Euboea

Euboea or Evia [1] ( / Ju b i ə / ; Greek : Εύβοια , Evvoia , pronounced [Evia] ; Ancient Greek : Εὔβοια , EUBOIA , [eúboja] ) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after- Crete . The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; It is about 180 km (110 mi) long, and varies in breadth from 50 km (31 mi) to 6 km (3.7 mi). Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros , Tinos and Mykonos .

It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea , which also includes Skyros and a small area of ​​the Greek mainland.

Name

Further information: Euboea (mythology)

Like most of the Greek islands, Euboea Was Originally Known under other names in Antiquity , Such As Macris (Μάκρις) and Doliche (Δολίχη) from ict elongated shape, gold Ellopia , Aonia and Abantis from the tribes inhabiting it. Its former and current name, Εὔβοια, derives from the words εὖ “good”, and βοῦς “ox”, meaning “the land of the well-fed oxen”.

In the Middle Ages , the island was often referred to by Byzantine authors of the name of its capital, Chalcis (Χαλκίς) or Euripos (Εὔριπος, the name of the strait that separates the island from the Greek mainland), though the ancient name Euboea remained in use by classicizing authors until the 15th century.

The phrase στὸν Εὔριπον ‘to Evripos’, rebracketed as στὸ Νεὔριπον ‘to Nevripos’, became Negroponte in Italian by folk etymology , the ponte ‘bridge’ being interpreted as the bridge of Chalcis. [2] That name ENTERED common use in the West in the 13th century, [3] with other variants being white Egripons, Negripo, and Negropont. [2]

Under Ottoman rule, the island and its capital have been known as Eğriboz or Ağriboz, again after the Euripos strait.

Euboea was believed to have originally been part of the mainland, and to have been separated from it by an earthquake . This is fairly likely, Because It lies in the neighborhood of a fault line , and Both Thucydides and Strabo write que le northern portion of the island HAD-been shaken at different periods. In the neighborhood of Chalcis , both to the north and the south, the bays are so conquered to make plausible the story of Agamemnon ‘s fleet. At Chalcis itself, where the strait is narrowest at only 40 m, it is called the Euripus Strait. The extraordinary changes of tide that took place in this passage. At one moment the current runs like a river in one direction, and shortly afterwards with equal velocity in the other. A bridge was first constructed here in the twenty-first year of the Peloponnesian War (410 BC).

Geography and nature divide the island itself into three distinct parts: the fertile and forested north, the mountainous center, with agriculture limited to the coastal valleys, and the barren south. [3]

The main mountains include Dirfi (1,743 m, 5,719 ft), Pyxaria (1,341 m, 4,400 ft) in the northeast and Ochi (1,394 m, 4,573 ft). The neighboring gulfs are the Pagasetic Gulf in the north, Malian Gulf , North Euboean Gulf in the west, the Euboic Sea and the Petalion Gulf . It has a population of 198,130, and a total land area of ​​3,684 square kilometers (1,422 sq mi).

History

Antiquity

The history of the island of Euboea is largely that of its two principal cities, Chalcis and Eretria, both mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships. Both cities were settled by Ionian Greeks from Attica, and would eventually settle numerous colonies in Magna Graecia and Sicily, such as Cumae and Rhegium, and on the coast of Macedonia. This opened new trade routes to the Greeks, and extended the reach of western civilization.[4] The commercial influence of these city-states is evident in the fact that the Euboic scale of weights and measures was used among the Ionic cities generally, and in Athensuntil the end of the 7th century BC, during the time of Solon . citation needed ] The classicist Barry B. Powell has proposed that Euboea may have been where the Greek alphabet was first employed, c. 775-750 BC, and that Homer may have spent part of his life on the island. [5]

Chalcis and Eretria were rival cities, and appear to be equally powerful for a while. One of the earliest major military conflicts in Greek history took place, known as the Lelantine War , in which many other Greek city-states also took part. [6] Following the infamous battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium , Persian forces captured and sacked Athens , [7] and also took Euboea, Boeotia, and Attica , [8] allowing them to overrun almost all of Greece. In 490 BC, Eretria was utterly ruined and its inhabitants were transported to Persia [clarification needed ]. Though it was restoring its original site after theBattle of Marathon, the city never regained its eminence.

Euboea as a strategic territory. Euboea was an important source of grain and cattle , and controlled the island of Athens could prevent invasion and better protect its trade routes from piracy .

Athens invaded Chalcedon in 506 BC and settled 4,000 Attic Greeks on their lands. After this conflict, the whole of the island was reduced to an Athenian dependency. [9] [ citation needed ]Another struggle between Euboea and Athens broke out in 446. Led by Pericles , the Athenians subdued the revolt, and captured Histiaea in the north of the island for their own settlement.

By 410 BC, the island succeeded in regaining its independence. Euboea participated in Philip II of Macedon after the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, and eventually being incorporated into the Roman Republic in the second century BC. Aristotle died on the island in 322 BC soon after fleeing Athens for his mother’s family estate in Chalcis. From the early Hellenistic period to the Roman Imperial period , the island was organized in the Euboean League .

Based on the records of the 2nd century, AD geographer Pausanias , it is believed that the Titan god Crius is an indigenous deity. [10]

Middle Ages

Euboea was spared the bulk of the barbarian raids during Late Antiquity and the early medieval period. The Vandals raided icts shores in 466 and in 475, aim the island Seems To-have-been left alone by the Avars and Slavs , and It Was not up to it has failed Arab attack Chalcis in the 870s que la cam island again under threat. [3] As a result, the island preserved a relative prosperity throughout the early medieval period, as attested by the findings of mosaics, churches and sculpture throughout the 7th century, “even from remote areas of the island”. In the 6th century, the Synecdemus listed four cities on the island, Aidipsos, Chalcis Porthmos (modern Aliveri ) and Karystos , and a number of other sites are Known As bishoprics in the subsequent centuries ( Oreoi and Avlon ) ALTHOUGH Their urban character is unclear. [3] In the 8th century, Euboea formed a separate fiscal district ( dioikesis ), and then formed part of the theme of Hellas . [3]

In 1157 all the coastal towns of Euboea were destroyed by a Sicilian force, [11] while Chalcis was burned down by the Venetians in 1171. [3]

Euboea came into prominence following the Fourth Crusade . In the partition of the Byzantine Empire by the crusaders after 1204, the island was occupied by a number of Lombard families, who divided it into three (later six) baronies. The island’s rulers came early in the influence of the Venetian Republic , which became more firmly established in the United States of America in the War of the Euboote Succession and gradually expanded its control, until they acquired full sovereignty by 1390.

On 12 July 1470, during the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1463-1479 and after a protracted and bloody siege , the well-fortified city of Negroponte (Chalcis) was wrought from Venice by Mehmed II and the whole island fell into the hands of the Ottoman Empire . Although the name does not exist in the European Union until the 19th century, the Turks themselves called the city Eğriboz or Ağriboz after the Euripos Strait. Under Ottoman rule, Ağriboz was the seat of a sanjak encompassing much of Continental Greece as well.

At the conclusion of the Greek War of Independence in 1830, the island constituted a part of the newly established independent Greek kingdom .

Modern period

This paper is related to the past, and it is also accessible from Thebes , and another which bypasses Chalcis and is accessed from Athens. All of Euboea’s modern bridges are suspended .

In the 1980s, the Dystos Lake was filled with grass which was set on fire by farmers to make more farmland. This act caused devastation of the plant and the environment. citation needed ] A part of the lake later regenerated. Also the municipalities of Anthidona and Avlida in the mid to late 20th century, which were part of Boeotia , reverted to Chalkis. citation needed ] Since then, the postal codes corresponded with the rest of Euboea, including Skyros.

Demographics

The population of the island according to the census of 2001 was 198,130, making it the second most populous island of Greece. As a whole the Euboeans share a cultural identity similar to that of the people in the rest of Central Greece and they speak a southern variety of Greek . In the southern part of the island there are Arvanite communities, with the area south of Alvergne being the northernmost limit of their presence in Euboea. Sarakatsani and Vlachs respectively, but nowadays they have abandoned the nomadic way of life and live permanently in the towns and villages across the island.

Economics

include magnesite in Mantoudi and Limni , lignite in Aliveri and iron and nickel from Dirfys . Marble is mined 3 km (2 mi) north of Eretria which includes Marmor Chalcidicumand asbestos in the northeastern part of Carystus in the Okhi mountain . The trees include chestnuts .

Transport

  • Greek National Road 44 , Cen., S, SE
  • National Road 77 NW, N, W, Cen.

Local administration

The island belongs to Euboea, which also includes two municipalities on the mainland, Anthidona and Avlida , as well as the island of Skyros . Population of 215,136 inhabitants, the island had a population of 198,130. The prefecture’s land area is 4,167,449 km 2 (65 sq mi), while the total area of ​​the islands is 3,684,848 km 2 (264 sq mi), which includes a number of small offshore islets ( Petalioi ) near Euboea’s southeastern tip.

Notable people

  • Sotiria Bellou (1921-1997), singer
  • Mordechai Frizis (1893-1940), Romaniote general who helped defeat the fascist Italy’s Julia Division in southern Albania during the Greco-Italian War
  • Konstantinos Kallias (9 July 1901 – 7 April 2004), politician
  • Nikolaos Kriezotis , leader of the Greek Revolution on Euboea
  • Giannis Lambrou (1921-1996), star athlete (basketball, track and field, volleyball). Captain of Greek National Basketball Team and participated in 1948 London Olympics and 1952 Helsinki Games.
  • Orestis Makris (1898-1975), actor and tenor
  • Georgios Papanikolaou (1883-1962) physician, a pioneer in cytology and early cancer detection
  • Nikos Skalkottas (1901-1949), composing
  • Giannis Skarimpas , writer
  • St. David of Euboea , 16th-century saint (from the village of Gardinitsa ) who built a dedicated church to the Transfiguration
  • Elder Porphyrios , Holy Father of the Orthodox Church

Sporting teams

  • Football: Chalkida FC -Chalkida, third division
  • Basketball: Chalkida BC -Chalkida, Greek A2 League

References

  1. Jump up^ Euboea / Ju b i ə / is a transliteration from theAncient Greek:Εύβοια,Euboia [eúboja] , whileEviaandEvviaReflect theModern Greekpronunciation [Evia] .
  2. ^ Jump up to:b Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire . JB Bury, ed, Methuen, 1898 p. 6 : 390 , footnote 69
  3. ^ Jump up to:f Gregory, Timothy E .; Ševčenko, Nancy Patterson (1991). “Euboea”. In Kazhdan, Alexander . The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium . Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 736-737. ISBN  978-0-19-504652-6 .
  4. Jump up^ Lane Fox, Robin. Traveling Heroes(London: Penguin, 2008)passim
  5. Jump up^ Powell, Barry B. “Did Homer Sing at Lefkandi?” . Scholar.lib.vt.edu . Retrieved 23 December 2017 .
  6. Jump up^ Thucydides:History of the Peloponnesian War. I 15.
  7. Jump up^ John David Lewis. Nothing Less Than Victory: Decisive Wars and the Lessons of History Princeton University Press, Jan. 25 2010ISBN 1400834309p 34
  8. Jump up^ Lazenby, John Francis (23 December 1993). “The Defense of Greece, 490-479 BC” . Aris & Phillips . Retrieved 23 December 2017 – via Google Books.
  9. Jump up^ “Ancient Coins Forum” . Ancient Coins Forum . Retrieved 2018-01-11 .
  10. Jump up^ “CRIUS (Krios) – Titan Greek God of the Constellations” . Theoi.com . Retrieved 23 December 2017 .
  11. Jump up^ Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium: The Decline and Fall(New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996) p. 116

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