Elba

Elba ( Italian : Elba isola , pronounced [iːzola delba] , Latin : Ilva , Ancient Greek : Αἰθαλία, Aithalia ) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany , Italy , 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) from the coastal town of Piombino . Elba is the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago . Elba is also part of the Arcipelago Toscano National Park , [2] and the third largest island in Italy , after Sicily and Sardinia. It is located in the Tyrrhenian Sea , about 50 kilometers (30 mi) east of the French island of Corsica .

The island is part of the province of Livorno and is divided into eight municipalities, with a total population of about 30,000 inhabitants, which increases during the summer. The municipalities are Portoferraio , which is also the island’s main town, along with Campo nell’Elba , Capoliveri , Marciana , Marciana Marina , Porto Azzurro , Rio .

Geology

Elba is the largest remaining stretch of land that is connected to the Italian peninsula to Corsica. The northern coast faces the Ligurian Sea, the southern coast of the Piombino Channel, the southern coast Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Corsica Channel divides the western tip of the island from Neighboring Corsica.

The island itself is made up of slices of rocks which formed part of the ancient Tethyan seafloor. [3] These rocks have been at least two orogenies , the Alpine orogeny and the Apennine orogeny . The second of these two events is associated with the subterdation of the oceanic tethyan crust underneath Italy and the obduction of parts of the ancient seafloor on the continents. The extension of the Apennine mountains causes the intrusion of the Mount Capanne and the Serra-Porto Azzuro granitoids. These igneous bodies brought with themskarnfluids, which is one of the carbonate units, precipitating iron -rich minerals in their place. One of the iron -rich minerals, ilvaite , was first identified on the island and took its name from the Latin word for Elba. More recently, high-angle faults formed within the tectonic stack, allowing for the migration of iron -rich fluids through the crust. The deposits left behind by these fluids formed the island’s rich seams of iron ore .

The field is quite varied, and is thus divided into several areas based on geomorphology . The mountainous and most recent part of the island, the center of which is dominated by Mount Capanne (1,018 meters / 3,340 ft), also called the “roof of the Tuscan Archipelago”. The mountain is home to many species of the mouflon and wild boar , two species that flourish despite the continuous influx of tourists. The central part of the island is only one kilometer away (2.5 miles). It is where the major centers can be found: Portoferraio, Campo nell’Elba. To the east is the oldest part of the island, formed over 3 million years ago. [4]In the hilly area, dominated by Monte Calamita, are the deposits of iron that made Elba famous.

Hydrography

Rivers rarely exceed 3 kilometers (2 miles) in length, and it is common for the shorter ones to dry up during the summer. The largest rivers, sorted by length, are:

  • Fosso San Francesco 6.5 kilometers (4.0 mi);
  • Fosso Barion, 5.1 kilometers (3.2 mi);
  • Fosso Redinoce, 2 kilometers (1.2 mi)

Between Poggio and Marciana, at the foot of Mount Capanne, is a spring called Fonte Napoleone, known for its quality.

Climate

The climate of the island is predominantly Mediterranean, except for Mount Capanne, where winters tend to be moderately cold. Precipitation is a normal rainfall. The island lies in the rain shadow of the wide and mountainous island of Corsica, so precipitation totals are lessened from the mainland (most of the island receives less than 750 mm (30 inches) annually). Snowfall in winter is rare in the lowlands, and melts quickly. The table below shows the average temperatures for the islands by month.

[ hide ]Climate data for Elba
month Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Record high ° C (° F) 16.2
(61.2)
18.0
(64.4)
20.0
(68)
22.4
(72.3)
29.6
(85.3)
32.0
(89.6)
34.3
(93.7)
36.1
(97)
32.0
(89.6)
25.0
(77)
24.6
(76.3)
16.8
(62.2)
36.1
(97)
Average high ° C (° F) 9.6
(49.3)
10.0
(50)
12.0
(53.6)
14.2
(57.6)
18.8
(65.8)
22.7
(72.9)
26.5
(79.7)
26.7
(80.1)
22.6
(72.7)
18.0
(64.4)
13.4
(56.1)
10.5
(50.9)
17.08
(62.76)
Daily mean ° C (° F) 7.4
(45.3)
7.5
(45.5)
9.2
(48.6)
11.4
(52.5)
15.6
(60.1)
19.3
(66.7)
22.7
(72.9)
23.1
(73.6)
19.5
(67.1)
15.4
(59.7)
11.2
(52.2)
8.5
(47.3)
14.23
(57.63)
Average low ° C (° F) 5.3
(41.5)
5.0
(41)
6.3
(43.3)
8.5
(47.3)
12.3
(54.1)
15.8
(60.4)
19.0
(66.2)
19.5
(67.1)
16.4
(61.5)
12.9
(55.2)
9.0
(48.2)
6.5
(43.7)
11.38
(52.46)
Record low ° C (° F) -7.4
(18.7)
-4.4
(24.1)
-5.4
(22.3)
1.2
(34.2)
3.4
(38.1)
5.0
(41)
12.2
(54)
11.6
(52.9)
7.6
(45.7)
2.0
(35.6)
-1.0
(30.2)
-5.4
(22.3)
-7.4
(18.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 59.5
(2.343)
75.6
(2.976)
56.2
(2.213)
57.8
(2.276)
31.6
(1,244)
26.8
(1.055)
13.8
(0.543)
41.5
(1.634)
75.0
(2.953)
101.6
(4)
88.7
(3.492)
50.5
(1.988)
678.6
(26.717)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.7 6.2 6.9 7.0 5.0 3.5 1.6 2.4 5.0 7.9 7.3 5.8 65.3
Average relative humidity (%) 77 76 75 76 76 73 68 72 76 80 81 79 75.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 133.3 118.7 155.0 183.0 195.3 237.0 275.9 257.3 201.0 151.9 117.0 114.7 2140.1
Source # 1: Servizio Meteorologico (temperature and precipitation data 1971-2000) [5]
Source # 2: Meteorologic Servizio (relative humidity and sun data 1961-1990) [6]

History

The island was originally inhabited by Ligurian Ilvates who gave it to the ancient name Ilva . It was very Well Known from ancient times for ict iron resources and Its valued mines. The Greekscalled it Aethalia (Αιθαλία, “smoke”) after the fumes of the furnaces for the production of metal. Apollonius of Rhodes mentioned in his epic poem Argonautica describing that the ArgonautsThey would have been visible in the poet’s day, including skin-colored that they had their hands on, and widely used at discus. The text, HOWEVER, May be unsound and Strabo (5.2.6) has presented Slightly different account: “Because The scrapings, qui the Argonauts FORMED When They used Their strigils , est devenu congealed, the pebbles on the shore REMAIN variegated still to this day . ” [7]

The island was invaded by the Etruscans and later (after 480 BC) by the Romans . In the middle ages , it was invaded by the Ostrogoths and the Lombards . Then it became a possession of the Republic of Pisa . After the battle of Meloria the Republic of Genova took possession of Elba, but in 1292 it was regained by Pisa. [8]

The Appiani , Lords of Piombino, where Pisa was sold by the Visconti of Milan in 1399.

In 1544, the Barbary pirates of North Africa devastated Elba and the coasts of Tuscany. [9] In 1546, part of the island was handed over to Cosimo I of ‘Medici , who fortified Portoferraio and renamed it’ Cosmopoli ‘, while the rest of the island was returned to the Appiani in 1577. In 1596, Philip II of Spain captured Porto Azzurro and had two fortresses built there.

A part of Elba including Porto Longone came into the power of the Kingdom of Naples (through the State of the Presidi ). In 1736 the whole of Elba with the principality of Piombino passed under the jurisdiction of Kingdom of Naples.

In 1796 partner after the occupation of Livorno by the French Republican troops, the British landed on the Island of Elba with the Pretext of protecting the 4000 French royalists, Who two years Earlier HAD found asylum in Portoferraio.

In 1801 the Peace of Luneville gave Elba to the Kingdom of Etruria , and in 1802, by the Peace of Amiens , it was transferred to France. [10] [11]

Following the Treaty of Fontainebleau , French Emperor Napoleon I was exiled to Elba after his forced abdication in 1814, and he arrived at Portoferraio on May 30, 1814. He was allowed to keep a personal guard of six hundred men. He was nominally sovereign of Elba , although the sea was patrolled by the French and British navies. During the months that Napoleon has lived on the island, he has made a series of economic and social reforms to improve the quality of life. The restored Bourbons quickly won over to Napoleon by Fontainebleau, however, and he was forced to make savings, raise taxation, and even temptation forced chores . Napoleon stayed on Elba for 300 days. Hearing que la Congress of Vienna planned to remove from Europe and further Top _him_ que la more popular and reformist Duke of Orleanswas planning to replace his recollections, ruining any chance of Napoleon’s popular recollection, the form emperor escaped on a ship of British colors to France on 26 February 1815, for the Hundred Days . After his defeat at Waterloo , he was later exiled again, this time to the South Atlantic island of Saint Helena .

At the Congress of Vienna , the island was restored to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany . In 1860, it became part of the new unified Kingdom of Italy .

Elba Was liberated from the Germans by the French st Army Corps is 17 June 1944 in Operation Brassard . Faulty intelligence and strong defenses made the battle more difficult than expected. [12]

BOAC Flight 781 crashed near Elba in 1954.

Schiaccia briaca (drunken cake) from Elba, Italy. Elba wine (aleatico) is used in the original recipe.

More recently, the island has become famous for its wine . [13]

Transportation

The island is connected to the mainland by the ferry companies, Toremar , Moby Lines , Blunavy and Corsica Ferries – Sardinia Ferries , [14] all offering routes between Piombino and Portoferraio, the capital located in the north, Cavo , Rio Marina and Porto Azzurro, on the east coast of the island. [15] [16] [17] [18] [19]

There is an airport on the island, Marina di Campo Airport . It is served by SkyWork Airlines and Silver Air with flights to Italy and Switzerland [20]

Cycling

The island has a network of trails for roads, tracks and dirt roads for bikers to have fun, and routes for families with children. On the road from Rio nell’Elba going to Porto Azzurro is the “Fonte di Coppi”. Towards the end of his career Fausto Coppi , the “campionissimo”, came on the roads of Elba. He is still a celebrity at the peak of his career. The plate on the fountain reads: “1960-2010, here the champion quenched his thirst, since fifty years on the run”.

References

  1. Jump up^ “Istat official population estimates” . Retrieved June 2015 . Check date values ​​in:( help ) |access-date=
  2. Jump up^ “Elba” . Parco Nazionale dell’Arcipelago Toscano. 16 February 2009. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013 . Retrieved 15 January 2012 .
  3. Jump up^ “The association of continental crustal rocks with ophiolites in the Northern Apennines (Italy): implications for the continental-ocean transition in the Western Tethys” (PDF) . els-cdn.com .
  4. Jump up^ http://ofioliti.it/index.php/ofioliti/article/view/137/137
  5. Jump up^ “ELBA / Mr. CALAMITA” (PDF) . Servizio Meteorologico . Retrieved 13 October 2012 .
  6. Jump up^ “MONTE CALAMITA – ELBA” . Servizio Meteorologico . Retrieved 13 October 2012 .
  7. Jump up^ Race, WHApollonius Rhodius: Argonautica, Loeb Classical Library (2008), II. 654-58, pp. 381-3; see note 95 p. 383 for Strabo quote.
  8. Jump up^ of Elba Island
  9. Jump up^ David, Robert C. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, The Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500-1800 , Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.ISBN 1-4039-4551-9
  10. Jump up^ Catholic Encyclopedia
  11. Jump up^ History of Elba Island
  12. Jump up^ McGrann, Bill. “Operation Brassard The Invasion Of Elba” . BBC . Retrieved March 2010 . Check date values ​​in:( help ) |access-date=
  13. Jump up^ “Food and Wine” . Elba Island World. Archived from the original on 2010-03-16 . Retrieved March 2010 . Check date values ​​in:( help ) |access-date=
  14. Jump up^ “Traversate traghetti Sardegna, Corsica and Isola d’Elba” . CorsicaFerries / SardiniaFerries .
  15. Jump up^ “Ferries to Elba” . Tuscany Live . Retrieved March 2010 . Check date values ​​in:( help ) |access-date=
  16. Jump up^ “Ferries to the island of Elba” . Elba Ferry Reservation . Retrieved March 2010 . Check date values ​​in:( help ) |access-date=
  17. Jump up^ “Blunavy ticket reservation (EN)” . Blunavy. Archived from the originalon 2011-06-19 . Retrieved June 2011 . Check date values ​​in:( help )|access-date=
  18. Jump up^ “Toremar ticket reservation (IT)” . Toremar . Retrieved June 2011 . Check date values ​​in:( help ) |access-date=
  19. Jump up^ “Moby Lines ticket reservation (EN)” . Moby Lines . Retrieved June 2011. Check date values ​​in:( help ) |access-date=
  20. Jump up^ “Home – Elba Island Airport” . Retrieved 16 July 2016 .

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