port.

Economy

Financial services, such as banking, fund management , and insurance, account for about 37% of GDP. [36] Tourism, manufacturing, and horticulture, especially tomatoes and cut flowers, especially freesias , have been declining. Light tax and death duties make Guernsey a popular offshore financecenter for private equity funds .

Guernsey does not have a Central Bank and it issues its own sterling coinage and banknotes . UK coinage and (English, Scottish and Northern Irish-faced) banknotes also circulate freely and interchangeably. [37] Total investment funds island, used to fund pensions and future island costs, amount to £ 2.7billion as at June 2016. [38] The island Issued a 30-year leap in December 2015 for £ 330m, ict first jump in 80 years. [39] The island has been given a credit rating of AA- / A-1 + with a stable outlook from Standard & Poor’s . [40]

Guernsey has the official ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code GG and the official ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 code GGY ; market data vendors, such as Reuters , will report products related to Guernsey using the alpha-3 code.

In March 2016 there were over 32,291 people employed in Guernsey with 4,864 being self-employed. 2,453 employing businesses. 19.6% work in the financial industry and median earnings were £ 31,215. [41]

Infrastructure

Public services, such as water, wastewater, the two main harbors and the airport are still owned and controlled by the States of Guernsey. The electricity and postal services have been marketed by the States and are now operated by the States of Guernsey. Gas is supplied by an independent private company.

Guernsey Telecoms , which provided telecommunications, was sold by the States to Cable & Wireless plc , rebranded as Sure and was sold to Batelco in April 2013. Newtel was the first alternative telecommunications company on the island providing a range of residential and business telecommunication services as well as high specification data centers. Newtel was acquired by Wave Telecom in 2010 which was acquired by JT, owned by Jersey Telecom , providing broadband and mobile services. Airtel-Vodafone also provide a mobile network.

.

Both the Guernsey Post postal boxes (since 1969) and the telephone boxes (since 2002) are painted blue, but they are identical to their British counterparts, the red pillar box and the red box . In 2009 the phone boxes at the bus station were painted yellow just like they used to be when Guernsey Telecoms was state-owned. The oldest pillar box still in use in the British Isles can be found in Union Street, Port St. Peter and dates back to 1853. [42]

Transport

See also: Transport in Guernsey

Ports and harbors exist at St Peter Port and St Sampson . There is a single paved airport, Guernsey Airport . The States of Guernsey wholly owns their own airline, Alderney . The decision to buy the airline was made to protect the air.

The Guernsey Railway , effectively an electric tramway , was working on 20 February 1892 and was abandoned on 9 June 1934. It was used by the Guernsey Steam Tramway, which had operated from 6 June 1879 with six locomotives . Alderney is now the only Channel Island with a working railway . [43]

Guernsey has a public bus service, operated by CT on the Guernsey Environment and Infrastructure Department. [44]

Business

As of 2014, Guernsey is the largest industry in Guernsey, generating around 40% of Guernsey’s GDP and directly employing around 21% of its workforce. [45] Banks began setting up operations in the early 1960s onwards in order to avoid high onshore taxes and restrictive regulation. [46] The industry regulator is the Guernsey Financial Services Commission , which was established in 1987. [47]

Prior to the growth of the industry, the island’s main industries were quarrying and horticulture. The latter particularly declines as a result of the 1970s and the introduction of cheap North Sea gas that benefited Dutch growers. [46]Guernsey is home to Specsavers Optical Group and Healthspan aussi Has Its headquarters in Guernsey. [48]

Tourism

Guernsey has been a tourist destination since at least the Victorian days, with the first tourist guide published in 1834. In the 19th Century, two rail companies ( London and South Western Railway and Great Western Railway [49] ) ran competing boats from the UK mainland to St. Peter Port, with a race to the only convenient berth. This was halted with the sinking of the SS Stella in 1899. [50]

Guermandie enters Britain in Bloom with St. Martin Parish winning the small town category twice in 2006 and 2011, [51] Saint Peter Port winning the large coastal category in 2014 and St Peter’s winning the small coastal prize in 2015. [52] Herm has won Britain in Bloom categories several times: [53] in 2002, 2008, and 2012, Herm won the Britain in the Bloom Gold Award. [54]

The fortified castle , including Castle Cornet , Fort Gray . Guernsey loophole towers and a large collection of German fortifications with a number of museums.

The use of the roadstead in front of St Peter Port is one of every year. [55]

Taxation

Guernsey, Alderney and Sark each raise their own taxation, [56] although in 1949 Alderney (but not Sark) transfers its fiscal rights to Guernsey.

Personal tax liability is different in the form of an individual resident in the island or not. Individuals resident in the Jurisdiction of Guernsey (qui does not include Sark) pay income tax at the rate of 20% on Their worldwide income, whereas non-residents are liable only one income Arising from gold ownership activity Within Guernsey. Unlike in the UK, the income tax year in Guernsey aligns with the calendar year. [57]

Since 2008, Guernsey has used three levels of corporation tax , depending on the source of income.

  • A 0% corporation tax rate on most companies.
  • A 10% rate (income from banking business, with effect from 1 January 2013, extended to domestic insurance business, fiduciary business, insurance intermediary business and insurance manager business).
  • A 20% rate (income from trading activities regulated by the Office of the General Director of Utility Regulation, and income from the ownership of lands and buildings). [58]

Guernsey levies no capital gains , inheritance , capital transfer, added value (VAT / VAT) or general withholding taxes. [59] Personal gains made by regular trading in, for example, are capital gains and are taxed as income. During late 2011, the UK decided to end VAT relief on Channel Islands goods.

As with other offshore centers , Guernsey is coming under pressure from bigger nations to change its way of doing business. The compliant OECD (and EU) is changing the way it works . Tax revenues are 22.4% of GDP. [60]From 1 January 2008 it has operated to a tax-free company, where they have paid taxes, and they are taxable at 10%, taxed at 10%, regulated utilities and income from the sale of land or building (taxed at 20%). As a result, annual accounts showed an overall fiscal deficit of £ 24m in 2011, which it aims to eliminate by economic growth and government expenditure restraint. The deficit is currently being supported by drawing funds from reserves built up during periods of surplus.

Society

Demographics

The population is 62,948 (July 2015 est.). [61] The median age is 40 years and for females is 42 years. The population growth rate is 0.775% with 9.62 births / 1,000 population, 8 deaths / 1,000 population, and annual net migration of 6.07 / 1,000 population. The life expectancy is 80.1 years for males and 84.5 years for females. The Bailiwick ranked 10th in the world in 2015 with an average life expectancy of 82.47 years. [62] 1.54 children are born per woman. Ethnic groups consist of British and French descent.

Border control

The whole jurisdiction of Guernsey is part of the Common Travel Area . [63]

For the purposes of this law, it is the law of the United Kingdom and the law of the United States of America, which applies (technically the Immigration Act 1971, [64] extended to Guernsey by Order-in-Council). Guernsey may not apply different immigration controls to the UK. EEA nationals have free movement rights to enter, and Remain in, the territory of the whole of the British Islands (qui includes the jurisdiction of Guernsey), ALTHOUGH there are de facto restrictions on occupation of housing by Those Who do not ‘belong’ to Guernsey (and that restriction includes people from Sark, until they have lived there for a number of years).

Housing restrictions

Guernsey undertakes a population management mechanism using restrictions on who can work in the world. The housing market is split between local market properties and a set of open market properties. [65] Anyone may live in an open market property, but may be subject to a qualifying period, or by being born in Guernsey of living with someone who does qualify ( family living ). Consequently, open marketproperties are much more expensive both to buy and to rent. Housing licenses are for fixed periods, often only for a limited period of time and only for a limited period of time. The author will specify the type of accommodation and be specific to the person lives in, [66] and is often subject to a police record check. These restrictions apply equally regardless of whether the property is owned or used, and only applies to the occupation of the property. Thus expires may continue to own a Guernsey property, but will not be able to live in it. There are no restrictions on who can own a property.

There are a number of routes to qualifying as “local” for housing purposes. Generally, it is sufficient to be at least one Guernsey parent and to live in the island for ten years in a twenty-year period. In a similar way to a partner (married or otherwise) of a local can acquire local status. Multiple problems, where they have young children or a local partner, in these situations and circumstances. Once “local” status has been achieved and remains in place for life. Guernsey does not invalidate “local” housing status. [67]

Although Guernsey’s residents are full British citizens , [68] an endorsement restricting the right of establishment in other European Union states is located in the passport of British citizens connected to the Islands Channel Islands and Isle of Man . If classified with “Islander Status”, the British passport will be endorsed as follows: “The holder is not entitled to benefit from the provisions of this Act. Those who have a parent or grandparent born in the United Kingdom itself (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), or who have lived in the United Kingdom for 5 years, are not subject to this restriction. [69]

Education

The Education Department is going through a program of re-building its secondary schools. The Department has completed the building of the Special Needs School, the Sixth Form Center at the Grammar School and the first phase of the New College of Further Education – a performing arts center. The construction of St. Sampsons was completed in the summer of 2008 and received its first pupils in September 2008.

In 2008, the school was raised in the year 16, in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. This means will be between 15 and 10 months and 16 months before being able to leave. 14, if they are desired: a letter was required to be sent to the Education department to confirm this. However, this option has been undertaken by a relatively few people, the majority of the time, and their continued employment.

Post- GCSE pupils-have a choice of Transferring to the state run Grammar School & Sixth Form Center , or to the independent colleges for academic AS / A Levels / International Baccalureate Diploma Program. They also have the option to study at Guernsey College of Further Education .

There are no universities in the island. Students who are waiting for university in the United Kingdom receive support for both maintenance and tuition fees. In 2007, the United States Department of Education introduced the approval of the United States to introduce student contributions to the costs of higher education, in the form of student loans, as in the UK. HOWEVER, time immediately partner after the general election of 2008, the States Assembly Voted in favor of a Requestwhich proposed abolishing the student loans scheme on the grounds that it was necessary to discourage students from going to, and returning to the island from, university. In 2012, the Education Department reported to the United States that it had no need to re-examine the basis of higher education funding at the present time.

Culture

English is the language in general by the majority of the population, while Guernsey , the Norman language of the island, is spoken fluently by only about 2% of the population (according to 2001 census). However, 14% of the population claim some understanding of the language. Until the beginning of the 20th century, they were written in French and English, and all of them were written in French until 1971. Family and place names reflect this linguistic heritage. George Métivier, a poet, wrote in Guernesiais. The loss of the island’s language and the Anglicization of its culture, which began in the 19th century and proceeded inexorably for a century, accelerated sharply when the majority of the island’s children were evacuated to the UK for five years during the occupation of 1940 -45.

Victor Hugo wrote some of his best-known works while in exile in Guernsey, including Les Misérables . His home in St. Peter Port , Hauteville House, is now a museum by the city of Paris . In 1866 he published a novel set on Guernsey, Sea Workers ( Toilers of the Sea ), qui he dedicated to the island.

The greatest novel by Guernsey is The Book of Ebenezer Page by GB Edwards . In addition to being critically acclaimed work of literature, it contains a wealth of insights into Guernsey life during the 20th century. [70] In September 2008, a blue plate was affixed to the house on the Braye Road where Edwards was raised. [71]

Henry Watson Fowler moved to Guernsey in 1903. He and his brother Francis George Fowler composed The King’s English , the Concise Oxford Dictionary and much of Modern English Usage on the island.

The Guernsey is an internationally famous icon of the island. As a result, [72] Guernsey cattle are being raised for their distinctively flavored and rich yellowy-fatted beef. Butter made from the milk of Guernsey also has a distinctive yellow color. Although since the 1960s the number of individual islands has increased significantly, Guernsey steers can still be seen on the common Ancresse.

Guernsey also hosts a breed of goat known as the Golden Guernsey , distinguished by its golden-colored coat. At the end of the Second World War, the Golden Guernsey had almost been rendered extinct by the interbreeding on the island. The survival of this breed is largely credited to the work of a single woman, Miriam Milbourne, who successfully hides her Germans during the occupation. [73] ALTHOUGH no follow regarded to be Critically Endangered , the breed remains on the watchlist of the Rare Breeds Survival Trust . [74] The traditional explanation for donkeyin French and Guernésiais) is the steepness of St. Peter Port streets that necessitated beasts of burden for transport (in contrast to the flat land of the rival capital of St. Helier in Jersey), although it is also used in reference to Guernsey ‘ stubbornness. In turn, Guernseymen traditionally refer to Jerseymen as toads (” toads “).

The so-called Guernsey Lily , Nerine sarniensis , is also used as a symbol of the island, but this species was introduced to the island of South Africa.

A local delicacy is the ormer ( Haliotis tuberculata ), a variety of abalone harvested under strict laws of beaches at low tides . [75] Of the many traditional Guernsey recipes, the most renowned is a stew called Guernsey Bean Jar . It is a centuries-old stew that is still popular with islanders, particularly at the annual ‘ Viaer Marchi ‘ festival, where it served as one of the main events. Chief ingredients include bean and butter beans, pork and shin beef. Guernsey Strawberry is a special bread made with grapes, sultanas and mixed peel.

Sport

Main article: Sport in Guernsey

Guernsey participates in the biennial Island Games , which hosted in 1987 and 2003 at Footes Lane . [76] Guernsey has also participated as a country in its own right in Commonwealth Games since 1970 . Its first medals came in 1982 with its first gold in 1990 . [77]

In those sporting events where Guernsey does not have international representation, but the British Home Nations are competing separately, highly skilled in the home nations. There are, however, restrictions on subsequent transfers to other countries. The football player Matt Le Tissier , for example, could play for the Scottish or Welsh football teams, but opted for play for England instead. Football in Guernsey is run by the Guernsey Football Association . The top tier of Guernsey football is the FNB Priaulx Leaguewhere there are seven teams (Belgrave Wanderers, Northerners, Sylvans, St Martin’s, Rovers, Rangers and Vale Recreation). The second tier is the Jackson League . In the 2011-12 season, Guernsey FC was formed and entered into the Combined Counties League Division 1, becoming the first Channel Island club ever to compete in the English leagues. Guernsey became champions comfortably on 24 March 2012, [78] they won the Combined Counties Premier Challenge Cup on May 4, 2012. [79] Their second season saw them again in the front of 1.754 ‘Green Lions’ fans, this time to One South Division of the Isthmian League, [80][81] despite their noticeable progress towards the semi-finals of the FA cup competition vase. [82] They play in level 8 of the English football pyramid . The Corbet Football Field , donated by Jurat Wilfred Corbet OBE in 1932, has fostered the sport greatly over the years. Recently, the island upgraded to a better, better-quality stadium, in Footes Lane. [83]

Guernsey Has the second oldest tennis club in the world, at Kings [84] (founded in 1857 [85] ), with short built in 1875. The island HAS Produced a world class tennis player in Heather Watson as well as professional squash players in Martine Moignan , Lisa Opie and Chris Simpson . [84]

Guernsey was declared an affiliate by the International Cricket Council (ICC) in 2005 and an associate member in 2008. [86] The Guernsey cricket team plays in the World Cricket League and European Cricket Championship as well as the Sussex Cricket League .

Guernsey also has a strong affiliation with motor sports . In season, races take place on the sands on Vazon beach as a quarter-mile “sprint” along the vazon coast road. More sand racing at Chouet beach. There is a motorcross track located in torteval and a kart track located in the capital of St. Peter Port, and finally at The Val des Terres, a steeply winding road rising south of St Peter Port to Fort George, is often the focus of both local and international hill-climb breeds. In addition, the 2005, 2006 and 2007 World Touring Car Champion Andy Priaulx is a Guernseyman. [87]

The racecourse is L’Ancresse Common Was re-established in 2004 after-a gap of 13 years, with the first new race Occurring on 2 May 2005. [88] breeds are MOST Held on May day bank holidays , with concurrents from Guernsey as well Jersey, France and the UK participating. Sea angling around Guernsey and the other islands in the Bailiwick from shore is a popular pastime for both locals and visitors with the Bailiwick boasting multiple UK records. [89]

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