Franz Josef Land

Franz Josef Land , Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph’s Land ( Russian : Земля Франца-Иосифа , tr. Zemlya Frantsa-Iosifa ) is an archipelago , inhabited only by Russian military personal basis [1] Located in the Arctic Ocean , Barents Sea and Kara Sea , constituting the northernmost part of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia. It consists of 191 islands, which cover an area of ​​16,134 square kilometers (6,229 sq mi), stretching 375 kilometers (233 mi) from east to west and 234 kilometers (145 mi) from north to south. The islands are categorized in three groups, a western, central and eastern, separated by the British Channel and the Austrian Strait . The central group is further divided into a northern and southern section by the Markham Strait . The largest island is Prince George Land , which measures 2,741 square kilometers (1,058 sq mi), followed by Wilczek Land , Graham Bell Island and Alexandra Land .

Eighty-five percent of the archipelago is glaciated , with large unglaciated areas being located on the largest islands and smallest islands. The islands have a combined coastline of 4,425 kilometers (2,750 mi). Compared to other Arctic archipelagos, Franz Joseph Land has a high dissection rate of 3.6 square kilometers per coastline kilometer. clarification needed ] Cape Fligely on Rudolf Island is the northernmost point of the Eastern Hemisphere . The highest elevations are found in the eastern group, with the highest point located on Wilczek Land, 670 meters (2,200 ft) above average sea level .

The archipelago was first spotted by the Norwegian sealers Nils Fredrik Rønnbeck and Johan Petter Aidijärvi in ​​1865, although they did not report their finding. The first finding Was Reported in the 1873 Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition led by Julius von Payer and Karl Weyprecht , Who named the area after-Emperor Franz Joseph I . The islands, then under the name Fridtjof Nansen Land , were annexed by the Soviet Union in 1926, which settled small outposts for research and military purposes. The Kingdom of Norway rejected the claim and several private expeditions were sent to the islands. With the Cold War, the islands became off limits for foreigners and two military airfields were built. The islands have been a nature sanctuary since 1994 and became part of the Russian Arctic National Park in 2012.


Main article: History of Franz Josef Land

There are two candidates for the discovery of Franz Josef Land. The first was the Norwegian sealing vessel Spidsbergen , with captain Nils Fredrik Rønnbeck and harpooner Johan Petter Aidijärvi. They sailed northeast of Svalbard in 1865, looking for the most important sites in the world. Franz Josef Land. The account is believed to be factual, but an announcement of the discovery was never made, and their sighting is therefore unknown to subsequent explorers. It has been discovered and exploited for the purpose of sealing and whaling. [2]Russian scientist NG Schilling proposed in 1865 that the ice conditions in the Barents Sea could only be explained if there was another land mass in the area, but he never received funding for an expedition. [3]

The Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition of 1872-74 was the first to announce the discovery of the islands. Led by Julius von Payer and Karl Weyprecht of Austria-Hungary on board the schooner Tegetthoff , the expedition’s primary goal is to find the north-east passage and its secondary goal to reach the North Pole . [4] Starting in July 1872, [5] the vessel drifted from Novaya Zemlya to a new landmass, [6] which they named in honor of Franz Joseph I(1830-1916), Emperor of Austria .[7] The expedition contributed significantly to the mapping and exploration of the islands. The next expedition to spot the archipelago was the Dutch Expedition for the Exploration of the Barents Sea, on board the schooner Willem Barents. Constrained by the ice, they never reached land.[8]

Benjamin Leigh Smith’s expedition in 1880, aboard the Eira boat , followed by a route from Spitsbergen to Franz Josef Land, [8] landing on Bell Island in August. Leigh Smith explored the neighborhood and set up at Eira Harbor, before exploring towards McClintock Island . He returned the following year in the same vessel, landing at Gray Bay on George Land . [9] The explorers were stopped by Cape Flora , and Eira sank on 21 August. They built a cottage and stayed in the winter, [10] to be rescued by the British vessels Kara andHope the following summer. [11] These early expeditions concentrated their explorations on the southern and central parts of the archipelago. [12]

Nansen’s Fram expedition was an 1893-1896 attempt by the Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen to reach the geographical North Pole by harnessing the natural east-west current of the Arctic Ocean . Departing in 1893, Fram Drifted from the New Siberian Islands for one and a half years before Nansen became impatient and set out on a polar march with Hjalmar Johansen . They gave up on reaching the pole and then returned to Franz Josef Land. They were so able to establish that there was no large landmass north of the islands. [13] In the mean time the Jackson-Harmsworth Expedition set off in 1894, set up on baseBell Island , and stayed for the winter. [12] The following season they spent exploring. [14] By pure luck, at Cape Flora Nansen stumbled upon Frederick George Jackson , who was able to transport him back to Norway. [15] Nansen and Jackson explored the northern, eastern and western portions of the islands. [12] Once the basic geography of Franz Josef Land had become apparent, expeditions shifted to the archipelago as a basis to reach the North Pole. The first such attempt was conducted by the National Geographic Society -sponsored American journalist Walter Wellman in 1898. [15]Two Norwegians stayed in the winter, but insufficient fuel caused one to die. [16] Wellman returned the following year, but the expedition was quickly lost when they lost most of their equipment. [17] Italian nobleman Luigi Amedeo organized the next expedition in 1899, on the Stella Polare . [18] They stayed in the winter, [19] and in February and again in March 1900 set out towards the pole, but failed to get far. [20]

Evelyn Baldwin , sponsored by William Ziegler , organized the Ziegler Polar Expedition of 1901. Setting up a base on Algiers Island , he stayed the winter exploring the area, but failed to press northwards. The expedition was widely considered to be a failure by the exploration and scientific community, which cited the lack of proper management. Unhappy with the outcome, Ziegler organized a new expedition, for which he appointed Anthony Fiala , second-in-command in the first expedition, as leader. [21] It arrived in 1903 and spent the winter. Their ship, America, was crushed beyond repair in December and disappeared in January. Still, they made two attempts towards the pole, both of which were quickly abandoned. [22] They were forced to stay another year, making yet another unsuccessful attempt at the pole, before being evacuated in 1905 by the Terra Nova . [23]

The first Russian expedition was carried out in 1901, when the Yermak icebreaker traveled to the islands. [24] The next expedition, led by hydrologist Georgy Sedov , embarked in 1912 but did not reach the archipelago until the following year because of ice. Among its scientific contributions were the first snow measurements of the archipelago, and the determination that changes of the magnetic field occur in cycles of fifteen years. [25] Also conducting topographical surveys of the surrounding area. [26]Scurvy set in the winter, killing a machinist. Despite lacking prior experience or sufficient provisions, Sedov insisted on pressing forward with a march to the pole. His condition deteriorated and died on March 6th. [27]

Hertha was sent to explore the area, and his captain, II Islyamov hoisted a Russian iron flag at Cape Flora and proclaimed Russian sovereignty over the archipelago. The act was motivated by the ongoing First World War and Russian fears of the Central Powers establishing themselves there. The world’s first Arctic flight took place in August, 1914, when Polish aviator Jan Nagórski overflew Franz Josef Land in Sedov’s group. Andromeda set out for the same purpose; While failing to locate them, the crew was able to finally determine the non-existence of Peterman Land and King Oscar Land, the so-called lands north of the islands.[28]

Soviet expeditions feels Were Almost yearly from 1923. [28] Franz Josef Land HAD beens regarded terra nullius – land Belonging to no one – goal is 15 April 1926 the Soviet Union Declared icts annexation of the archipelago. Emulating Canada ‘s declaration of the sector principle, they pronounced all land between the Soviet mainland and the North Pole to be Soviet territory. This principle has never been externally recognized. [29] Both Italy and Norway protested. [28] Norway was first and foremost concerned about its economic interests in the area, in a period when Norwegian hunters and whalers were also barred from the White Sea, Novaya Zemlya and Greenland; the Soviet government, however, largely remained passive, and did not evict Norwegian hunting ships during the following years. Nor did the Soviets interfere when, in 1926, several Italian airships entered the airships of the disappeared Italia . [29]

Attempted Both Norway has diplomatic solution and was Lars Christensen -financed shipping to suit les a weather station to gain economic control over the islands, aim Both failed in 1929. [30] Instead the Soviet icebreaker Sedov set out, led by Otto Schmidt , landed in Tikhaya Bay , and began construction of a permanent base. [31] The Soviet government proposed renaming the archipelago Fridtjof Nansen Land in 1930, but the name never came into use. [30] In 1930 the Norwegian Bratvaag Expeditionvisited the archipelago, but was asked by Soviet authorities to respect the Soviet territorial water in the future. Other expeditions that year were the Norwegian-Swedish balloon expedition by Hans Wilhelmsson Ahlmann on Quest and the German Graf Zeppelin . [32] Except for a German weather station during the Second World War , these were the last Western expeditions to Franz Josef Land until 1990. [33]

Soviet activities Grew Rapidly Following The International Polar Year in 1932. The archipelago Was circumnavigated, celebrities Were landed on Victoria Island, and a topographical map Was completed. In 1934-35 geological and glaciological expeditions were carried out, maps were flown, and up to sixty people stayed between 1934 and 1936, which also saw the first birth. The first drifting ice station was set up out of Rudolf Island in 1936. [34] An airstrip was then constructed on a glacier on the island and by 1937 the winter population hit 300.[35]

Activity dwindled during the Second World War and only in small groups were kept at Rudolf Island, remaining unsupplied throughout the war. [36] They never discovered that a German weather station, named Schatzgrüber, had been established on Alexandra Land . However, it was evacuated in 1944 after the men were struck by trichinosis . [37] The Cold War is a product of their strategic military significance. The islands were regarded as an unsinkable aircraft carrier. The site of the former Soviet aircondition and military base, Nagurskoye . With the advent ofintercontinental ballistic missiles , the Soviet Union changed its military strategy in 1956, abolishing the strategic need for an airbase on the archipelago. The International Geophysical Year of 1957 and 1958 gave a new take on the scientific interest in the archipelago and an airstrip was built on Heiss Island in 1956. The following year the geophysical Ernst Krenkel Observatory was established there. [36] Activity at Tikhaya Bay was closed in 1959. [38]

Because of the islands’ military significance, the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union, which deals with various expeditions, including in geophysics, studies of the ionosphere , marine biology, botany, ornithology and glaciology. [39] The Soviet Union opened the archipelago for international activities from 1990, with foreigners having fairly straightforward access. [40] The base on Graham Bell Island was abandoned in the early 1990s. The military presence at the Krenkel Observatory has been reduced to that of a border post, and the number of people attending Krenkel Observatory has been reduced. [41] The archipelago and the surrounding waters has been declared a nature reservein April 1994. The opening of the archipelago also saw the introduction of tourism, most of which takes place on Russian-operated icebreakers. [42] In 2011, the Russian Arctic National Park was expanded to include Franz Josef Land. [43]

In 2012 the Russian Air Force to Graham Bell Airfield as part of a series of reopenings of air bases in the Arctic. [44] A major new base, named the Arctic Trefoil for its three lobed structure, was constructed on Alexandra Land. It can maintain 150 soldiers for 18 months and has an area of ​​14,000 square meters. [45]

In 2017, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited the archipelago to protect Russia’s interests in the Arctic. [46]


Main article: Geography of Franz Josef Land

Arkhangelsk Oblast, located between 79 ° 46 ‘and 81 ° 52’ north and 44 ° 52 ‘and 62 ° 25’ east. It is situated 360 kilometers (220 mi) north of Novaya Zemlya and 260 kilometers (160 mi) east of the Norwegian archipelago of Svalbard. [47] Located within the Arctic Ocean, Franz Josef Land incorporated the northeastern border of the Barents Sea and the northwestern border of the Kara Sea. Citation needed ] The islands are 900 kilometers (560 mi) from the North Pole and 750 kilometers (470 mi) from the Yamal Peninsula , the Closest Point of the Eurasian mainland. [47]The archipelago falls within varying definitions of the Asia-Europe border , and is considered variously defined as part of Asia or Europe. Cape Flighly, situated at 81 ° 50 ‘north, is the northernmost point in Eurasia and the Eastern Hemisphere , [47] and of Europe or Asia , depending on the continental definition. citation needed ] It is the third-closestlandmass to the North Pole. [48]

The archipelago counts 191 uninhabited islands with a combined area of ​​16,134 square kilometers (6,229 sq mi). These Stretch 375 kilometers (233 mi) from east to west and 234 kilometers (145 mi) from north to south. [47] The islands are categorized in three groups, a western, central and eastern, separated by the British Channel and the Austrian Strait. The central group is further divided into a northern and southern section by the Markham Strait. Graham Bell Island is separated from the eastern group by the Severo-Vostochnyi Strait. [49] There are two named island clusters: Zichy Land north of the Markham Sound and Belaya Zemlya to the far northeast. quote needed ]The straits are narrow, between several hundred meters to 3 kilometers (2 mi) wide. They reach depths of 500 to 600 meters (1,600 to 2,000 feet), 150 to 300 meters (500 to 1,000 feet) below the shelf of the Barents Sea. [49]

The largest island is George Land , which measures 2,741 square kilometers (1,058 sq mi). Three additional islands exceed 1,000 square kilometers (390 sq mi) in size: Wilczek Land , Graham Bell Island and Alexandra Land . 500 square kilometers (190 sq mi): Island Hall , Salisbury Island , McClintock Island , Jackson Island and Hooker Island . The smallest 135 islands constitute 0.4 percent of the archipelago’s area. [47] The highest elevation is a peak on Wilczek Land, which rises to 670 meters (2,200 ft) above average sea level. Victoria Island, located 170 kilometers (110 mi) to the west of Alexandra Land, is administratively part of the archipelago, but is not geographically part of the island and is closer to Svalbard, located 60 kilometers (37 mi) from Kvitøya . [50]

Geologically the archipelago is located on the northern edge of the Barents Sea Platform, within which Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are exposed. The area HAS furnace units separated by regional erosion surfaces . The Upper Paleozoic unit is poorly exposed and Was created by folding During the Caledonian period. The Lower Mesozoic unites, consisting of coastal and marine sediments from the Upper Triassic period, are present on most of the straights, and consist of limestones , shales , sandstones and conglomerate.

The Upper Mesozoic unites dominates in the southern and western parts, resulting from massive effusive rocks made up of basaltic sheets separated by volcanic ashes and tuffs , mixed with terrigenous rocks with layers of coal. [51] The Mesozoic-Tertiary unit remains mostly on the sea floor and marine Consist of quartz sandstones and shales. Plate tectonics of the Arctic Ocean created basalt lavas and dolerite sheets and dykes in Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous periods. [52]The land is rising by 2.5 to 3.0 millimeters (0.098 to 0.118 in) per year, due to the melting of the Barents Sea Ice Sheet ca. 10,000 years ago. [53]


Franz Josef Land is dominated by glaciation, which covers an area of ​​13,735 square kilometers (5,303 sq mi), or 85 percent of the archipelago. [47] The glaciers have an average thickness of 180 meters (590 ft), which would convert to 2,500 cubic kilometers (600 cu mi). This would only give a 6 millimeters (0.24 in) eustatic rise in sea ​​level should it melt. [54]493.7-square-kilometer (193.0 sq mi) Armitage Peninsula of George Land, the 493.7-square-kilometer (190.6 sq mi) Kholmistyi Peninsula of Graham Bell Island, the 270-square-kilometer (100 sq mi) Central’naya Susha of Alexandra Land, the 162.6-square-kilometer (62.8 sq mi) Ganza Point of Wilczek Land and the 84.2-square-kilometer (32.5 sq mi) Heyes Island. Most of the smaller islands are unglaciated. [47]

Streams only form during the runoff period. May through early September. Permafrost causes most of the runoff to take place on the surface, with streams only forming on the largest islands. The longest river is 19 kilometers (12 mi) long and forms on George Land, while there are several streams on Alexandra Land, the longest being 8.4 kilometers (5.2 mi). [55] There are about one thousand lakes in the archipelago, the majority of which are located on Alexandra Land and George Land. Most lakes are located in depressions caused by glacial erosion, in addition to a smaller number of lagoon lakes. Their sizes vary from 2 square kilometers (0.77 sq mi) to 0.4 acres (0.99 acres). Most are only 2 meters (6 ft 7 in) deep, with the depth measured at 10 meters (33 ft). [56]

The sea currents surrounding the archipelago touch eastern Svalbard and northern Novaya Zemlya. The cold Makarov Current flows from the north and the Arctic Current flows from the northwest, while the warmer Novaya Zemlya Current flows from the south. The latter has temperatures over 0.5 ° C (32.9 ° F), while the bottom water lies below -1.7 ° C (28.9 ° F). The southern coastal regions of the archipelago experience from east to west. Average speed is between 2 and 5 centimeters (0.79 and 1.97 in) per second. The tidal component in coastal areas is 15 centimeters (5.9 in) per second. [57] Ice PackOccurs throughout the year around the entire island group, with the lowest levels being during August and September. One-year winter ice starts with a thickness of 1.5 meters (4 ft 11 in). [58] Icebergs are common year-round. [59]


The main forces influencing the climate are the glaciation and sea ice. At 81 ° north of the archipelago experiences 141 annual days of midnight sun , from 12 April to 30 August. During the winter it experiences 128 days of polar night from 19 October to 23 February. Even during summer the angle of the sun ray spreads the limited radiated energy over a large area. Further cooling is caused by the high amount of cloudiness. The sea is going to freeze in late September and reaches its peak in March, at which time it is ice-covered. The ice starts to decrease in May and suffers a major melting in June, with the minimum occurring in August or early September. [60]

During winter, high-pressure weather and clear skies cause radiation loss from the ground, causing temperatures down to -40 ° C (-40 ° F). Low-pressure weather conditions and temperature, with temperature spells. During shifts the temperature can change by 20 ° C (36 ° F) within hours. Coastal stations experience average temperatures between -20 ° C (-4 ° F) and -30 ° C (-22 ° F), depending on the weather conditions. During the summer months, the temperature is around 0 ° C (32 ° F) and 3 ° C (37 ° F) at Hayes Island. [61]Fog is most common during the summer. Average annual precipitation at the coastal stations is between 100 and 150 millimeters (3.9 and 5.9 in), with the wettest months being July through September. Elevated areas can experience considerably higher precipitation. [62] Franz Josef Land is significantly colder than Spitsbergen , which experiences 8 ° C (14 ° F) warmer winter averages, but is warmer than the Canadian Arctic Archipelago . [63]

[ hide ]Climate data for Ernst Krenkel Observatory , Heiss Island
month Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Record high ° C (° F) 1.9
Average high ° C (° F) -19.2
Daily mean ° C (° F) -22.7
Average low ° C (° F) -26.2
Record low ° C (° F) -42.1
Average precipitation mm (inches) 32
Average rainy days 0.1 0.1 0 0.1 0.5 3 12 12 6 0.5 0.1 0 34
Average snowy days 20 19 19 16 22 15 7 10 18 24 21 19 209
Average relative humidity (%) 83 82 80 81 85 88 91 92 90 86 84 83 85
Source: [64]


The climate and permafrost limits soil development in the archipelago. Large areas are void of soil, with permafrost polygons being the most common site for soil to occur. Characteristics of the soil in the soil and the surface of the soil . The brown upper humus layers have three percent organic matter, increasing to eight percent in the southern-most islands. [65] Arctic desert soils occur on the eastern group islands, while the areas near the edge of the glaciers can give semi-bog arctic soil. [66]

The flora varies between islands, based on the natural conditions. On the least thriving islands vegetation is limited to lichens growing on stones. [67] Vegetation typically covers five to ten percent of the ground surface, with notable exceptions under bird colonies where it can reach one hundred percent. Vegetation varies with up to 120 to 130 meters (390 to 430 ft) there is a belt of grass-moss arctic desert, then moss-lichen arctic desert to 175 to 200 meters (574 to 656 ft), then lichen arctic desert up to 250 to 315 meters (820 to 1,033 ft) and above snow lifeless desert, with occasional lichens are nunataks and snow algae is glacier surfaces. [68]

Trees, shrubs and tall plants can not survive. About 150 species of bryophytes dominate the grassy turf, of which two-thirds are mosses and a third liverworts . The most common species are Aulacomnium , Ditrichum , Drepanocladus , Orthothecium and Tomenthypnum . More than 100 species of lichen are found on the island, the most common being Caloplaca , Lecanora , Lecidea , Ochrolechia and Rinodina . [68] There are sixteen species of grass and about 100 species ofalgae , most commonly Cyanophyta and Diatomea . [69] Fifty-seven species of vascular plants have been reported. The most common are Arctic poppy and saxifraga , which grow everywhere, independent of habitat, with the latter species being found on all islands. A common plant in wet areas is alpine foxtail and buttercups , [70] while polar willow is common in wet areas. Alopercurus aplinus and Papaver dahlianum are the tallest plants, able to reach heights of 30 centimeters (12 in). [69]

More than one hundred taxa of single-cell pelagic algae have been identified around the archipelago, the most common being Thalassiosira antarctica and Chaetoceros decipiens . The bloom takes place between May and August. [71] Of the roughly fifty species of zooplankton , calanoids dominate, with Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus constituting the greater portion of the biomass. The species of macrofauna is at least 500 species of macroalgae and at least 500 species . Most common are crustaceans such asamphipods and shrimps , polychaetes and echinoderms , such as sea ​​bristles . [72] The ice scouring causes there to be a little life in the littoral zone , but the sublittoral zone (2 to 25 meters (6 ft 7 in to 82 ft 0 in)) is dominated by laminaria , most commonly Laminaria sachcharina , and red algae , such as Phycodrys rubens . [73]

There are 33 species of fish in the waters, none of which are abundant commercially exploitable gold. [73] The most common are polar cod , which reach lengths of 20 centimeters (7.9 in), and liparidae . There are no endemic species within the archipelago. [74] Forty-one species of birds have been documented in the archipelago, of which fourteen breed. These are dominated by seabirds such as fulmar , kittiwake , brünnich’s guillemot , black guillemot and little aukare common throughout the archipelago, while seven other species prefer nesting on flat tundra: common eider , purple sandpiper , Arctic skua , gull glaucous , ivory gull , arctic tern and snow bunting . [75] Some ivory gulls, little auks and Brünnich’s guillemots opt to spend the winter on the islands. [76]

The polar bear population of Franz Josef Land lies within the Barents Sea subpopulation, which also includes polar bears inhabiting Svalbard and the western coast of Novaya Zemlya . [77] In 2004, the Barents Sea subpopulation was estimated at 2,650. [78] There is also a population of Arctic fox , which typically has their territories near seabird habitats. [79]

Marine mammals

Being declared as a marine mammal sanctuary, [80] the island has rich biodiversity of rare marine mammals.

Three species of seals in the archipelago. Harp seal is the most common, but it breeds in the White Sea . Slightly less common is the bearded seal . Walruses were previously hunted, dramatically reducing the formerly abundant species. [81] They have been internationally protected since 1952 and their numbers have been in existence, with one and a half thousand walruses living in the archipelago. The population is common with Svalbard and northern Novaja Zemlja .

Minke whales , humpback whale , and beluga whales are Commonly seen around the island, and less Commonly orcas and narwhales , with the archipelago being white Located on the northern edge of Their summer range. End whales were newly confirmed to migrate into the waters. [82]

Critically endangered cetaceans

Occasionally there are sightings of the bowhead whale . [83] The Russian Arctic stock of this species, ranging from Cape Farewell in Greenland and Svalbard / Spitsbergen areas to East Siberian Sea is regarded to be The Most endangered of all populations in the world. Waters around Franz Josef Land is seemingly the most important place for this stock. [84] [85]

Human activity

Tourism travel to the archipelago is Severely Limited. There is no infrastructure to supporting tourists and the only way to reach the islands is by icebreaker , Typically operating out of Murmansk . In 2012 there were only eight successful landings on the islands. A contributing factor to the low utilization is the difficulty of obtaining permission and frequent closing of the Kola Bay to accommodate military exercises. The most frequent service is a three-week North Pole tour with Russian nuclear-powered 50 icebreaker Let Pobedy , which stops by the islands en route. [86] The most popular destinations are areas with bird cliffsand walrus colonies, such as Cape Flora on Northbrook Islandand Cape Rubini on Hooker Island , Nansen’s hut on Jackson Island . [87] Tourists are commonly landed by helicopter. [88] For purposes of amateur radio awards the islands count as a separate international “entity”. Activity by operators has become less frequent, though does not occur. [89]


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  33. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 100
  34. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 138
  35. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 139
  36. ^ Jump up to:b Barr (1995): 141
  37. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 101
  38. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 142
  39. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 144
  40. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 104
  41. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 151
  42. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 152
  43. Jump up^ Sazhenova, Anastasia (29 August 2011). “Russia ready to boost Arctic tourism” . Barents Observer .
  44. Jump up^ Pettersen, Trude (31 May 2012). “Russia reopens Arctic airbases” . Barents Observer .
  45. Jump up^ Russia Builds Second Military Base to Support Arctic Ambitions
  46. Jump up^ “Vladimir Putin visits Arctic archipelago and stakes claim to the oil-rich region” . The Telegraph . March 30, 2017.
  47. ^ Jump up to:g Barr (1995): 8
  48. Jump up^ Lück (2008): 182
  49. ^ Jump up to:b Barr (1995): 9
  50. Jump up^ “Victoria Island” .
  51. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 22
  52. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 23
  53. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 26
  54. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 15
  55. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 27
  56. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 28
  57. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 38
  58. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 39
  59. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 40
  60. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 11
  61. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 12
  62. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 14
  63. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 13
  64. Jump up^ -Погода и Климат. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  65. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 30
  66. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 31
  67. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 32
  68. ^ Jump up to:b Barr (1995): 33
  69. ^ Jump up to:b Barr (1995): 35
  70. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 34
  71. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 41
  72. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 42
  73. ^ Jump up to:b Barr (1995): 43
  74. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 44
  75. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 46
  76. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 49
  77. Jump up^ Obbard M., Thiemann G., Peacock E., DeBruyn T. (eds), 2010. Polar Bears: Proceedings of the 15th Working Meeting of the IUCN / SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group. Retrieved on 04-01-2015
  78. Jump up^ Obbard M. and. al. (2010).
  79. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 53
  80. Jump up^ Nefedova T., Gavrilo M., Gorshkov S., 2013. Летом в Арктике стало меньше льда. Archived copy . Archived from the original on 2014-05-24. Retrieved 2014-05-23 . . Russian Geographical Society. retrieved on 24-05-2014
  81. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 50
  82. Jump up^ Sala E., 2013. Franz Josef Land Expedition: First Look at Post-Expedition Discoveries. Pristine Seas Expeditions. National Geographic. retrieved on 24-05-2014
  83. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 51
  84. Jump up^ ECS, the European Cetacean Society. Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) sighting in the Franz Josef Land area .. “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on 2014-05-23 . Retrieved 2014-05-23 . . retrieved on 24-05-2014
  85. Jump up^ Scalini I., 2014. Всемирный день китов. Archived copy . Archived fromthe original on 2014-11-29 . Retrieved 2014-11-29 . . Russian Arctic National Park. retrieved on 24-05-2014
  86. Jump up^ “Travel to Franz Josef Land” .
  87. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 153
  88. Jump up^ Barr (1995): 154
  89. Jump up^ Franz Josef Land May Become a Rare One

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