Cres

Cres ( pronounced [t͡srɛːs] ; Italian : Cherso , German : Kersch , Latin : Crepsa , Greek : Χέρσος, Chersos ) is an Adriatic island in Croatia . It is one of the northern islands in the Kvarner Gulf and can be reached via ferry from Rijeka , the island Krk or from the Istrian peninsula ( Brestova – Porozina line ).

With an area of ​​405.78 km 2 , [2] Cres is the same size as the neighboring island of Krk, although Krk has many years of thought. Cres has a population of 3,079 (2011). [1] [3]

Cres and the neighboring island of Lošinj used to be a island, but were divided by a channel and a bridge to the town of Osor . Cres’ s only fresh water source is Lake Vrana .

History

Cres has been inhabited since the Paleolithic time period. Its name predates classical antiquity and is derived from Proto-Indo-European * (s) quer- (“cliff”). [4] Although this is one view, another more historically correct is from classical antiquity, when the town was founded and inhabited by ancient Greeks, and called it Chersos (Χέρσος); “cherubs” in Greek means “baren land”, “uncultivated land” and “dry heaths”. Later, “Chersos” was resounded to “Cresta”, from which eventually “Cres” is derived.

Cres was later ruled by the Greeks and, since the 1st century BC, the Roman Empire . [5] After the fall of the Roman Empire the island was taken over and became part of the Byzantine Empire , and remains this way for centuries. In the 7th century the Croats invaded Cres and the islands around it. They returned to the islands in the early 9th century (believed to be somewhere around 812).

Then, around 866 the inhabitants of the first conflicts with the Republic of Venice . The Venetians eventually took control of Cres and the neighboring islands in the 10th and 11th centuries.

However, the Croats have been changed for centuries by Croats, Hungarians, and for 400 years the Venetians took control of the islands. After Napoleon’s victory over the Venetians, the island went under Austrian rule. After the defeat of Austria by Napoleon in 1809 the islands became part of the French Empire.

After the fall of Napoleon, Austria once again took control of the island for 100 years. During this time the economy developed with olive trees, sage, and other plants becoming key to the success of the island. At the end of World War I, with the Treaty of Rapallo signed in 1920, the island was once again handed over to Italy. [6] This lasted until 1947 when the Islands, along with Istrian Peninsula, were assigned to Yugoslavia. [5]

The island has gone through an agricultural downturn in many countries. This newly formed agricultural area is becoming overgrown with local vegetation. Most people, mainly retired, have returned to live on the island. Tourism has become an increasingly important industry and the population.

Towns of Cres

The island has several villages, all of them connected by a road that runs down the middle of the island. On the side of the mainland (to the city of Pula ); on the other is the bridge to Lošinj ( Lussino ), which is now separated by a waterway. Approaching the island from Pula, you will come to Porozina.

A list of villages with descriptions is below:

  • Porozina – A small village with ferry terminal and a few shops.
  • Beli – This small village, is home to a famous bird species, the endangered Griffon vulture .
  • Cres
  • Orlec – Another small village at the end of a narrow road, also home to the endangered vulture.
  • Valun – Visible on the way to Lubenice (see below) A fee is for parking.
  • Lubenice – An ancient mountain village with a view of the sea and neighboring islands. A restaurant and bar operate during the warmer months. Weekly musical concerts take place during the peak tourist season.
  • Belej
  • Stivan – On a side street, this small hamlet of 16 people has a private beach, old houses and a church, and is on the way to other villages.
  • Merag -with ferry connections.
  • Miholašćica (it .: San Michele , St. Michael ) – A small village with a church which shares the same name as the community. Tourism has grown here since the arrival of the Zaglav community nearby.
  • Martinšćica (it .: San Martino in Valle , St. Martin in the Valley ) – The home of a large vacation complex, Slatina, along with beaches and cafes.
  • Osor (it .: Ossero ) – A town on the “border” between two islands. Founded by the Romans who also dug the channel thus dividing what was the known Osor island into Cres and Lošinj. Then a major port and commercial center started to fade out of the harbor.
  • Pernat – The westernmost village on Cape Pernat. A quaint and rustic village forming a gateway to various walking trails and secluded beaches.
  • Podol – Between Lubenice and Valun. A tiny hamlet that resembles a large farmhouse. Its key feature is the mulberry tree located in the middle of the road.
  • Punta Kriza (it .: Punta Croce ) – The southernmost portion of Cres. FKK resort is here.
  • Vidovici – A short distance uphill from Martinšćica. A village with an extraordinary view of the Istrian Peninsula and numerous islands including Zeča, Lošinj and Unije forming part of the archipelago. A restaurant operates in the evenings during the warmer months.

Lake Vrana

It is a fish that is very fresh in the water, which is very highly protected and It supplies water to neighboring Lošinj ( Lussino ) as well. It is one of the deepest fresh water lakes in Eastern Europe, going down 76 meters at its deepest point (> 50 m below sea-level). [7]

Flora and fauna

Crescent is home to many different types of nonvenomous snakes, including Elaphe quatuorlineata , [8] Zamenis longissimus , [8] Zamenis situla , [8] and Natrix tessellata , a rare snake or absent on other Adriatic islands. [9] The Eurasian griffon vulture , which can often be seen soaring over the island.

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:c Ostroski, Ljiljana, ed. (December 2015). Statistiki ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2015 [ Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015 ] (PDF) . Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia (in Croatian and English). 47 . Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics . p. 47. ISSN  1333-3305 . Retrieved 27 December 2015 .
  2. Jump up^ Duplančić Leder, Tea; Ujević, Tin; Čala, Mendi (June 2004). “Coastline lengths and areas of the islands in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea determined from the topographic maps of the scale of 1: 25,000″(PDF) . Geoadria . Zadar . 9 (1): 5-32 . Retrieved 2011-01-21 .
  3. Jump up^ “Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Cres” . Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011 . Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics . December 2012.
  4. Jump up^ Šimunović 2013, p. 163-164.
  5. ^ Jump up to:b Strčić Petar (2007). “Kratki pregled povijesti Cresa do 1947. godine”. In Parat, Mirko. Stotinu godina hrvatske škole u Cresu: 1907.-2007 (in Croatian). ISBN  978-953-6081-55-4 . Retrieved 14 November2014 .
  6. Jump up^ http://www.istrapedia.hr/hrv/816/rapalski-ugovor/istra-az/
  7. Jump up^ Roland Schmidt, Jens Müller, Ruth Drescher-Schneider, Robert Krisai, Krystyna Szeroczyńska, Ante Barić; Lake Vrana, a large karstic lake on the Island of Cres (Croatia), with respect to palaeoclimate and anthropogenic impacts during the last approx. 16,000 years,J. Limnol. , 59 (2),2000, 113-130.
  8. ^ Jump up to:c “Herpetofaunal data from Cres Island, Croatia” (PDF) . Herpetozoa . 19 (1/2): 27-58. 2006 . Retrieved 25 March 2015 .
  9. Jump up^ “New Record of the Snake Dice (Natrix tessellata) from Cres Island, Croatia” (PDF) . Hyla (1): 18-19. 2014. ISSN  1848-2007 . Retrieved 25 March 2015 .
  • “Cres and Losinj: Strolling through the islands and islets” Nadir Mavrovic, Nerezine 1997. Televrina doo Nerezine

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