Corsica

Corsica ( / k ɔːr s ɪ k ə / ; French: Corse [kɔʁs] ; Corsica in Corsican and Italian , pronounced [korsiga] and [kɔrsika] respectivement), is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France . It is located southeast of the French mainland and the Italian Peninsula , with the nearest land mass being the Italian island of Sardiniato the immediate south. A single chain of mountains makes up two-thirds of the island.

While being white hand of Metropolitan France , Corsica est designated as a territorial collectivity ( local authority ) by law. As a territorial collectivity, Corsica enjoys a greater degree of autonomy than other French regions; for example, the Corsican Assembly is able to exercise limited executive powers.

The island has FORMED single department up to It was split in 1975 into two historical departments: Haute-Corse (Upper Corsica) and Corse-du-Sud (Southern Corsica), with icts regional capital in Ajaccio , the prefecture city of Corse-du South. Bastia , the prefecture city of Haute-Corse, is the second-largest settlement in Corsica.

After being ruled by the Republic of Genoa since 1284, Corsica was briefly an independent Corsican Republic from 1755 until it was officially ceded by the Republic of Genoa to Louis XV as part of a pledge for debts in 1768. Italian peninsula, the island retains to this day many French cultural elements: the native tongue is recognized by the French government. Corsica was ruled by various powers over the course of its history, but had several brief periods of self-government.

Napoleon was born in 1769 in the Corsican capital of Ajaccio. His ancestral home, Bonaparte House , is today used as a museum.

History

Prehistory and antiquity

The origin of the name Corsica is subject to much debate and remains a mystery. To the Ancient Greeks it was known as Kalliste , Corsis , Cyrnos , Cernealis , Cirne gold . Of these Cyrnos , Cernealis , or Cirne derive from the most ancient Greek name of the island, “Σειρηνούσσαι” (meaning of the Sirens ), the very same Sirens mentioned in Homer’s Odyssey. The claim that latter Greek names are based on the Phoenician word for ‘peninsula’ ( kir ) is highly unlikely. quote needed ]

Corsica has been busy ever since the Mesolithic era. It acquired an indigenous population that was influential in the Mediterranean during its long prehistory.

After a brief occupation by the Carthaginians , colonization by the ancient Greeks , and a slightly longer occupation by the Etruscans , it was incorporated by the Roman Republic at the end of the First Punic War , with Sardinia , in 238 BC became a province of the Roman Republic . [2] The Romans, who built a colony in Aléria , considered Corsica as one of the most backward regions of the Roman world. The island produced sheep, honey, resin and wax, and exported many slaves, and their reputation for fierce and rebellious character.[2] Moreover, it was known for its cheap wines, exported to Rome, and was used as place of relegation, one of the most famous exiles being the Roman philosopher Seneca . [3] Administratively, the island was divided in pagi , which in the Middle Ages became the pievi , the basic administrative units of the island until 1768. [2] During the broadcast of Christianity, which arrived quite early from Rome and the Tuscan harbors The most important are Saint Devota and Saint Julia , both patrons of the island. Corsica was integrated by Emperor Diocletian(284-305) in Roman Italy .

Middle Ages and early-modern era

In the 5th century, the western half of the Roman Empire collapsed, and the island was invaded by the Vandals and the Ostrogoths . [2] Briefly recovered by the Byzantines , it soon became part of the Kingdom of the Lombards -this made it a dependency of the March of Tuscany , which used it as an outpost against the Saracens . [4] Pepin the Short , King of the Franks and Charlemagne’s father, expelled the Lombards and nominally granted Corsica to Pope Stephen II . [4]In the first quarter of the 11th century, Pisa and Genoa together freed the island from the threat of Arab invasion. [4] After that, the island came under the influence of the republic of Pisa . [4] Corsica also experienced a massive immigration from Tuscany, which gives the world its present toponymy and rendered the language of the world. to the Tuscan Language . [4] Due to that, then began the traditional division of Corsica in two parts, along the main chain of Calvito Porto Vecchio: the eastern Banda di dentro , or Cismonte , more populated, evolved and open to the trade with Italy, and the western Banda di fuori , or Pomonte , almost deserted, wild and remote. [4]

The crushing defeat experienced by Pisa in 1284 in the Battle of Melania against Genoa in the Pisan rule and the beginning of the Genoese influence in Corsica: [4] This was contested by the King of Aragon , who in 1296 had received from the Pope the investiture over Sardinia and Corsica. [5] A popular revolution against this feudal lord led by Sambucuccio d’Alando , got the help of Genoa. After that, the Cismonte was ruled as a league of comunity and churches, after the Italian experience. [5]The following 150 years were a period of conflict, when the Genoese rule was challenged by Aragon, the local lords, the comuni and the Pope: finally, in 1450 Genoa ceded the administration of the island to its main bank, the Bank of St. George , which brought peace. [6]

In the 16th century, the island entered into the fight between Spain and France for the supremacy in Italy. [6] In 1553, a Franco-Ottoman fleet occupied Corsica , but the reaction of Spainand Genoa, led by Andrea Doria , reestablished the supreme Genoese on the island, confirmed by the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis . [7] The unlucky protagonist of this episode was Sampiero di Bastelica, who would like to be considered a hero of the island. Their power reinstated, the Genoese did not allow the Corsican nobility to share in the government of the island, and oppressed the inhabitants with a heavy tax burden, on the other hand, they introduced on a large scale the chestnut tree, improving the diet of The population, and built a chain of towers along the coast to defend Corsica from the attacks of Barbary pirates from North Africa. [8] The period of peace lasted until 1729, when the refusal to pay taxes by a peasant sparked the general insurrection of the island against Genoa. [9]

Rise and annexation of the Corsican Republic

In 1729 the Corsican Revolution for independence began, first led by Luigi Giafferi and Giacinto Paoli , and later by Paoli’s son, Pasquale Paoli . After 26 years of struggle Against the Republic of Genoa (over an ephemeral attempt to proclaim in 1736 year independent Kingdom of Corsica under the German adventurer Theodor von Neuhoff ), the independent Corsican Republic Was Proclaimed in 1755 under the leadership of Pasquale Paoli and Remained sovereign until 1769, when the island was conquered by France . The first Corsican Constitutionwas written in Italian by Paoli.

The Corsican Republic was unable to eject the Genoese from the major coastal fortresses (Calvi and Bonifacio). After the Corsican conquest of Capraia , a small island of the Tuscan Archipelago , in 1767, the Republic of Genoa , exhausted by forty years of fighting, decided to defeat the island of Seven Years’ War , was trying to reinforce its position in the Mediterranean. In 1768, with the Treaty of Versailles , the Genoese Republic ceded all its rights on the island. After an initial successful resistance culminating with the victory at Borgo , the Corsican republic was crushed by a large French army led by the Count of Vauxat the Battle of Ponte Novu . This marked the end of Corsican sovereignty. Despite triggering the Corsican Crisis in Britain , whose government gave secret aid, no foreign military support for the Corsicans. However, nationalist feelings still ran high. Despite the conquest, Corsica was not incorporated into the French state until 1789.

Following the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, Pasquale Paoli was able to return to Corsica from exile in Britain. In 1794, he invited British forces under Lord Hood to intervene to free Corsica from French rule. Anglo-Corsican forces drove the French from the island and established an Anglo-Corsican Kingdom . Following Spain’s entry into the war, the British decided to withdraw from Corsica in 1796. Corsica then returned to French rule.

19th century

Despite being the birthplace of the Emperor, who had supported Paoli in his youth, the island was neglected by Napoleon’s government. [10] In 1814, near the end of the Napoleonic Wars , Corsica Was Briefly again occupied by British troops. The Treaty of Bastia gives the British crown sovereignty over the island, but it was later repudiated by Lord Castlereagh who insisted that the island should be restored to a monarchy .

After the restoration, the island was further neglected by the French state. Despite the presence of a middle class in Bastia and Ajaccio, Corsica remains an otherwise primitive place, whose economy is mainly concerned with subsistence farming, and whose population is a pastoral society, dominated by clans and the rules of vendetta . The Code of Vendetta Required Corsicans to seek deadly revenge for their family’s honor. Between 1821 and 1852, fewer than 4,300 murders were perpetrated in Corsica. [11] In this period has Proved myth of interest as an historical fact by virtue of being white icts Introduced by Herodotus and furthered by writers like Merimee and Gregorovius, Of Corsica have HAVING beens populated by Arcadians ( Oenotrians and citoyens of Phocaea ), fierce and loyal people. During the first half of the century, the people of Corsica belonged to the Italian cultural world: the bourgeoisie sent children to Pisa to study, official acts were enacted in Italian and most books were printed in Italian. [12] Moreover, many islanders sympathetic with the national struggle which was taking place in the same time, as Niccolò Tommaseo , many years ago Corsicans, like Count Leonetto Cipriani, took active part in the fights for Italian independence.

Despite all that, during those years the Corsicans began to feel stronger and stronger attraction to France. The reasons for which are manifold: the knowledge of the French language, which thanks to the mandatory primary schooling of the local youth, the high prestige of French culture, the awareness of being part of a big, powerful state, the possibility of well-paid jobs as civil servants, both in the island, in the mainland and in the colonies, the prospect of serving the French army during the wars for the conquest of the colonial empire, the introduction of steamboats, who – and last but not least – Napoleon himself, whose existence alone is an indissoluble link between France and Corsica. Thanks to all these factors by around 1870 Corsica had landed in the French cultural world. [12]

Modern Corsica

Corsica paid a high price for the French victory in the First World War: agriculture was disrupted by the years-long absence of almost all of the young workers, and the percentage of dead or wounded Corsicans in the conflict was double that of those of metropolitan La France. Moreover, the protectionist policies of the French government, started in the 1880s and never stopped, had been forced to leave France or to the Americas. As a reaction to these conditions, a nationalist movement was born in the 1920s around the newspaper in Muvra , France. In the 1930s, many exponents of this movement became irredentist, see annexation of the island to fascist Italy as the only solution to its problems. Under Benito Mussolini annexation of Corsica had become one of the main goals of Italy’s unification policy.

After the collapse of France to the Germans Wehrmacht in 1940, Corsica came under the rule of the Vichy French regime, which was collaborating with the Nazis . [13] In November 1942 the island, following the Anglo-American landings in North Africa was occupied by Italian and German forces . After the Italian armistice in September 1943, French and German forces pushed the Germans out of the island, making Corsica the first French Department to be freed. [14] Subsequently, the US military established 17 airfields, nicknamed “USS Corsica”, which served as bases for attacks on targets in German-occupied Italy.

Between the late fifties and the seventies, the project of a nuclear polygon in the mines of Argentella, the immigration of 18,000 train settlers from Algeria (” Blackfoot “) in the eastern plains, and continuing chemical pollution ( Fanghi Rossi ) from mainland Italy increased tensions between the indigenous inhabitants and the French government. Tensions escalated until an armed police assault on a pied-noirs-owned wine cellar in Aleria , occupied by Corsican Nationalists on August 23, 1975. This marked the beginning of the nationalist struggle against the French government. Ever since, Corsican nationalismhas been a feature of the island’s politics, with calls for greater autonomy and protection for Corsican culture and the Corsican language . Periodic flare-ups of raids and killings culminated in the assassination of Prefect Claude Érignac in 1998.

In 2013, Corsica hosted the first three stages of the 100th Tour de France , which passed through the island for the first time in the event’s 110-year history.

Geography

Corsica was formed about 250 million years ago with the uplift of a granite backbone on the western side. About 50 million years ago sedimentary rock was pressed against this granite, forming the schists of the eastern side. It is the most mountainous island in the Mediterranean, a “mountain in the sea”. [16]

It is also the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean, after Sicily , Sardinia and Cyprus .

It is 183 kilometers (114 mi) long and longest, 83 kilometers (52 mi) wide at widest, has 1,000 kilometers (620 mi) of coastline, more than 200 beaches, and is very mountainous, with Monte Cinto as the highest peak at 2,706 meters (8,878 ft) and around 120 other summits of more than 2,000 meters (6,600 ft). Mountains included two-thirds of the island, forming a single chain. Forests make up 20% of the island.

About 3.500 km 2 (1,400 sq mi) of the total area area of 8.680 km 2 (3,350 sq mi) is dedicated to nature reserves ( Regional Natural Park of Corsica ), Mainly in the interior. [17] Corsica contains the GR20 , one of Europe’s most notable hiking trails .

The island is 90 kilometers (56 mi) from Tuscany in Italy and 170 kilometers (110 mi) from the French Riviera in France. It is separated from Sardinia to the south by the Strait of Bonifacio , qui est a minimum of 11 kilometers (6.8 mi) wide. [17]

Major communities

Main articles: Communes of the Haute-Corse department and Communes of the Corse-du-Sud department

In 2005 the population of Corsica was settled in approximately 360 communities. [18]

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification scheme, coastal areas are characterized by a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa). Further inland, a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb) is more common. At the highest elevation locations, a subarctic climate (Dsc, Dfc) and the rare cold-summer climate (Csc) can be found.

The station of Sari-Solenzara records the highest year-round temperatures of Metropolitan France with an annual average of 16.41 ° C over the 1981-2010 period. Sunshine hours are not available over this period but is 2715 h over 2008-2016.

Ecology

The island is divided into three major ecological zones by altitude. [21] Below 600 meters (2,000 ft) is the coastal zone, which features a Mediterranean climate , with hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. The natural vegetation is Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrubs. The coastal lowlands are part of the Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests ecoregion , in which forests and woodlands of evergreen sclerophyll oaks predominate, chiefly holm oak ( Quercus ilex ) and cork oak ( Quercus suber). Much of the coastal lowlands have been cleared for agriculture, grazing and logging, which have reduced the forests considerably.Zones by altitude 

There is considerable birdlife in Corsica. One famous example is the bearded vulture . In some cases Corsica is a delimited part of the species range. For example, the subspecies of hooded crow , Corvus cornix ssp cornix OCCURS in Corsica, but no further south. [22]

From 600 to 1,800 meters (2,000 to 5,900 ft) is a temperate montane area . The mountains are the most important of the Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests ecoregion, which supports various forests of oak , pine , and broadleaf deciduous trees, with vegetation more typical of northern Europe. The population lives predominantly below 900 meters (3,000 ft), with only shepherds and hikers at 600 to 900 meters (2,000 to 3,000 ft).

From 1,800 to 2,700 meters (5,900 to 8,900 ft) is a high alpine area . Vegetation is sparse. This area is uninhabited.

Zones by region

Regional Natural Park of Corsica

The island has a natural park ( Corsica Regional Nature Park , Parcu di Corsica), which protects rare animal and plant species. The Park was created in 1972 and includes the Gulf of Porto, the Scandola Nature Reserve ( UNESCO World Heritage Site ), and some of the highest mountains on the island. Scandola can not be reached on foot, but people can gain access by boat from the village of Galéria and Porto (Ota). Two endangered subspecies of hoofed mammals, the mouflon ( Ovis aries musimon ) and the Corsican red deer ( Cervus elaphus corsicanus)) inhabit the park. The Corsican was re-introduced after it was extinct due to over hunting. This Corsican subspecies was the same that survived on Sardinia, so it’s endemic . There are other species endemic to Corsica especially in the upper mountain ranges, ie Corsican nuthatch , Corsican fire salamander and Corsican brook salamanderand many plant subspecies.

Extinct animals

Corsica, like all the other Mediterranean islands, is home to indigenous animals of the Pleistocene , some endemic to it and some coming to it and Sardinia (as Sardinia was joined to Corsica for much of the Pleistocene). After the proliferation of humans in the Mesolithic , these began to disappear, partly from extinction of the species, and partly from eradication only in Corsica. However, it is well known that many species managed to survive the Mesolithic, and many are still present well in recorded history. [23]

The globally extinct species are the Sardinian dhole , Megaloceros cazioti , Corsican giant shrew , Tyrrhenian mole , Sardinian pika , Corsican-Sardinian flying , Corsican-Sardinian wood mouse , Bubo insularis and Athene angelis . Birds were especially hard-hit. Some have been eradicated from the Haliaeetus albicilla and Aquila heliaca .

Demographics

Corsica has a population of 322,120 inhabitants (January 2013 estimate). [24]

At the 2011 census, 56.3% of the habitants of Corsica Were native of Corsica, 28.6% Were native of Continental France , 0.3% Were native of Overseas France , and 14.8% of native Were foreign countries. [25]

The majorité of the foreign immigrants in Corsica come from the Maghreb (PARTICULARLY Moroccans , Who made up 33.5% of all immigrants in Corsica at the 2011 census), and from Southern Europe (PARTICULARLY Portuguese , 22.7% of immigrants on the island), and Italians (13.7%). [26]

Immigration

Place of birth of residents of Corsica
(at the 1982, 1990, 1999, and 2011 censuses)
Census Born in Corsica Born in
Continental France
Born in
Overseas France
Born in foreign
countries with French
citizenship at birth¹
Immigrants 2
2011 56.3% 28.6% 0.3% 5.0% 9.8%
from the Maghreb 3 from Southern Europe 4 from the rest of the world
4.3% 3.8% 1.7%
1999 59.5% 24.8% 0.3% 5.5% 10.0%
from the Maghreb 3 from Southern Europe 4 from the rest of the world
5.3% 3.3% 1.4%
1990 62.0% 21.3% 0.2% 6.0% 10.5%
1982 61.6% 20.4% 0.2% 6.0% 11.8%
¹ Essentially Blackfeet who resettled in Corsica after the independence of Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria, many of whom had Corsican ancestry. 
An immigrant is by definition a French person born in a foreign country and Who Did not-have French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France. The children are not listed as immigrants. 
Morocco , Tunisia , Algeria 
Portugal , Italy , Spain
Source: INSEE [25] [26] [27]

Culture

Languages

Italian Was the official language of Corsica up to the 9th of May of 1859 , [28] When It Was Replaced by French . Corsican ( Corsu ), a minority language That Is étroitement related to medieval Tuscan ( Toscano ): has a better prospect of survival Than Most other French regional languages : Corsican is in fact, after- French ( French), the most fluent language on the island. However, since the annexation of the island by France in the 18th century, Corsican has not yet been able to do so, and it is estimated that only 10% of Corsica’s population speak natively, with only 50% having some sort of proficiency in it. [29]

The language is divided into two main types : Cismuntanu and Ultramuntanu , spoken respectively northeast and southwest of the Girolata – Porto Vecchio line. This division was due to be the result of the Cismuntanu becoming very similar to the Tuscan dialects, being part of the Italo-Dalmatian language group , while the Ultramuntanu could keep its original characteristics which makes it much more like a Southern Romance like Sardinian ( Sardu ). [30] [31]Therefore, due to the differences between the dialectal varieties, many linguists classify Corsican as an Italo-Dalmatian language, [32] while others consider it a Southern Romance one. [33]

It shoulds aussi ce jour restera That Fewer and Fewer people speak a Ligurian dialect , Known As bunifazzinu , [34] in What Has long-been a language island , Bonifacio , and in Ajaccio , the aghjaccinu dialect. In Cargèse , a town Established by Greek immigrants in the 17th century, Greek ( Ελληνικά ) Was the traditional language: [35] whereas It has long Disappeared from spoken conversation ancient Greek is still the liturgical language and the village HAS Many Greek Orthodox parishes .

Cooking

Main article: Cuisine of Corsica

From the mountains to the plains and the sea, many ingredients play a role. Game such as wild boar ( Cingale , Singhjari ) is popular. There is also seafood and river fish such as trout. Delicacies such as figatellu (also named as ficateddu ), made with liver, coppa , ham ( prizuttu ), lonzu are made from Corsican pork ( porcu nustrale ). Characteristic among the cheeses is brocciu (similar to ricotta), which is used as a fresh ingredient in many dishes, from first courses ( sturzapreti ) to cakes ( fiadone ). Other cheeses, like casgiu merzu(“rotten cheese”, the Corsican counterpart of the Sardinian casu marzu ), casgiu veghju are made from goat or sheep milk. Chestnuts are the main ingredient in the making of pulenta castagnina and cakes ( falculelle ). A variety of alcohol also existsaquavita (brandy), red and white Corsican wines (Vinu Corsu), muscat wine (plain or sparkling), and the famous “Cap Corse” apéritif produced by Mattei. The herbs which are part of Maquis (Corsican: machja) and the chestnuts and oak nuts of the Corsican forests are eaten by local animals, resulting in the noticeable taste in the food there.

Art

See also: Music of Corsica

Corsica has produced a number of known artists: Alizée , Martha Angelici (opera singer), A Filetta (polyphonic singing group), Canta U Populu Corsu (band), Laetitia Casta (model / actress), Baptiste Giabiconi (model / singer), Julien de Casabianca (cineast), Jérôme Ferrari (writer), Patrick Fiori (singer), Petru Guelfucci (singer), José Luccioni (opera singer), Gaston Micheletti (opera singer), I Muvrini (band), Jenifer (singer), François Lanzi(painter),Angel Leccia (visual art), Henri Padovani (musician, original guitarist from the Police), Thierry de Peretti (cineast), Marie-Claude Pietragalla (dancer), Jean-Paul Poletti (singer), Robin Renucci (comedian), Tino Rossi(singer), Caesar Vezzani (opera singer).

Sport

AC Ajaccio and SC Bastia are the two main football teams, which have played the Ligue 1 frequently since the 1960s and contested the Corsica derby . Since 2015, Gazélec Ajaccio , the city’s second team, has begun playing in the Ligue 1. The Tour de Corse is a rally held since 1956, which was a round of the World Rally Championship from 1973 to 2008 and later the Intercontinental Rally Challenge and European Rally Championship . The Tour of Corsica returned as a World Rally Championship round in 2015.

Administration

Before 1975, Corsica was a department of the French region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur . In 1975 two new departments, Haute-Corse and Corse-du-Sud , were created by the United States Division of Corsica.

On March 2, 1982, a law that has passed the Corsican status of territorial collectivity ( territorial collectivity ), abolishing the Corsican Regional Council. Unlike the regional councils, the Corsican Assembly has executive powers over the island.

In 1992, three institutions were formed in the territorial collectivity of Corsica:

  • The Executive Council of Corsica , which exercises the type of executive positions held by the Regional Councils. It ensures the stability and consistency of the affairs of the territory;
  • The Corsican Assembly , a deliberative, unicameral legislative body with greater powers than the regional councils on the mainland;
  • The Economic, Social and Cultural Council of Corsica , an advisory body.

A local referendum held in 2003, aimed at abolishing the two departments to leave a territorial collectivity with extended powers, was voted down by a narrow margin. However, the issue of Corsican autonomy and greater powers for the Corsican Assembly continues to hold sway over Corsican politics.

Economy

Tourism plays a big part in the Corsican economy. The island’s climate, mountains, and coastlines make it popular among tourists. The island is one of the most important countries in the world. Porto-Vecchio and Bonifacio in the south of the island. Calvi in ​​the northwest.

In 1584 the Genoese governor ordered all farmers and landowners a chestnut , olive , fig , and mulberry tree. Many communities owe their origin to the chestnut woods. [36] Chestnut bread keeps fresh for as long as two weeks. [37] Corsica produces gourmet cheese, wine, sausages, and honey for sale in mainland France and for export. Corsican honey, of qui there are six official varieties, is certified to have icts origin ( Appellation d’origine contrôlée ) by the French National Institute of Origin and Quality ( National Institute of Appellations of Origin – INAO).

Corsica’s main exports are granite and marble, tannic acid, cork, cheese, wine, citrus fruit, olive oil and cigarettes. [38]

Transport

Airports

Corsica has four international airports:

  • Ajaccio Napoleon Bonaparte Airport
  • Bastia – Poretta Airport
  • Calvi – Sainte-Catherine Airport
  • Figari-South Corsica Airport (near Bonifacio and Porto Vecchio in the south)

All airports are served by the French airline Air Corsica , as well as Air France which offers connections to Paris-Orly . Budget carriers Such As EasyJet and Ryanair offer seasonal connections to different cities in Europe.

Railway

The island has 232 kilometers (144 miles) of meter gauge railway . The main line runs between Bastia and Ajaccio and there is a branch line from Ponte Leccia to Calvi . Railways of Corsica (CFC) is the name of the regional rail network serving the French island of Corsica. For a list of resorts, see Railway stations in Corsica . The railroad retains the air of a local and is an excellent way to get around the island, for both the inhabitants and tourists. [39]

There is a third line along the east coast that is not in use during World War II . John Smith and his consortium announced their intention to invest and redeveloped in 2018.

Seaports

Corsica is well connected to the mainland (Italy and France) by various car ferry lines. The island’s busiest seaport is Bastia , which saw more than 2.5 million passengers in 2012. [40]Second busiest seaport is Ajaccio , followed by L’Île-Rousse and Calvi . Propriano and Porto Vecchio are also more popular in France (Marseille), while Bonifacio’s harbor is only frequented by smaller ferries from the neighboring island of Sardinia .

Corsica are Corsica Ferries – Sardinia Ferries (from Savona, Livorno and Piombino in Italy, Toulon and Nice in France), SNCM (from Marseille, Toulon and Nice in France), CMN – La Meridionale (from Marseille in France) and Moby Lines (from Livorno and Genoa in Italy). [41] [42] [43] [44]

Politics

There are several groups and two nationalist parties (the autonomist Femu a Corsica and the separatist Corsica Libera ) active on the island calling for some degree of Corsican autonomyfrom France or even full independence. Generally speaking, regionalist proposals focus on the promotion of the Corsican language , and some exemptions from national taxes in addition to those already applying to Corsica.

The French government is considered to be self-sufficient. There is a large majority of Corsicans who are opposed to full independence. [45] [46]

In 1972, the Italian Montedison company dumped toxic waste off the coast Corsican, Creating what Looked like red mud in waters around the island with the poisoning of the sea, the MOST visible effects Being cetaceans found dead on the shores. At that time the Corsican people felt that the French government did not support them. To stop the poisoning, one ship carrying toxic waste from Italy was bombed. [47]

Nationalist organizations started to seek money, using tactics similar to those of the Mafia , to fund violence. Some groups that claim to support Corsican independence , such as the National Liberation Front of Corsica , have carried out a violent campaign since the 1970s that includes bombings and assassinations, usually targeting buildings and officials representing the French government or Corsicans themselves for political reasons. [48] A war between two rival independence groups led to several deaths in the 1990s. The peaceful occupation of a pied-noir vineyard in Aleriain 1975 marked a turning point when the French government responded with overwhelming force, generating sympathy for the independence groups among the Corsican population.

In 2000, Prime Minister Lionel Jospin agreed to grant increased autonomy to Corsica. The proposed autonomy for Corsica would have included greater protection for the Corsican language ( Corsu ), the island ‘s traditional language, whose practice and teaching, like other countries in France , had been discouraged in the past. According to the UNESCO classification, the Corsican language is currently in danger of becoming extinct. [49] However, plans for the independence were opposed by the Gaullist opposition in the French National Assembly , who feared that they would lead toregions (such as Brittany , Alsace , or Provence ), eventually threatening France’s unity as a country. [50]

In a referendum on 6 July 2003, a narrow majority of Corsican voters opposed a proposal by Jean-Pierre Raffarin and then- Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy that would have suppressed the two departments of the island and granted greater autonomy to the territorial collectivity of Corsica. [51]

On 13 December 2015, the Regionalist coalition Pè a Corsica (English: For Corsica ), supported by a Femu Both Corsica and Corsica Libera and led by Gilles Simeoni, won the territorial elections with a percentage of 36.9%. [52] [53]

On December 17, 2015, Jean Guy Talamoni was elected President of the Assembly of Corsica and Gilles Simeoni was elected Executive President of the Council of the Region. In addition, legislation granting Corsica a greater degree of autonomy has passed. [54]

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