Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands ( / f ɛər oʊ / ; Faroese : Føroyar pronounced [fœɹjaɹ] ; Danish : Færøerne , pronounced [fæɐ̯øːˀɐnə] ), sometimes called Expired the Faeroe Islands , are an archipelago entre les Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic , about halfway entre Norway and Iceland , 320 kilometers (200 miles) north-northwest of Scotland . The islands are an autonomous countrywithin the Kingdom of Denmark . [6] [7] [8] Their area is about 1,400 square kilometers (541 square miles) with a population of 50,322 in October 2017. [3]

The Faroes’ land is rugged, and the islands have a subpolar oceanic climate (Cfc) : windy, wet, cloudy, and cool. Despite this island group’s northerly latitude, the average temperature is above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream .

Between 1035 and 1814, the Faroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway . In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted over the islands, along with two other Norwegian island possessions: Greenland and Iceland . The Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country in the Kingdom of Denmark since 1948. [9] The Faroese have control of most domestic matters. Areas that remain the responsibility of Denmark include the military defense , the police , the justice department , currency and foreign affairs . [10]However, they are not part of the same customs area as Denmark, the Faroe Islands have an independent trade policy and can establish trade agreements with other states. The islands also have representation in the Nordic Council as members of the Danish delegation. The Faroe Islands also have their own national teams competing in certain sports.

Etymology

In Danish , the name Færøerne may reflect an Old Norse word fær (sheep). The morpheme øerne represents a plural (with definite article) of ø (island) in Danish. The Danish name thus translates as “the islands of sheep”. In Faroese , the name appears as Føroyar . Oyar represents the plural of oy , Faroese for “island”. The modern Faroese word for island is oyggj . In the English language, their name is sometimes spelled “Faeroe”. [11] [12]

History

Archaic evidence shows settlers living on the Faroe Islands in two successive periods prior to the arrival of the Norse, the first between 300 and 600 CE and the second between 600 and 800 CE. [13] Scientists from the University of Aberdeen have also found early cereal pollen from domesticated plants, which have been found to have reached the islands before the Vikings arrived. [14] Mike Church Archaeologist noted that Dicuil (see below) He also suggested that the people living there could have been from Ireland, Scotland or Scandinavia, possibly with groups from all three areas settling there. [15]

A Latin account of a voyage made by Brendan , an Irish monastic saint who lived around 484-578, including a description of insulae (islands) resembling the Faroe Islands. This association, however, is far from conclusive in its description. [16]

Dicuil , an Irish monk of the early 9th century , wrote a more definite account. In His geographical work De mensura orbis terrae he Claimed He Had reliable information of heremitae ex nostra Scotia ( “hermits from our land of Ireland / Scotland”) Who HAD Lived on the northerly islands of Britain for Almost a hundred years up to the arrival of Norse pirates. [17]

Norsemen settled the islands c. 800, bringing Old West Norse , which evolved into the modern Faroese language . According to Icelandic sagas such as Færeyjar Saga , one of the best known men in the island was Tróndur í Gøtu , a descendant of Scandinavian chiefs who had settled in Dublin , Ireland. Tróndur led the battle against Sigmund Brestursson , the Norwegian monarchy and the Norwegian church.

The Norse and Norse-Gael settlers probably did not come from Scandinavia, but rather from Norse communities surrounding the Irish Sea, Northern Isles and Outer Hebrides of Scotland , including the Shetland and Orkney islands. A traditional name for the islands in Irish , Na Scigirí , possibly refers to the (Eyja-) Skeggjar “(Island-) Beards”, has nickname given to island dwellers.

According to the Færeyinga saga , more emigrants left Norway who did not approve of the monarchy of Harald Fairhair (ruled v. 872 to 930). These people settled the Faroes around the end of the 9th century. [18] Early in the 11th century, Sigmundur Brestisson (961-1005) – whose clan had flourished in the southern islands before invaders from the northern islands almost exterminated it – escaped to Norway. He leur envoi back to take possession of the islands for Olaf Tryggvason , King of Norwayfrom 995 to 1000. Sigmundur introduced Christianity, forcing Tróndur í Gøtu to convert or face beheading, but Sigmundur was subsequently murdered, Norwegian taxation was upheld. Norwegian control of the Faroes continued until 1814, when the Kingdom of Norway (872-1397) entered the Kalmar Union with Denmark. The Reformation reached the Faroes in 1538. When the union between Denmark and Norway was removed from the Treaty of Kiel in 1814, Denmark retained possession of the Faroe Islands; Norway is joined in a union with Sweden.

As part of Mercantilism , Denmark maintained a monopoly over trade with the Faroe Islands and forbade their inhabitants trading with others (eg the geographically close Britain). The trade monopoly in the Faroe Islands was abolished in 1856, after which the area developed as a modern fishing nation with its own fishing fleet . The national awakening from 1888 INITIALLY Arose from a struggle to Maintain the Faroese language and THUS Was Culturally oriented, after-purpose 1906 est devenu it more political with the foundation of political parts of the Faroe Islands .

On April 12, 1940 British troops occupied the Faroe Islands , shortly after the German invasion of Denmark on April 9, 1940. In 1942-1943 the British Royal Engineers , under the leadership of Lt. Col. William Law MC, built in the Faroe Islands, Vágar Airport . Control of the islands reverted to Denmark following the war, but Danish rule has been undermined, with Iceland’s gaining independence as a precedent for many Faroese.

The Faroese Independence Referendum, 1946 resulted in 50.73% in favor of independence against 49.27% ​​against. [19] The Faroe Islands reported on independence on 18 September 1946; HOWEVER, this statement Was annulled by Denmark is 20 September on the grounds That has majorité of the Faroese voters HAD not supported independence and King Christian X of Denmark Dissolved the Faroese Løgting is 24 September. [20] [21] The dissolution of the Løgting was on 8 November followed by the Faroese parliamentary election of 1946in a total of 5,396 votes while receiving a total of 7,488 votes. [22] As a reaction to growing self-government and independence movements, Denmark finally granted the Faroe Islands home-rule with a high degree of local autonomy on March 30, 1948. [20]

In 1973 the Faroe Islands declined to join the European Economic Community (later absorbed into the European Union ). The islands Experienced considerable economic Difficulties Following The collapse of the fishing industry in the early 1990s, purpose-have since made efforts to Diversify the economy. Support for independence has grown and is the objective of the Republican Party .

Geography

The Faroe Islands are an island group of 18 major islands about 655 kilometers (407 mi) off the coast of Northern Europe, between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean , about halfway between Iceland and Norway , the closest neighbors being the Northern Isles and the Outer Hebrides of Scotland . Its coordinates are 62 ° 00’N 06 ° 47’W .

Distance from the Faroe Islands to:

  • North Rona , Scotland (uninhabited): 260 kilometers (160 mi)
  • Shetland ( Foula ), Scotland: 285 kilometers (177 mi)
  • Orkney ( Westray ), Scotland: 300 kilometers (190 mi)
  • Scotland (mainland): 320 kilometers (200 mi)
  • Iceland: 450 kilometers (280 mi)
  • Ireland : 670 kilometers (420 mi)
  • Norway: 670 kilometers (420 mi)
  • Denmark : 990 kilometers (620 mi)

The islands cover an area of ​​1,399 square kilometers (540 sq. Mi) and have small lakes and rivers, but no major ones. There are 1,117 kilometers (694 mi) of coastline. [23] The only significant uninhabited island is Lítla Dímun .

The islands are rugged and rocky with some low peaks; the coasts are mostly cliffs. The highest point is Slættaratindur in northern Eysturoy , 882 meters (2,894 ft) above sea level .

The Faroe Islands are dominated by tholeiitic basalt lava , which was part of the great Thulean Plateau during the Paleogene period. [24]

Climate

The climate is classed as a subpolar oceanic climate according to the Köppen climate classification : Cfc , with areas having a tundra climate, especially in the mountains, although some coastal or low-lying areas. The overall character of the islands is influenced by the strong warming influence of the Atlantic Ocean, which produces the North Atlantic Current . These summers are mild (mean temperature 3.0 to 4.0 ° C or 37 to 39 ° F) while summers are cool (mean temperature 9.5 to 10.5 ° C or 49 to 51 ° C). F).

The islands are windy, cloudy and cool throughout the year with an average of 210 rainy or snowy days per year. The islands lie in the path of depressions moving northeast, making strong winds and heavy rain possible at all times of the year. Sunny days are rare and overcast days are common. Hurricane Faith struck the Faroe Islands on 5 September 1966 with sustained winds over 100 mph (160 km / h) and only then did the storm cease to be a tropical system. [25]

The climate varies greatly over small distances, due to the altitude, ocean currents, topography and winds. Precipitation varies widely throughout the archipelago. In some highland areas, snow cover is possible for the greater part of the year, while in some sheltered coastal locations, several years pass without any snowfall whatsoever . Tórshavn receives more than just a few short distances to the south. Snow is also seen at a much higher frequency than on nearby places. The area receives on average 49 frosts a year. [26]

The collection of meteorological data on the Faroe Islands began in 1867. [27] Winter recording began in 1891, and the warmest winter occurred in 2016-17 with an average temperature of 6.1 ° C. [28]

[ hide ]Climate data for Tórshavn (1981-2010, extremes 1961-2010)
month Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Record high ° C (° F) 11.6
(52.9)
12.0
(53.6)
12.3
(54.1)
18.3
(64.9)
19.7
(67.5)
20.0
(68)
20.2
(68.4)
22.0
(71.6)
19.5
(67.1)
15.2
(59.4)
14.7
(58.5)
13.2
(55.8)
22.0
(71.6)
Average high ° C (° F) 5.8
(42.4)
5.6
(42.1)
6.0
(42.8)
7.3
(45.1)
9.2
(48.6)
11.1
(52)
12.8
(55)
13.1
(55.6)
11.5
(52.7)
9.3
(48.7)
7.2
(45)
6.2
(43.2)
8.8
(47.8)
Daily mean ° C (° F) 4.0
(39.2)
3.6
(38.5)
4.0
(39.2)
5.2
(41.4)
7.0
(44.6)
9.0
(48.2)
10.7
(51.3)
11.0
(51.8)
9.6
(49.3)
7.5
(45.5)
5.5
(41.9)
4.3
(39.7)
6.8
(44.2)
Average low ° C (° F) 1.7
(35.1)
1.3
(34.3)
1.7
(35.1)
3.0
(37.4)
5.1
(41.2)
7.1
(44.8)
9.0
(48.2)
9.2
(48.6)
7.6
(45.7)
5.4
(41.7)
3.4
(38.1)
2.1
(35.8)
4.7
(40.5)
Record low ° C (° F) -8.8
(16.2)
-11.0
(12.2)
-9.2
(15.4)
-9.9
(14.2)
-3.0
(26.6)
0.0
(32)
1.5
(34.7)
1.5
(34.7)
-0.6
(30.9)
-4.5
(23.9)
-7.2
(19)
-10.5
(13.1)
-11.0
(12.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 157.7
(6.209)
115.2
(4.535)
131.6
(5.181)
89.5
(3.524)
63.3
(2.492)
57.5
(2.264)
74.3
(2.925)
96.0
(3.78)
119.5
(4.705)
147.4
(5.803)
139.3
(5.484)
135.3
(5.327)
1.321.3
(52.02)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 22 17 21 16 13 12 13 13 18 22 21 22 210
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 8.3 6.6 8.0 4.4 1.5 0 0 0 0.1 1.4 5.5 8.2 44
Average relative humidity (%) 90 89 89 87 88 88 90 90 90 90 89 90 89.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 14 36 71 106 124 125 111 98 80 49 20 6 840
Source # 1: Danish Meteorological Institute [26] [29]
Source # 2: NOAA (sun, humidity and precipitation days 1961-1990) [30] [31]

Nature

A collection of Faroese naval algae, with a contribution from NATO , citation needed ] The British Museum (Natural History) and the Carlsberg Foundation, is preserved in the Ulster Museum (catalog numbers: F3195-F3307). It is one of ten exsiccatae sets.

Flora

The natural vegetation of the Faroe Islands is dominated by arctic-alpine plants, wildflowers, grasses, moss and lichen. Most of the lowland area is dominated by shrubby heathers, mainly Calluna vulgaris . Among the herbaceous flora that occur in the Faroe Islands is the cosmopolitan marsh thistle, Cirsium palustre . [32]

Although there are no trees in the Faroe Islands, the Black Cottonwood , also known as California Poplar (Populus trichocarpa)

A few small plantations of plants collected from similar climates in Tierra del Fuego in South America and Alaska thrive on the islands.

Fauna

The bird fauna of the Faroe Islands is Dominated by seabirds and birds Attracted to open land like heather , probably Because of the Lack of woodland and other suitable habitats. Many species have developed special Faroese sub-species: common eider , common starling , Eurasian wren , common murre , and black guillemot . [33] The foot raven was endemic to the Faroe Islands, but now became extinct.

Only a few species of wild mammals are found in the Faroe Islands today, all introduced by humans. Three species are thriving on the islands today: Mountain Hare ( Lepus timidus ), brown rat ( Rattus norvegicus ) and the house mouse ( Mus musculus ). Apart from these, there was a local domestic sheep breed, the Faroe sheep (depicted on the coat of arms ), a variety of feral sheep survived on the Dímun until the mid-19th century. [34]

Gray seals ( Halichoerus grypus ) are common around the shorelines. citation needed ] Several species of cetacea live in the waters around the Faroe Islands. Best known are the long-finned pilot whales ( Globicephala melaena ), which are still hungry by the islanders in accordance with longstanding local tradition. [35] Killer whales ( Orcinus orca ) are regular visitors around the islands.

The domestic animals of the Faroe Islands are a result of 1,200 years of isolated breeding. As a result, many of the islands are nowhere else in the world. Faroese domestic breed include Faroe pony , Faroe cow , Faroe sheep, Faroese goose , and Faroese duck .

Politics and government

The Faroese government holds executive power in local government affairs. The head of the government is called Løgmaður (“Law person”) and serves as a prime. Any other member of the cabinet is called a landsstýrismaður (“national committee man”) or landsstýriskvinna (“national committee woman”). The Faroese parliament – the Løgting (“Law assembly”) – dates back to Viking times and is believed to be one of the oldest parliaments in the world. The parliament currently has 33 members. [36]

In contemporary times, elections are held at municipal, national ( Løgting ) and Danish ( Folketing ) levels. Until 2007, there were seven electoral districts, each comprising a sýsla , while Streymoy was divided into a northern and southern part ( Tórshavn region). However, on October 25th, 2007, the country was one of the countries of the country, giving each vote equal weight.

Administrative divisions

Administratively, the islands are divided into 30 municipalities ( kommunur ) within which there are 120 or so settlements .

Traditionally, there are aussi the six sýslur (similar to the British “shire”: Norðoyar , Eysturoy , Streymoy , Vagar , Sandoy , and Suðuroy ). ALTHOUGH today sýsla technically means “district police,” the term is still used to indicate indication Commonly a geographical area. Earlier in times contents, each sýsla HAD icts own assembly , the so-called várting ( “spring assembly”).

Relationship with Denmark

The 1814 Treaty of Kiel terminated the Danish-Norwegian Union, and Norway came under the rule of the King of Sweden , while the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland remained Danish possessions. From ancient times the Faroe Islands had a parliament ( Løgting ) which was abolished in 1816, and the Faroe Islands were an ordinary Danish amt (county), with the Amtmand as its head of government. In 1851, the Løgting was reinstated, but, until 1948, served mainly as an advisory body.

The islands are home to a remarkable independence movement that has grown in popularity within recent decades. At the end of World War II , some of the population favored independence from Denmark, and on 14 September 1946 an independence referendum was held on the question of secession . It was a consultative referendum; the parliament was not bound to follow the people’s vote. This was the first time that the Faroese people had been invited to continue or to continue within the Danish kingdom .

The result of the vote was a narrow majority in favor of secession, but the coalition in and because of these irresoluble differences, the coalition fell apart. A parliamentary election has been held a few months later, in which the political parties favored the conclusion of the vote. Based on this, they thing to reject secession. Instead, a compromised Was Made and the Folketing Passed a Home Rule Law That Went into effect in 1948. The Faroe Islands’ status as a Danish amt Was thereby Brought to year end; the Faroe Islands were given a high degree of self-governance, supported by a financialsubsidy from Denmark to the Danish services.

At present, the islanders are about to have a preference for those who prefer to remain independent of the Kingdom of Denmark. There is a wide range of opinions in both camps. Of those who favor independence, some are in favor of an immediate unilateral declaration of independence . The Danish government and the Danish nation are all in favor of the Danish government . In the unionist camp there are also many others who are willing to pay a premium.

As of 2011 , a new draft Faroese constitution is being drawn up. However, the Prime Minister , Lars Løkke Rasmussen , as incompatible with Denmark’s Constitution and if the Faroese political parties wish to continue with it then they must declare independence. [37]

Relationship with the European Union

Main article: Faroe Islands and the European Union

As explicitly asserted by both treaties of the European Union , the Faroe Islands are not part of the European Union . The Faroes are not grouped with the EU when it comes to international trade; for instance, When the EU and Russia Imposed reciprocal trade sanctions is Each Other over-the War in Donbass in 2014, the Faroes Began exporting significant water equivalent of fresh salmon to Russia. [38] Moreover, a protocol to the treaty of accession of Denmark to the European Communities stipulates that Danish nationals residing in the Faroe Islands are not considered. Hence, Danish people living in the Faroes are notcitizens of the European Union (though other EU nationals living there remain EU citizens). The Faroes are not covered by the Schengen Agreement , but there are no border checks when traveling between the Faroes and any Schengen country (the Faroes have been part of the Nordic Passport Union since 1966, and since 2001 there have been no permanent border checks between the Nordic countries and the rest of the Schengen Area as part of the Schengen Agreement). [39]

Relationship with international organizations

The Faroe Islands is not a fully independent country, but they do not have a direct relationship with Denmark. The Faroe Islands are a member of some international organizations but they are an independent country.

The Faroe Islands are a member of several international sports federations like UEFA , FIFA in football [40] and FINA in swimming [41] and EHF in handball [42] and have their own national teams. The Faroe Islands have their own country code, country code top-level domain, banking code and postal country code.

The Faroe Islands make their own agreements with other countries regarding trade. When the EU embargo against Russia started in 2014, the Faroe Islands were not part of the embargo because they were not a part of EU, and the islands had just experienced a year of embargo from the EU including Denmark against the islands; the Faroese prime minister Kaj Leo Johannes went to Moscow to negotiate the trade between the two countries. [8] The Faroese minister of fisheries negotiates with the EU and other countries regarding the rights to fish. [43]

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of the Faroe Islands
Historical population
year Pop. ±%
1327 4,000
1350 2,000 -50.0%
1769 4,773 + 138.6%
1801 5,225 + 9.5%
1834 6,928 + 32.6%
1850 8.137 + 17.5%
1880 11,220 + 37.9%
1900 15.230 + 35.7%
1925 22.835 + 49.9%
1950 31.781 + 39.2%
1975 40.441 + 27.2%
1985 45.749 + 13.1%
1995 43.358 -5.2%
2000 46.196 + 6.5%
2006 48.219 + 4.4%
2011 48.346 + 0.3%
2017 50.451 + 4.4%
2011 data [4]

The vast majority of the population are Faroese ethnic , of Norse and Celtic descent. [44] Recent DNA analyzes have revealed that Y chromosomes, male tracing descent, are 87% Scandinavian . [45] The studies show that mitochondrial DNA , tracing female descent, is 84% Celtic . [46]

There is a gender gap of about 2,000 women owing to migration. [47] Three hundred women from the Philippines and Thailand , recruited as women of the Faroes’ gender imbalance, make up the largest ethnic minority in the Faroes. [47]

The total fertility rate of the Faroe Islands is currently one of the highest in Europe. [48] The fertility rate is 2.409 children born per woman (2015 est.). [49]

The 2011 census shows that of the approximately 48,600 inhabitants of the Faroe Islands (17,441 private households in 2011), 43,135 were born in the Faroe Islands, 3,597 were born in the other two countries of the Kingdom of Denmark (Denmark or Greenland), and 1,614 were born outside the Kingdom of Denmark. People were also asked about their nationality, including Faroese. Children under 15 were not asked about their nationality. 97% said that they were ethnic Faroese, which means that they were born in Denmark or Greenland considered themselves as ethnic Faroese. The other 3% of those older than 15 said they were not Faroese: 515 were Danish, 433 were from other European countries, 147 came from Asia, 65 from Africa, 55 from the Americas, 23 from Russia. [50] The Faroe Islands have people from 77 different nationalities.

If the first inhabitants of the Faroe Islands were Irish monks, then they must have lived as a very small group of settlers. Later, when the Vikings colonized the islands, there was a considerable increase in the population. However, it never exceeded 5,000 until the 19th century. Around 1349, about half the population perished in the Black Death plague.

Only with the rise of the deep-sea fishery (and thus independence from agriculture in the islands’ harsh field) and with general progress in the health service was rapid population growth possible in the Faroes. Beginning in the 19th century, the population increased tenfold in 200 years.

At the beginning of the 1990s, the Faroe Islands entered a deep economic crisis leading to heavy emigration; However, this trend has been reversed to a net immigration. Faroese women leave and are replaced by Asian / Pacific brides. [51] In 2011, there were 2,155 more men than women between the ages of 0 to 59 in the Faroe Islands. [52]

The Faroese population is spread across most of the area; it was not until recently that significant urbanization occurred. Industrialization has been remarkably decentralised, and the area has become a viable rural culture. Nevertheless, villages with poor harbor facilities have been the most important agricultural sites, also known as Útoyggjar”Outer Islands”, there are few young people. In recent decades, the village-based social structure has been placed under pressure, giving way to interconnected centers that are better able to provide services than the badly connected periphery. This means that shops and services are now relocating en masse from the villages to the centers, and slowly but steadily the Faroese population is concentrating in and around the centers.

In the 1990s, the government abandoned the old national policy of developing the villages (Bygdamenning), and a former process of regional development (Økismenning). The term “region” referred to the wide islands of the Faroes. Nevertheless, the government has been unable to achieve sustainable development. As a result of the development of the infrastructure, the interconnected regions.

In general, it is becoming valid to look at the Faroes as a society based on separate islands and regions. The largest investments in roads, bridges and sub-sea tunnels (see also Transport in the Faroe Islands ) From this perspective it is reasonable to look at the Faroes as a city of Faroese Network City . quote needed ]

Language

Main article: Languages ​​of the Faroe Islands

Faroese is spoken in the whole area as a first language. It is difficult to say exactly how many people speak Faroese language, because many ethnic Faroese live in Denmark, and few who are born back to the Faroes with their parents or as adults.

The Faroese language is one of the smallest of the Germanic languages . Written Faroese (grammar and vocabulary) is most similar to Icelandic and to their ancestor Old Norse , though the language is closer to Norwegian dialects of Western Norway . Faroese is the first official language of the island. Danish , the second, is taught in schools and can be used by the Faroese government in public relations. [1]

Faroese language policy provides for the creation of new terms in Faroese suitable for modern life.

Religion

Main article: Religion in the Faroe Islands

Selon the Færeyinga saga , sigmundur brestisson Brought Christianity to the islands in 999. HOWEVER, archeology at a site en Toftanes, Leirvík named Bønhústoftin (English: prayer house ruin) and over a dozen slabs from Ólansgarður in the small island of Skúvoy qui in the hand display encircled linear and outline crosses, suggest that Celtic Christianity may have arrived at least 150 years earlier. [53] The Faroe Islands’ Church Reformation was completed on 1 January 1540. According to official statistics from 2002, 84.1% of the Faroese population are members of the Church, the Church of the Faroe Islands(Fólkakirkjan), a form of Lutheranism . The Fólkakirkjan became an independent church in 2007; it had been a diocese within the Church of Denmark . Faroese members of the clergy who had had historical importance include Venceslaus Ulricus Hammershaimb (1819-1909), Fríðrikur Petersen (1853-1917) and, perhaps most significantly, Jákup Dahl(1878-1944), who had a great influence in ensuring that the Faroese language was spoken in the church instead of Danish . Participation in churches is more prevalent among the Faroese population than among most other Scandinavians.

In the late 1820s, the Christian Evangelical religious movement, the Plymouth Brethren , was established in England. In 1865, a member of this movement, William Gibson Sloan , traveled to Faroes from Shetland . At the turn of the 20th century, the Faroese Plymouth Brethren numbered thirty. Today, around 10% of the Faroese population are members of the Open Brethren community ( Brøðrasamkoman ). About 3% belong to the Charismatic Movement . There are several charismatic churches around the islands, the largest of which, called Keldan (The Spring), has about 200 to 300 members. About 2% belong to other Christian groups. The Adventistsoperate a private school in Tórshavn. Jehovah’s Witnesses also have four congregations with a total of 121 members. The Roman Catholic congregation has 170 members and falls under the jurisdiction of Denmark’s Roman Catholic Diocese of Copenhagen . The municipality of Tórshavn has an old Franciscan school.

There are also around fifteen Bahá’ís who meet at different places. The Ahmadiyyas established a community in the Faroe Islands in 2010. Other countries include Denmark , Sweden and Icelandwith Forn Siðr , the Faroes have no organized Heathen community.

The best-known church buildings in the Faroe Islands include Tórshavn Cathedral , Olaf II of Norway’s Church and the Magnus Cathedral in Kirkjubøur ; the Vesturkirkjan and the Maria Church, both of which are situated in Tórshavn; the church of Fámjin ; the octagonal church in Haldórsvík ; Christianskirkjan in Klaksvík ; and also the two pictured here.

In 1948, Victor Danielsen (Plymouth Brethren) completed the first translation into Faroese from different modern languages. Jacob Dahl and Kristian Osvald Viderø (Fólkakirkjan) completed the second translation in 1961. The latter was translated from the original Biblical languages ​​( Hebrew and Greek ) into Faroese.

According to the 2011 Census, there were 33,018 Christians (95.44%), 23 Muslims (0.07%), 7 Hindus (0.02%), 66 Buddhists (0.19%), 12 Jews (0.03%), 13 Baha’i (0.04%). ), 3 Sikhs(0.01%), 149 others (0.43%), 85 with more than one belief (0.25%), and 1.397 with no religion (4.04%). [54]

Education

Main article: Education in the Faroe Islands

The levels of education in the Faroe Islands are primary , secondary and higher education. Most institutions are funded by the state; There are few private schools in the country. Education is compulsory for 9 years between the ages of 7 and 16. [55]

Compulsory education consists of seven years of primary education and two years of lower secondary education; it is public, free of charge, provided by the respective municipalities, and is called the Fólkaskúli in Faroese. The Fólkaskúli also provides a higher preschool education and is eligible for higher education. Students who complete their education are allowed to continue in a vocational school , where they can have job-specific training and education. Since the fishing industry is an important part of country’s economyMaritime schools are an important part of Faroese education. On completion of the tenth year of Fólkaskúli, students can be found in different types of schools. Higher Education is offered at the University of the Faroe Islands ; a part of Faroese youth moves abroad to pursue higher education, mainly in Denmark . Other forms of education include adult education and music schools. The structure of the Faroese educational system bears resemblances with its Danish counterpart. [55]

In the 12th century , education was provided by the Catholic Church in the Faroe Islands . [56] The Church of Denmark took over education after the Protestant Reformation . [57] Modern educational institutions started operating in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and developed throughout the twentieth century. The status of the language in education was a significant issue for decades, until it was accepted in 1938. [58] Initially education was administered and regulated by Denmark. [58]In 1979, the responsibilities of the authorities in the field of animal health were reviewed. [58]

The Ministry of Education, Research and Culture has the jurisdiction of the Faroe Islands. [59] Since the Faroe Islands is a country of the Danish Realm , education in the Faroe Islands is influenced by the Danish educational system ; There is an agreement on educational cooperation between the Faroe Islands and Denmark. [58] [60] [61] In 2012 the public spending on education was 8.1% of GDP . [62] The municipalities are responsible for the school buildings for children’s education in Folkaskulin from 1st grade to 9th grade or 10th grade (age 7 to 16). [63]In November 2013, 1,615 people, or 6.8% of the total number of employees, were employed in the education sector. [62]Of the 31,270 people aged 25 and above 1,717 (5.5%) have gained at least a master’s degree or a Ph.D. , 8,428 (27%) have gained a B.Sc. or a diploma , 11,706 (37.4%) ) have finished upper secondary education while 9,419 (30.1%) [64] There is no doubt in the Faroe Islands, but the CIA Factbook states that it is probably as high as in Denmark proper, ie 99%. [65]

The majority of students in upper secondary schools are women, but they represent the majority in higher education institutions. In addition, most young Faroese people who are relocating to other countries to study women. [66]Out of 8,535 holders of bachelor degrees , 4,796 (56.2%) have had their education in the Faroe Islands, 2,724 (31.9%) in Denmark, 543 in both the Faroe Islands and Denmark, 94 (1.1%) in Norway, 80 in the United Kingdom and the rest in other countries. [67]Out of 1,719 holders of master’s degrees or PhDs, 1,249 (72.7% have had their education in Denmark, 87 (5.1%) in the United Kingdom, 86 (5%) in both the Faroe Islands and Denmark, 64 (3.7%) in the Faroe Islands, 60 (3.5%) in Norway and the rest in other countries (mostly EU and Nordic). [67] Since there is no medical school in the Faroe Islands, all medical students-have to study abroad, as of 2013 , out of a total of 96 medical students, 76 studied in Denmark, 19 in Poland , and 1 in Hungary . [68]

Economy

Economic disturbances caused by a collapse of the Faroese fishing industry in the early 1990s of the mid-1990s. [69] Unemployment declined in the later 1990s, [69] By June 2008 [] In December 2014 69] In December 2014 69] 70] the unemployment was 3.2%. Nevertheless, the almost total dependence on fishing and fish farming means that the economy remains vulnerable. One of the biggest private companies of the Faroe Islands is the salmon farming company Bakkafrost , which is the largest of the four salmon farming companies in the Faroe Islands [71]and the eighth biggest in the world. [72]

Petroleum founds close to the Faroese area, which provides a basis for sustained economic prosperity. [73]

13% of the Faroe Islands’ national income comes from Denmark . [74] This corresponds to roughly 5% of GDP. [75]

Since 2000, the government has fostered new information technology and business projects to attract new investment. The introduction of Burger King in Tórshavn was widely publicized as a sign of the globalization of Faroese culture. It remains to be seen that these projects will succeed in broadening the islands’ economic base. The United States, but this should not necessarily be taken into account as a result of a high school economy. This leaves a great deal of middle-aged and elderly people who lack the skills and knowledge to fill newly developed positions on the Faroes. Nonetheless, in 2008 the Faroes were able to make a $ 52 million loan to Iceland to help with that country’s banking woes. [76]

On 5 August 2009, two opposition party Introduced a bill in the Løgting to adopt the euro as the national currency, pending a referendum. [77]

Transport

By road, the main islands are connected by bridges and tunnels. Government owned Strandfaraskip Landsins provides public bus and ferry service to the main towns and villages. There are no railways.

By air, the government owned Atlantic Airways provides services to each of the islands. Atlantic Airways and other airlines have scheduled international flights to Vágar Airport , the islands’ only airport. All civil aviation matters are controlled by the Civil Aviation Administration Denmark .

By sea, the Smyril Line operates a regular international, passenger and freight service linking the Faroe Islands with Seyðisfjörður , Iceland and Hirtshals , Denmark. [78]

Because of the rocky terrain in the Faroe Islands, its road transport system was not when? ] as extensive as in other places of the world. This situation has changed, and the infrastructure has been developed extensively. Some 80 percent of the population of the islands is connected by tunnels through the mountains, and bridges and causeways that link the three largest islands and three other larger and smaller islands to the northeast. Sandoy and Suðuroy, Sandoy and Suðuroy, are connected to the main area with ferriesKoltur and Stóra Dímun have no ferry connection, only helicopter service. Other small islands-Mykines in the west, Kalsoy, Svínoy and Fugloy in the north, Hestur west of Streymoy, and Nólsoy east of Tórshavn-have smaller ferries and some of these islands even helicopter service. In February 2014 all the political parties of the Løgting agreed on one of two sub-tunnels, one between Streymoy and Eysturoy (the Eysturoyartunnilin ) and one between Streymoy and Sandoy ( Sandoyartunnilin ). The plan is that both tunnels should open in 2021 and they will not be private. [79] The work to dig the Eysturoy-tunnel started on 1 March 2016 above the village of Hvítanes near Tórshavn.[80]

Culture

Main article: Culture of the Faroe Islands

The culture of the Faroe Islands has its roots in the Nordic culture. The Faroe Islands have been long-lived in Europe and Europe. This means that they have maintained a great part of their traditional culture. The language spoken is Faroese and it is one of three insular North Germanic languages Descended from the Old Norse language spoken in Scandinavia in the Viking Age , the others being white Icelandic and the extinct Norn , qui est-have-been thought to Mutually intelligible with Faroese. Until the 15th century, Faroese had a similar orthography to Icelandic and Norwegian, but after the Reformation in 1538, the Norwegians outlawed its use in schools, churches and official documents. Although it has survived, it has not been written down. This means that all poems and stories were handed down orally. These works were split into the following divisions: sagnir (historical), ævintır (stories) and kvæði (ballads), often set to music and the medieval chain dance. These were eventually written down in the 19th century.

Faroese literature

Faroese written literature has only really developed in the past 100-200 years. This is because of isolation, and also because the Faroese language was not written down until 1890. The Danish language was also encouraged at the expense of Faroese. Nevertheless, the Faroes have produced several authors and poets. A rich centuries-old oral tradition of folk tales and Faroese folk songs accompanied by the Faroese chain dance . The people learned these songs and stories by heart, and told or sung them to each other, teaching the younger generations too. This kind of literature was collected in the 19th century and early 20th century. The Faroese folk songs, in Faroese called kvæðiare still in use. Some of the Faroese folk songs have been used by the Faroese Viking metal band Týr , ie, Ormurin Langi . [81]

The first Faroese novel , Bábelstornið by Reginí Líð , was published in 1909; the second novel was published 18 years later. In the period 1930 to 1940 writer from the town Skálavík we Sandoy island, Heðin Brú , published three novels: Lognbrá (1930), Fastatøkur (1935) and Feðgar á Ferd (English title: The old man and his sounds ) (1940) . Feðgar á ferð has been translated into several other languages. Martin Joensen from Sandví wrote about life on Faroese fishing vessels; he published the novels Fiskimenn (1946) [82] andTað lýsir á landi (1952).

Well-known poets from the early 20th century Among Others are the two brothers from Torshavn Hans Andrias Djurhuus (1883-1951) [83] and Janus Djurhuus (1881-1948), [84] other Well Known poets from this period and the Mid 20th century are Poul F. Joensen (1898-1970), [85] Regin Dahl (1918-2007) [86] and Tummas Napoleon Djurhuus (1928-71). [87] Their poems are popular today and can be found in Faroese song books and school books. Jens Pauli Heinesen (1932-2011), a school teacher from Sandavagur , was the most productive Faroese novelist, published 17 novels.Steinbjørn B. Jacobsen (1937-2012), a schoolteacher from Sandvík , wrote short stories, plays, children’s books and even novels. Most Faroese writers write in Faroese; two exceptions are William Heinesen (1900-91) and Jørgen-Frantz Jacobsen (1900-38).

Women were not visible in the early Faroese literature except for Helena Patursson (1864-1916), but in the last decades of the 20th century and in the beginning of the 21st century female writers Ebba Hentze (born 1933) wrote children’s books, short stories, etc. Guðrið Helmsdal published the first modernistic collection of poems, Lýtt lot , in 1963, which at the same time was the first collection of Faroese poems written by a woman. [88] Her daughter, Rakel Helmsdal (born 1966), is also a writer, best known for her children’s books, for which she has several prizes and nominations. Other female writers are the novelists Oddvør Johansen(born 1941), Bergtóra Hanusardóttir (born 1946) and novelist / children’s writers Marianna Debes Dahl (born 1947), and Sólrun Michelsen (born 1948). Other modern Faroese writers include Gunnar Hoydal (born 1941), Hanus Kamban (born 1942), Jógvan Isaksen (born 1950), Jóanes Nielsen (born 1953), Tóroddur Poulsen and Carl Jóhan Jensen (born 1957). Some of these writers have been nominated for the Nordic Council’s Literature Prize two to six times, but have never won it. The only Faroese writer who writes in Faroese who has won the prize is the poet Rói Patursson(born 1947), who won the prize in 1986 for Líkasum . [89]

In the 21st century, some new writers had success in the Faroe Islands and abroad. Bárður Oskarsson (born 1972) is a child’s book writer and illustrator; his books won prizes in the Faroes, Germany and the West Nordic Council ‘s Children and Youth Literature Prize (2006). Matthew Landrum, an American poet and editor for the Structo magazine, has written a collection of poems about the Islands. Sissal Kampmann (born 1974) won the Danish literary prize Klaus Rifbjerg’s Debutant Prize (2012), and Rakel Helmsdal won Faroese and Icelandic awards; she has been nominated for the West Nordic Council’s Children and Youth Literature Prizeand the Children and Youth Literature Prize of the Nordic Council (representing Iceland, wrote the book together with Icelandic and a Swedish writer / illustrator). Marjun Syderbø Kjelnæs (born 1974) Skriva í sandin for teenagers; the book was awarded and nominated both in the Faroes and in other countries. She won the Nordic Children’s Book Prize (2011) for this book, White Raven Deutsche Jugendbibliothek (2011) and nominated the West Nordic Council’s Children and Youth Literature Prize and the Children’s Literature Prize of the Nordic Council (2013). [90]

Music

Main article: Music of the Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands have an active music scene, with live music being a part of the Islands’ life and many Faroese being proficient at a number of instruments. Multiple Danish Music Award Winner Teitur Lassen calls the Faroes home and is arguably the Islands’ most internationally well-known musical export.

The Islands have their own orchestra (the classical ensemble Aldubáran ) and many different choirs; the best-known of these is Havnarkórið . The best-known local Faroese composers are Sunleif Rasmussen and Kristian Blak , who is also head of the record company Tutl . The first Faroese opera was by Sunleif Rasmussen. It is Entitled Í Óðamansgarði (The Madman’s Garden) and Was it premiered 12 October 2006 at the Nordic House. The opera is based on a short story by the writer William Heinesen .

Young Faroese musicians-have Who Gained much popularity recently are Eivør Pálsdóttir Anna Katrin Egilstrøð Lena (Lena Andersen) Høgni Reistrup , Høgni Lisberg , HEIÐRIK ( Heiðrik á Heygum ) Gudrid Hansdottir and Brandur Enni .

Well-known bands include Týr , Gestir, Hamferð , The Ghost , Boys in a Band , ORKA , 200 , Grandma’s Basement, CIS , and the band form Clickhaze.

The festival of contemporary and classical music, Summartónar , is held each summer. The G! Festival in Norðragøta in July and Summarfestivalurin in Klaksvík in August are both large, open-air music festivals for popular music with both local and international musicians participating. The world renowned Zappa Jazz Festival will be held August 2016.

The Nordic House in the Faroe Islands

The Nordic House in the Faroe Islands ( Faroese : Norðurlandahúsið ) is the most important cultural institution in the Faroes. Its aim is to support and promote Scandinavian and Faroese culture, locally and in the Nordic region. Erlendur Patursson (1913-86), Faroese member of the Nordic Council , raised the idea of ​​a Nordic cultural house in the Faroe Islands. A Nordic competition for architects was held in 1977, in which 158 architects participated. Winners were Ola Steen from Norway and Kolbrún Ragnarsdóttir from Iceland . By staying true to folkloreThe architects built the Nordic House to resemble an enchanted hill of elves . The house opened in Tórshavn in 1983. The Nordic House is a cultural organization under the Nordic Council. The Nordic House is run by a steering committee of eight, of which three are Faroese and five of other Nordic countries. There is also a local advisory body of fifteen members, representing Faroese cultural organizations. The House is managed by a director appointed by the steering committee for a four-year term.

Traditional food

Main article: Faroese cuisine

Traditional Faroese food is mainly based on meat, seafood and vegetables. Mutton of the Faroe sheep is the basis of Many meals, and one of the Most Popular treats is skerpikjøt , well aged, wind-dried mutton, qui est quite chewy. The drying shed, known as a hjallur , is a standard feature in Faroese homes, particularly in the small towns and villages. Other traditional foods are ræst kjøt (semi-dried mutton) and ræstur fiskur , matured fish. Another Faroese specialty is tvøst og spik , pilot whale meat and blubber . (A parallel meat / fat dish made with offal isgarnatálg .) Meat and blubber from a pilot whale means food for a long time. Fresh fish also features in the traditional local diet, as do seabirds , such as Faroese puffins , and their eggs. Dried fish is also commonly eaten.

There are two breweries in the Faroe Islands. The first brewery is called Föroya Bjór and has produced beer since 1888 with exports mainly to Iceland and Denmark. The second brewery is called Okkara Bryggjarí and was founded in 2010. A local specialty is fredrikk , a special brew made in Nólsoy . Production of hard alcohol Such As snaps is forbidden in the Faroe Islands, hence the Faroese aquavit is Produced abroad.

Since the friendly British occupation, the Faroese have been bottom of British food, in particular fish and chips and British-style chocolate such as Cadbury Dairy Milk , which is found in many of the island’s shops, while in Denmark this is scarce.

Whaling

There are records of drive hunts in the Faroe Islands dating from 1584. [91] Whaling in the Faroe Islands is regulated by Faroese authorities but not by the International Whaling Commissionas there are disagreements about the Commission’s legal authority to regulate this type of hunts. Hundreds of long-finned pilot whales ( Globicephala melaena ) could be killed in a year, especially during the summer. The hunts, called grindadrápin Faroese, are non-commercial and are organized on a community level; anyone can participate. When a whale is in the water, the pilot is in the driver’s seat. [92]When a pod of whales has been stranded the killing is begun. Faroese animal welfare legislation, which also applies to whaling, requires that animals be killed as soon as possible. Spinal cord regulation is also used to describe the major blood supply to the brain. The spinal has been shown to have been introduced to reduce the time to 1-2 seconds. [92]

This “grindadráp” is legal and provides food for many people in the Faroe Islands. [93] [94] [95] HOWEVER, a study HAS found whale meat and blubber to Currently be contaminated with mercury and not recommended for human consumption, as too much May because opposing Such health effects have birth defects of the nervous system, high blood pressure, damaged immune system, Increased risk for Developing Parkinson’s disease , hypertension , arteriosclerosis , and Diabetes mellitus type 2 :

Therefore we recommend that adults eat more meals. Women who plan to become pregnant within three months, pregnant women, and nursing women should abstain from eating pilot whale meat. Pilot whale liver and kidneys should not be eaten at all. [96]

Most Faroese Islanders consider the hunt an important part of their culture and history. Animal rights groups , such as the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society , criticize it as it is cruel and unnecessary, since it is necessary for them to be a food source for the Faroese people, or its economic significance.

The sustainability of the Faroese pilot whales has been discussed, but with a long-term average catch of around 800 pilot whales on the Faroe Islands a year is not considered to have a significant impact on the pilot whale population. There are an estimated 128,000 pilot whales in the Northeast Atlantic, and Faroese whaling is therefore considered a sustainable catch by the Faroese government. [97] Annual records of whales and strandings of pilot whales and other small cetaceans provide over 400 years of documentation, including statistics, and represent one of the most comprehensive historical records of wildlife use anywhere in the world. [92]

Sports

The Faroe Islands have been competing in every year of the Island Games since they were established in 1985. The games were hosted by the islands in 1989 and Faroes won the Island Games in 2009 .

Football is by far the biggest sports activity on the islands, with 7,000 registered players out of the total population of 50,000. Ten football teams contests the Faroe Islands Premier League , currently ranked 51st by UEFA’s League coefficient . The Faroe Islands are a full member of the UEFA and the Faroe Islands national football team competing in the UEFA European Football Championship qualifiers. The country is also a full member of FIFA and the Faroe Islands football team also competes in the FIFA World Cup qualifiers. The country won its first ever competitive match when the team defeated Austria1-0 in a UEFA Euro 1992 qualifying. The nation’s biggest success in football came in 2014 after defeating Greece 1-0, a result that was considered “the biggest shock of all time” in football [98] thanks to a 169-place distance between the teams in the FIFA World Rankings when the match was played. The team climbed 82 places to 105 on the FIFA rankings after the 1-0 win against Greece. [99] The team went on to defeat Greece again on 13 June 2015 by a score of 2-1. On 9 July 2015 the national football team of the Faroes climbed another 28 places up on the FIFA ranking. [100]

IHF Emerging Nations Championship has been played twice, starting in 2015, and Faroe Islands national handball team has won both editions.

The Faroe Islands are a full member of FINA and compete under their own flag at World Championships, European Championships and World Cup events. The Faroese swimmer Pál Joensen (born 1990) won a bronze medal at the 2012 FINA World Swimming Championships (25 m) [101] and four silver medals at the European Championships ( 2010 , 2013 and 2014 ), [102] all medals won in the men’s longest and second longest distance the 1500 and 800 meter freestyle, short and long course. The Faroe Islands compete in the Paralympics and have won 1 gold, 7 silvers and 5 bronze medals since 1984 Summer Paralympics .

Two Faroese athletes have competed at the Olympics, but under the Danish flag , since the Olympic Committee does not allow the Faroe Islands to compete under its own flag. The two Faroese who have competed in Pál Joensen in 2012 and the rower Katrin Olsen . She competed at the 2008 Summer Olympics in double sculler light weight together with Juliane Rasmussen . Another Faroese rower, who is a member of the Danish National Rowing Team, is Sverri Sandberg Nielsen, who currently competes in single sculler, heavy weight, he has also competed in double sculler. He is the current Danish record holder in the men’s indoor rowing, heavy weight; he broke out in a nine-year-old record in January 2015 [103] and improved it in January 2016. [104] He also competed at the 2015 World Rowing Championships making it to the semifinal; he competed at the 2015 World Rowing Championship under-23 and made it to the end where he placed fourth. [105]

The Faroe Islands Applied to the IOC for full Faroese membership in 1984, but as of 2017 the Faroe Islands are still a member of the IOC. but in the 2015 European Games in Baku, Azerbaijan, and the Faroe Islands were not allowed to compete under the Faroese flag; They were, however, allowed to compete under the European Swimming League flag.Before this, the Faroese Prime Minister Kaj Leo Holm Johannesen had a meeting with the IOC President Thomas Bach in Lausanne on 21 May 2015 to discuss Faroese membership in the IOC. [106] [107]

Faroese people are very active in sports; they have domestic competitions in football, handball, volleyball, badminton, swimming, outdoor rowing (Faroese kappróður) and indoor rowing in rowing machines, horse riding, shooting, table tennis, judo, golf, tennis, archery, gymnastics, cycling , triathlon, running, and other competitions in athletics. [108]

During 2014, Faroe Islands was given the opportunity to compete in the Electronic Sports European Championship (ESEC) in E-Sports . [109] 5 players, all of Faroese nationality, faced Slovenia in the first round, eventually getting knocked out with a 0-2 score. [110]

At the 2016 Baku Olympiad Chess , the Faroe Islands got their first grandmaster chess. Helgi Ziska won his third GM norm and thus won the title of grandmaster chess. [111]

Clothing

Not to be confused with Fair Isle (technical) .

Faroese handicrafts are mainly based on local village-wool. Garments include jumpers, scarves, and gloves. Faroese jumpers have distinct Nordic patterns; each village has some regional variations handed down from mother to daughter. There is a strong revival of interest in Faroese knitting, with young people knitting and wearing. This is a reaction to the loss of traditional lifestyles, and a way to maintain and assert cultural tradition in a rapidly-changing society. Many young people study and move abroad, and this helps them maintain cultural links with their specific Faroese heritage.

There has been a great interest in Faroese sweaters [112] from the TV series The Killing , where the main actress (Detective Inspector Sarah Lund, played by Sofie Gråbøl ) wears Faroese sweaters. quote needed ]

Lace knitting is a traditional handicraft. The most distinctive trait of Faroese lace shawls is the center-back gusset shaping. Each shawl consists of two triangular side panels, a trapezoid-shaped back gusset, an edge treatment, and usually shoulder shaping. These are worn by all generations of women, particularly as part of the traditional Faroese costume as an overgarment.

The traditional Faroese national dress is a local handicap that people spend a lot of time, money, and effort to assemble. It is worn at weddings and traditional dancing events, and on feast days. The cultural significance of the garment should not be underestimated, both as an expression of local and national identity and a passing on and reinforcing of traditional skills that bind local communities together.

A young Faroese is a child who has passed a set of children’s clothes that have passed from generation to generation. Children are confirmed at age 14, and usually start to collect an adult outfit, which is considered a rite of passage. Traditionally the bride would have loved to be married, but it would be very easy to do it.

Each piece is intricately hand-knitted, dyed, woven or embroidered to the specifications of the wearer. For example, the man’s waistcoat is handmade in bright blue, red or black fine wool. The front is then intricately embroidered with colorful silk threads, often by a relative female. The grounds are often local Faroese flowers or herbs. After this, a row of Faroese-made solid silver buttons are sewn on the outfit.

Women wear embroidered silk, cotton or wool shawls and pinafores that can be used to weave gold or embroider with local flora and fauna. They are also adorned with a black and red ankle-length skirt, knitted black and red jumper, with a velvet belt, and black 18th century style shoes with silver buckles. The outfit is held together by a row of solid silver buttons, silver chains and locally-made silver brooches and belt buckles, often fashioned with Viking style patterns.

Both men’s and women’s dresses are extremely costly and can take many years to assemble. Women in the family often work together to assemble the outfits, including knitting the close-fitting jumpers, weaving and embroidering, sewing and assembling the national dress.

This tradition binds together families, passes on traditional crafts, and reinforces the Faroese culture of traditional village life in the context of a modern society.

Public holidays

Ólavsøka is on 29 July; it commemorates the death of Saint Olaf . The celebrations are held in Tórshavn, starting on the evening of the 28th and continuing until the 31st. 28 July is a half working day for the members of the labor unions, while Ólavsøkudagur (St Olaf’s Day) on July 29th is a full holiday. [113] [114]

The official celebration starts on the 29th, with the opening of the Faroese Parliament , a custom that dates back 900 years. [115] This begins with a service held in Tórshavn Cathedral ; all members of parliament as civilians and church officials walk to the cathedral in a procession. All of the parish ministers take turns giving the sermon. After the service, the procession returns to the parliament for the opening ceremony.

The most popular, art exhibitions, pop concerts, and the famous Faroese dance in Sjónleikarhúsið and on Vaglið outdoor singing July 30). The celebrations have many facets, and only a few are mentioned here.

Many people also mark the occasion by wearing the Faroese national dress.

  • New Year’s Day , 1 January.
  • Maundy Thursday
  • Good Friday
  • Easter Sunday
  • Easter Monday
  • Flag day , 25 April.
  • General / Great Prayer Day ( Dýri biðidagur ), 4th Friday after Easter.
  • Ascension Day
  • Whit Sunday
  • Whit Monday
  • Constitution Day , 5 June (half-day holiday).
  • St.Olav’s Eve , July 28 (half-day holiday for some workers’ unions).
  • St.Olav’s Day , July 29 (full holiday for some workers’ unions).
  • Christmas Eve , December 24
  • Christmas Day , 25 December.
  • Boxing Day , 26 December.
  • New Year’s Eve , December 31st (half-day holiday).

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