Filfla is a small, mostly barren, uninhabited islet 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) south of Malta , and is the most southerly point of the Maltese Archipelago . Filflu (or filfluu ), a small rocky islet some 102 meters (335 feet) southwest of Filfla,  has the southernmost point of Malta. The name is believed to come from felfel , the Arabic for a peppercorn . 
Filfla has an area of just 6 hectares (15 acres) and is a crumbling flat-topped limestone plateau surrounded by 60 meters (197 feet) high cliffs. Three species of seabirds breed on the islet: the European storm petrel (with an estimated 5000 – 8000 pairs), Cory’s shearwater (c 200 peers) and yellow-legged gull (c 130 peers). The Bird has been identified as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by BirdLife International , mainly because of the storm petrel colony.  A kind of wall lizard ( Podarcis filfolensis ssp. Filfolensis ) and door snail (Lampedusa imitatrix gattoi ) are endemic to Filfla. A large wild leek, growing up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) high, also occurs. Access to Filfla is only available for the environment and planning authority . 
The island of Filfla was sacred to the neolithic inhabitants of Malta, who built the temples of Ħaġar Qim and Mnajdra on the Maltese coast opposite the islet.  The Ħamrija Tower , one of 13 watchtowers that Martin de Redin built around the coast of Malta, a memorial to Walter Norris Congreve , one of Malta’s British governors , who was buried in the channel between Filfla and Malta Filfla facing Malta.
The only known permanent structure on the island was a chapel built inside a cave in 1343, which was destroyed by an earthquake in 1856 that also sank part of the island. A map of Malta dating back to 1798 shows in a fort, a lighthouse and a monastery with a chapel on Filfla. 
Until 1971 the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force used the island for target practice, and spent cartridges from these bombings can still be found on Filfla today.  It became a bird reserve in 1980. The Filfla Natural Reserve Act , enacted in 1988, provided for further restrictions on access and use, including a prohibition on fishing on a nautical mile (1.9 km) around the island due to the possibility of encountering unexploded ordnance . 
Maltese Government notice 173 of 1990 once again allowed fishing within the one mile area. 
Filfla Was Invoked in a territorial row over the continental shelf entre Libya and Malta. The case was adjudicated by the International Court of Justice in 1985, essentially by ignoring the islet from the calculations.  
- Endemic Maltese wildlife
- Libya-Malta relations
- Jump up^ “Topography and Flora of the Satellite Islets Surrounding the Maltese Archipelago”- Arnold Sciberras, Jeffrey Sciberras, 2010
- ^ Jump up to:a b Morana, Martin (2011). Bejn Kliem and Storja (in Maltese). Malta : Books Distributors Limited. ISBN 978-99957-0137-6 . Archived from the original on 20 October 2016.
- Jump up^ “Filfla Islet” . Important Bird Areas factsheet . BirdLife International. 2013. Archived from the original on July 10, 2007 . Retrieved 2013-08-07 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c “An island cemetery for bombs is qui no one can set foot” . TVM . 6 January 2016. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016.
- Jump up^ Dalli, Kim (28 April 2015). ” ‘ Napoleon’ map gives a tantalizing clue to the past” . Times of Malta . Retrieved April 29, 2015 .
- Jump up^ http://www.um.edu.mt/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/43845/9..Marine_Protected_Areas_in_the_Maltese_Islands_1999.pdf
- Jump up^ Hance D. Smith (1991). The Development of Integrated Sea Use Management . Taylor & Francis. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-415-03816-4 .
- Jump up^ CASE CONCERNING THE CONTINENTAL SHELF (LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA / MALTA) Judgment of 3 June 1985