Chios

Chios ( / k aɪ . Ɒ s / ; Greek : Χίος , translit.  HIOS ; Ancient Greek : Χίος , translit.  Chios ) is the fifth of the Largest Greek Islands , Situated in the Aegean Sea , 7 kilometers (4.3 mi) off the Anatolian coast. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait . Chios is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is the Mastic Island. Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the 11th-century Monastery of Nea Moni , a UNESCO World Heritage Site .

Administratively, the island forms a separate municipality within the Chios regional unit , which is part of the North Aegean region . The main town of Chios town is Chios town . [2]Locals refer to Chios town as “Chora” (“Χώρα” literally means land or country, but usually refers to the capital or settlement of the highest point of a Greek island).

Geography

Chios island is crescent gold kidney shaped, 50 km (31 mi) long, and 29 km (18 mi) at its widest, covering an area of ​​842,289 km 2 (325,210 sq mi). [3] The terrain is mountainous and arid, with a ridge of mountains running the length of the island. The two largest of these mountains, Pelineon (1,297 m (4,255 ft)) and Epos (1,188 m (3,898 ft)), are located in the north of the island. The center of the island is divided between east and west by a range of smaller peaks, known as Provatas.

Regions

Chios can be divided into five regions:

East coast

Midway up the east coast of the main population centers, the main town of Chios, and the regions of Vrontados and Kambos. Chios Town, with a population of 32,400, is built around the island’s main harbor and medieval castle. The current castle, with a perimeter of 1,400 m (4,600 ft.), Was principally constructed during the time of the Venetian and Ottoman rule, which was still in existence in 2000 BC The town was significantly damaged by an earthquake in 1881, and only partially retains its original character.

North of Chios Town lies the large suburb of Vrontados (population 4,500), which claims to be the birthplace of Homer . [4] The suburb lies in the Omiroupoli municipality, and its connection to the poet is supported by an archaeological site known traditionally as “Teacher’s Rock”. [5]

Southern region ( Mastichochoria )

In the southern region of Mastichochoria [6] (literally “Mastic Villages”), the seven villages of Mesta (Μεστά), Pyrgi (Πυργί), Olympi (Ολύμποι), Kalamoti (Καλαμωτń), Vessa (Βέσσα), Lithi (Λιθί), and Elata (Ελάτα), which together have controlled the production of mastic gum in the area since the Roman period. The villages, built between the 14th and 16th centuries, have a carefully designed layout with fortified gates and narrow streets to protect against frequent raids by marauding pirates. citation needed ] Between Chios Town and the Mastichochoria is a large number of historic villages including Armolia (Αρμόλια), Myrmighi (Μυρμήγκι), and Kalimassia (Καλλιμασιά).citation needed ] Along the east coast of the fishing villages of Kataraktis (Καταρράκτης) and to the south, Nenita (Νένητα).

Interior

Directly in the center of the island, between the villages of Avgonyma to the west and Karyes to the east, is the 11th century monastery of Nea Moni , a UNESCO World Heritage Site . The monastery was built by Emperor Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX , after three monks, living in the cellars nearby, had been exiled on the island of Mytilene. The monastery had substantial estates attached, with a thriving community until the massacre of 1822 . It was further damaged during the 1881 earthquake. [7] In 1952, due to the shortage of monks, Nea Moni Was converted to a convent.

Climate

The island’s climate is warm and moderate, categorized as Temperate, Mediterranean (Csa) , with modest variation due to the stabilizing effect of the surrounding sea. A temperature of 27 ° C (81 ° F) to a winter low of 11 ° C (52 ° F) in January, a temperature of over 40 ° C (104 ° F) or below freezing can sometimes be encountered.

The island normally experiences steady breezes (average 3-5 m / s (6.7-11.2 mph)) throughout the year, with wind direction predominantly northerly (” Etesian ” Wind-locally called “Meltemi”) or southwesterly (Sirocco).

[ hide ]Climate data for Chios, Greece
month Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Average high ° C (° F) 11
(52)
11
(52)
13
(55)
17
(63)
22
(72)
26
(79)
28
(82)
28
(82)
25
(77)
20
(68)
16
(61)
13
(55)
19.2
(66.5)
Average low ° C (° F) 5
(41)
5
(41)
6
(43)
9
(48)
13
(55)
17
(63)
19
(66)
19
(66)
16
(61)
12
(54)
9
(48)
6
(43)
11.3
(52.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 100
(3.94)
78
(3.07)
61
(2.4)
44
(1.73)
24
(0.94)
4
(0.16)
1
(0.04)
0
(0)
8
(0.31)
23
(0.91)
55
(2.17)
122
(4.8)
520
(20.47)
Source: www.weather-to-travel.com [8]

Geology

The Chios Basin is a hydrographic sub-unit of the Aegean Sea adjacent to the island of Chios. [9]

History

Etymology

Known as “Ophioussa” (Οφιούσσα, “snake island”) and “Pityoussa” (Πιτυούσσα, “pine-tree island”) in antiquity, during the later Middle Ages the island was ruled by a number of non-Greek powers and was known as Scio ( Genoese ), Chio (Italian) and Sakız (صاقيز – Ottoman Turkish ). The capital during that time was “Kastron” (Κάστρον, “castle”).

Prehistoric period

Archaeological research on Chios has found evidence of home dating at least Neolithic era. Hagio (n) Galas in the north and a settlement and accompanying necropolis in modern day Emporeio at the far south of the island. Scholars lack information on this period. The size and duration of these settlements have therefore not been well-established.

The British School at Athens under the direction of Sinclair Hood excavated the Emporeio site in 1952-1955, and most current information comes from these digs. [10] The Greek Archaeological Service has also been excavating periodically on Chios since 1970, although much of its work remains unpublished.

The noticeable uniformity in the size of the houses at Emporeio leads some scholars to believe that there is little social distinction during the Neolithic era on the island. The population apparently benefits from farming and livestock farming. [11]

It is also widely held by the Middle East (2300-1600), though researchers have recently suggested that the lack of evidence of Chios and the northern Aegean. [12]

By at least the 11th century BC the island was ruled by a monarchy, and the subsequent transition to aristocratic (or possibly tyrannic ) rule occurred sometime over the next four centuries. Future excavations may reveal more information about this period. [13] 9th-century Euboean and Cypriot presence on the island is attested by ceramics, while a Phoenician presence is Noted at Erythrae , the traditional competitor of Chios on the mainland. [14]

Archaic and Classical periods

Pherecydes , native to the Aegean, wrote that the island was occupied by the Leleges , [15] aboriginal Greeks who were reported to be subject to the Minoans on Crete . [16] They were eventually driven out by invading Ionians .

Chios was one of the original twelve member states of the Ionian League . As a result, Chios, at the end of the 7th century BC, [17] was one of the first cities to strike or mint corners, establishing the sphinx as its symbol. It maintained this tradition for almost 900 years.

In the 6th century BC, Chios’ government adopted a constitution similar to that developed by Solon in Athens [18] and later developed democratic elements with a voting assembly and people’s magistrates called damarchoi . [19]

In 546 BC, Chios was submitted to the Persian Empire . [19] Chios joined the Ionian Revolt against the Persians in 499 BC. The naval power of Chios during this period is shown by the fact that the Chians had the largest fleet (100 ships) of all of the Ionians at the Battle of Lade in 494 BC. At Lade, the Chian fleet doggedly persists the Persian fleet after the defection of the Samians and others, but the Chians were forced to return to Persian domination. [20]

The defeat of Persia at the Battle of Mycale in 479 BC meant the liberation of Chios from Persian rule. When the Athenians formed the Delian League , Chios joined the world. [21]

By the fifth to fourth centuries BC, the island had grown to an estimated population of over 120,000, based on the huge necropolis at the main city of Chios. It is thought that the majority of the population lived in that area. [22]

In 412 BC, during the Peloponnesian War , Chios revolted against Athens, and the Athenians besieged it. Relief only came when the Spartans were able to raise the siege. In the 4th century BC, Chios was a member of the second Athenian Empire revolted against Athens during the Social War (357-355 BC) , and Chios became independent of Macedonia .

Hellenistic period

Theopompus returned to Chios with the other exiles in 333 BC after Alexander had invaded Asia Minor and decreed their return, [23] and the exile or trial of Persian supporters on the island. Theopompus was exiled again sometime after Alexander’s death and took refuge in Egypt. [24]

During this period, the island also had become the largest exporter of Greek wine, which was noted for being relatively high quality (see ” Chian wine “). Chian amphoras , with a characteristic sphinx emblem and bunches of grapes, Greeks traded. These countries included Gaul , Upper Egypt , and Southern Russia . [25]

Roman period

During the Third Macedonian War , thirty-five vessels were allied to Rome, carrying about 1,000 Galatian troops, as well as a number of horses, were sent by Eumenes II to his brother Attalus .

Leaving from Elaea, they were headed to the harbor of Phanae, planning to disembark from there to Macedonia. However, Perseus ‘ naval command Antenor intercepted the fleet between Erythrae(on the Western coast of Turkey) and Chios.

According to Livy , [26] they were caught completely off guard by Antenor. Eumenes’ officers at first thought the intercepting fleet were friendly Romans, but scattered upon realizing they were facing an attack by their Macedonian enemy, some choosing to abandon ship and swim to Erythrae. Others, crashing their ships into land on Chios, fled toward the city.

The Chians, however, closed their gates, startled at the calamity. And the Macedonians, who had docked closer to the city, cut the rest of the fleet off the city gates, and on the road leading to the city. Of the 1,000 men, 800 were killed, 200 taken prisoner. ‘

After the Roman conquest Chios became part of the province of Asia .

Pliny remarks on the islanders’ use of variegated marble in their buildings, and their appreciation for such stones or other forms of artificial decoration. [27]

According to the Acts of the Apostles , Luke the Evangelist , Paul the Apostle and their companions passed Chios during Paul’s third missionary journey, we went from Lesbos to Samos . [28]

Byzantine period

After the permanent division of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, Chios was for six centuries part of the Byzantine Empire . This cam to an end When the island Was Briefly Held (1090-97) by Tzachas , a Turkish bey in the area of Smyrna During the first expansion of the Turks to the Aegean coast. [29] However, the Turks were driven back from the Aegean coast by the Byzantines by the First Crusade , and the island was restored to Byzantine rule by Admiral Constantine Dalassenos .

This relative stability was ended by the sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade (1204) and during the battle of the 13th century by the power struggle. After the Fourth Crusade, the Byzantine empire was divided up by the Latin emperors of Constantinople , with Chios nominally becoming a possession of the Republic of Venice . However, defeats for the Latin empire resulted in the island reverting to Byzantine rule in 1225.

Genoese period (1304-1566)

The Byzantine rulers had little influence and through the Treaty of Nymphaeum , authority was ceded to the Republic of Genoa (1261). [30] At this time the island was frequently attacked by pirates, and by 1302-1303 was a target for the Turkish repeaters. To prevent Turkish expansion, the island was reconquered and kept a renewable concession, at the behest of the Byzantine emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus , by the Genovese Benedetto I Zaccaria (1304), then admiral to Philip of France. Zaccaria installed himself as ruler of the island, founding the short-lived Lordship of Chios. His rule was successful in the hands of the local Greek landowners. Benedetto Zacharia was followed by his son Paleologo and then his grandson or nephews Benedetto II and Martino . They are influenced by the Latin and Papal powers, and the dominant Byzantine influence. The locals, still loyal to the Byzantine Empire, responded to a letter from the emperor, despite the status of a thousand infantrymen, a hundred cavalrymen and two galleys, expelled the Zacharia family from the island (1329) and dissolved the fiefdom. [31]

Local rule was brief. In 1346, a chartered company or Maona (the ” Maona di Chio e di Focea “) was set up in Genoa to recapture and exploit Chios and the neighboring town of Phocaea in Asia Minor. Although the islanders were very lucky, the island was invaded by a Genoese fleet, led by Simone Vignoso, and the castle besieged. Again rule was transferred peacefully, as it was surrendered and a treaty signed with no loss of privileges to the local landowners as long as the new authority was accepted.

The Genoese, being interested in profit rather than conquest, controlled the trade-posts and warehouses, in particular the trade of mastic, alum, salt and pitch. Other trades such as grain, wine and cloth and most professions are run jointly with the locals. After a failed uprising in 1347, and being heavily outnumbered (less than 10% of the population in 1395), the Latins maintained light control over the local population, remaining largely in the town and allowing full religious freedom. In this way the island remains under Genoese control for two centuries. By 1566, when Genoa lost to the Ottoman Empire , there were 12,000 Greeks and 2,500 Genoese (or 17% of the total population) in the island. [32]

Ottoman period

During Ottoman rule, the government and tax gathering of Greeks and the Turkish garrison was small and inconspicuous. [33]

As well as the Latin and Turkish influx, records record small Jewish population from at least 1049 AD. [34] The original Greek ( Romaniote ) Jews, thought to be brought over by the Romans, were later joined by Sephardic Jews welcomed by the Ottomans during the Iberian expulsions of the 15th century.

The mainstay of the island’s famous wealth was the mastic crop. Chios was able to make a substantial contribution to the imperial treasury while at the same time maintaining a light level of taxation. The Ottoman Government is regarded as one of the most valuable provinces of the Empire. [35]

Modern period

Further information: Greek War of Independence , Chian Committee , Chios Expedition , Chios Massacre , and Chian Diaspora

When the Greek War of Independence broke out, the islanders were reluctant to join the revolutionaries, fearing the loss of their security and prosperity. However, in March 1822, several hundred armed Greeks from the neighboring island of Samos landed in Chios. They proclaimed the Revolution and launched attacks against the Turks, at which point they decided to join the struggle.

Ottomans landed a large force on the island and put down the rebellion. The Ottoman massacre of Chios expelled, killed, or enslaved the inhabitants of the island. [36] It wiped out whole villages and affected the Mastichochoria area, the mastic growing villages in the south of the island. It triggered negative public reaction in Western Europe, as portrayed by Eugène Delacroix , and in the writing of Lord Byron and Victor Hugo .

In 1881, an earthquake , estimated at 6.5 on the moment magnitude scale , damaged a large portion of the island’s buildings and resulted in great loss of life. Reports of the time of 5,500-10,000 fatalities. [37]

Meanwhile, Chios during this time emerges as the motherland of the modern Greek shipping industry. Indicatively, in 1764, Chios had 6 vessels with 90 sailors on record, in 1875 there were 104 ships with over 60,000 registered tons in 1889 were recorded with 3.050 sailors. The dynamic development of Chian shipping in the 19th century is further Top attested by the various shipping related services That Were present in the island During this time, Such As the establishment of the shipping insurance companies Chiaki Thalssoploia (Χιακή Θαλασσοπλοϊα)Dyo Adelfai (Δυο Αδελφαί), Omonoia (Ομονοια), the shipping bank Archangelos (Αρχάγγελος) (1863). The boom of Chian shipping took place with the successful transition from ships to steam. To this end, Chian ship owners were supported by the strong diaspora presence of chian merchants, the connections they had developed with the financing centers of the time (Istanbul, London), the establishment in London of shipping businessmen, the creation of shipping academies Chios and the expertise of Chian staff on board. [38]

Chios rejoined the rest of Greece after the First Balkan War (1912). The Greek Navy liberated Chios in November 1912 in a hard fought but brief amphibious operation. The Ottoman Empire recognized Greece’s annexation of Chios and the other Aegean islands by the Treaty of London (1913) .

Although Greece was neutral the island was occupied by the British during World War I.They landed on 17 February 1916.This may have been due to the island’s proximity to the Ottoman Empire and the city of İzmir in particular. [39]

It was affected by the population after the Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922 , with the incoming Greek refugees settling in Kastro (previously Turkish) and in new settlements.

The island saw some local violence during the Greek Civil War . This event was the final band of communist fighters being trapped and killed in the orchards of Kambos and their bodies driven by the town on the back of a truck. In March 1948, the island was used as an internment camp for female political detainees and their children, who were housed in military barracks near the town of Chios. Up to 1300 women and 50 children were housed in cramped and degrading conditions, until March 1949 when the camp was closed and the people moved to Trikeri . [40]

The production of mastic is threatened by the Chios forest that swept the southern half of the island in August 2012 and destroyed some mastic groves .

Demographics

According to the 2011 census, Chios has a permanent resident population of 52,674. [41]

Government

The present municipality is formed at the local government by the merger of the following 8 forming municipalities, which became municipal units: [2]

  • Agios Minas
  • Amani
  • Chios (town)
  • Ionia
  • Kampochora
  • Kardamyla
  • Mastichochoria
  • Omiroupoli

Economy

Commerce

The local merchant shipping community several locally grown products including mastic , olives , figs , wine, mandarins , and cherries .

Cooking

Local specialties of the island include:

  • Kordelia
  • malathropita
  • sfougato
  • mamoulia (dessert)
  • masourakia (dessert)
  • mastichato (drink)

Antimony Mines

Sporadically for some time at early 19th century to 1950s there was mining activity on the island at Keramos Antimony Mines .

Culture

  • Nea Moni is a monastery with fine mosaics from Constantine IX ‘s reign and a World Heritage Site . [42]
  • An ancient inscription (at Chios Archaeological Museum) from a fifth-century funerary monument to Heropythos the sound of Philaios, traced his family back to four generations to Kyprios at the tenth century BC, before there were any written records in Greece. [43] [44]
forts
  • Castle of Chios , a Byzantine fort built in the 10th century
    • St. George’s church
Museums
  • Chios Byzantine Museum
  • Archaeological Museum of Chios
lore
  • The town of Vrontados is home to a unique Easter celebration, where competing teams of locals gather at the city’s two rival churches to fire tens of thousands of homemade rockets at the other church’s bell tower while the Easter service is going on inside the churches , in what is known as rouketopolemos . [45]
Sports
  • FC Lailapas (Chios town)
Media
  • Chiakos Laos , newspaper
  • Politis , newspaper
  • Dimokratiki , newspaper

International relations

See also: List of twin cities and sister cities in Greece

Twin towns – Sister cities

Chios is twinned with:

  •  Brezno , Slovakia
  •  Dinant , Belgium
  •  Ermoupoli , Greece
  •  Genoa , Italy (since 1985) [46]
  •  Guiyang , China
  •  Ortona , Italy
  •  Polykastro , Greece

Notable natives and inhabitants

A native of Chios is known in English as a Chian, or a Chioti. [47]

Ancient

  • Homer (8th century BC), poet. See -History of the Pelopennesian War, by Thucydides, section 3.104.5, showing Thucydides quotes Homer’s self-reference: “A blind old man of Scio’s rocky isle.”
  • Oenopides (C. 490 – C. 420 BC), mathematician and geometer
  • Hippocrates of Chios (c.470 – c.410 BC), notable mathematician, geometer and astronomer
  • Theopompus of Chios (378 – 320 BC), rhetorical historian [48]
  • Erasistratus of Chios (304-250 BC), pioneering anatomy, royal physician and founder of the ancient medical school of Alexandria, who discovered the link between organs and veins, arteries and nerves [49]
  • Aristo of Chios (c 260 BC), Stoic Philosopher
  • Claudia Metrodora (c.54-68 AD), public benefactor

Medieval

  • Saint Markella (14th century), martyr and saint of the Orthodox Church
  • Matron of Chios (* 15th century, † before 1455), saint of the Orthodox church
  • Andrea Bianco (15th century), Genoese cartographer resided on Chios
  • In 1982, Ruth Durlacher hypothesized that Chios was Christopher Columbus’s birthplace. [50] Columbus himself said he was from the Republic of Genoa , which included the island of Chios at the time. Columbus was a family of Chian Genoese families, referenced Chios in his writings and used the Greek language for some of his notes. [51] ‘Columbus’ remains a common surname on Chios. Other common Greek spellings are: Kouloumbis and Couloumbis.
  • Francisco Albo (16th century), pilot of the Magellan expedition, the first circumnavigation of the Earth
  • Leo Allatius (Leone Allacci) (c.1586-1669), Greek Catholic scholar and theologian

Modern

  • Scylitzes family, descented from Byzantine times
  • Mavrokordatos family
  • Athanasios Parios (1722-1813), Greek hieromonk and notable theologian, philosopher, educator, and hymnographer of his time
  • Macarius of Corinth (1731-1805), metropolitan Bishop of Corinth, mystic and spiritual theological writer
  • Nikephoros of Chios (ca. 1750-1821), abbot of Nea Moni monastery, theological writer and orthodox saint
  • Alexandros Kontostavlos (1789-1865), politician
  • Amvrosios Skaramagas (1790-1864), merchant
  • Alexandros Georgios Paspatis (1814-1891), linguist, historian and physician, researcher of the Romani language and of the history of the Roma people
  • George Colvocoresses (1816-1872), military officer
  • Mustapha Khaznadar (1817-1878), was Prime Minister of the Beylik of Tunis
  • Michel Emmanuel Rodocanachi (1821-1901), trader and banker of London
  • Andreas Syngros (1830), banker, descented from Chios
  • Patriarch Constantine V of Constantinople (1833-?)
  • Ralli Brothers (18th-19th century), founders of major
  • Ibrahim Edhem Pasha (1819-1893), Ottoman Grand Vizier
  • Namık Kemal (1840-1888), one of the main founders of modern Turkish literature, served as a sub-prefect (exile in practical terms) of Chios from 1886 to his death on the island in 1888
  • Osman Hamdi Bey (1842-1910), Ottoman painter, archaeologist
  • George I. Zolotas (1845-1906), local historian of the island and director of the high school of Chios; wrote a volume of History of Chios in Greek language
  • Ioannis Psycharis (1854-1929), philologist, descented from Chios
  • Konstantinos Amantos (1874-1960), Byzantine scholar, professor at the University of Athens, member of the Athens Academy
  • Kostia Vlastos (1883-1967), banker of the old Vlastos family
  • John D. Chandris (1890-1942), Greek shipowner
  • Stavros Livanos (1891-1963), shipping magnate
  • Philip Pandely Argenti (1891-1974), member of an old Chian noble family, greatest historian of the island, wrote more than a dozen historical portrayals of the island of Chios
  • Ioannis Despotopoulos (1903-1992), architect
  • Kostas Perrikos (1905-1943), Greek Resistance figure, leader of PEAN
  • Costas M. Lemos (1910-1995), Greek shipowner
  • Adamantios Lemos (1916-2006), actor
  • Anthony J. Angelicoussis (1918-1989), Greek shipowner
  • Andreas Papandreou (1919-1996), politician, Prime Minister of Greece
  • Anthony J. Chandris (1924-1984), Greek shipowner
  • Mikis Theodorakis (1925), composer, born on the island
  • Jani Christou (1926-1970), composing
  • George P. Livanos (1926-1997), Greek shipowner
  • Stamatios Krimigis (1938), NASA space scientist
  • Takis Fotopoulos (1940), political writer
  • Adamantios Vassilakis (1942), diplomat
  • Dimitris Varos (1949), author, poet, journalist
  • Dimos Avdeliodis (1952), writer, film and theater director
  • Mark Palios (1952, of Chian descent), to form a professional footballer and to become the chief executive of the English Football Association
  • Matthew Mirones (1956), New York politician
  • Nikos Pateras (1963), shipowner
  • Angeliki Frangou , shipowner
  • John Sitaras (1972), professional fitness

See also

  • Chian wine
  • Chian diaspora
  • Scio Township, Michigan

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:b “Απογραφή Πληθυσμού – Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός” (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.
  2. ^ Jump up to:b Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
  3. Jump up^ “Population & Housing Census 2001” (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2015.
  4. Jump up^ John Boardman; CE Vaphopoulou-Richardson (1986). Chios: a conference at Homerion in Chios, 1984 . Clarendon Press. p. v. ISBN  9780198148647 . Retrieved 30 July 2014 .
  5. Jump up^ Δασκαλóπετρα
  6. Jump up^ Μαστιχοχώρια
  7. Jump up^ 1881 and 1949 earthquakes at the Chios-Cesme Strait (Aegean Sea) and their relationship to tsunamis
  8. Jump up^ “Chios” . July 2011 . Retrieved 6 February 2009 .
  9. Jump up^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Aegean Sea . Eds. P.Saundry & CJCleveland.Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment.Washington DC
  10. Jump up^ Boardman, JohnExcavations in Chios, 1952-1955: Greek Emporio(London: British School of Archeology at Athens, Thames and Hudson, 1967), cf. also Hood, SinclairExcavations in Chios, 1938-1955: Prehistoric Emporio and Ayio Gala(London: British School of Archeology at Athens: Thames and Hudson, 1981-)ISBN 0-500-96017-8
  11. Jump up^ Merouses, NikosChios. Physiko periballon & katoikese apo te neolithike epoche mechri to telos your archaiothtas. (Chios Natural Environment & Housing from the Neolithic Age to the End of Antiquity)pg. 80. Papyros, 2002
  12. Jump up^ Merouses 2002 ea. 4
  13. Jump up^ Merouses 2002 ea. 5, sect. 1
  14. Jump up^ IS Lemos,The Protogeometric Aegean2002: 240, and Euboean ceramics in the Archeological Museum, noted by Robin Lane Fox,Traveling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008: 60 note 59.
  15. Jump up^ Strabo14.1.3
  16. Jump up^ Herodotus1.171
  17. Jump up^ Agelarakis A., “Analyzes of Cremated Human Skeletal Dating Remains to the Seventh Century BC, Chios, Greece”. Horos: Ena Archaeognostiko Periodiko 4 (1986): 145-153.
  18. Jump up^ Murray, Oswyn (1993). Early Greece (2nd ed.). London: Fontana. p. 188.ISBN  0006862497 .
  19. ^ Jump up to:b Grant, Michael (1989). The Classical Greeks. Guild Publishing London. p.149
  20. Jump up^ Herodotus,The HistoriesIV.15
  21. Jump up^ Thucydides,Peloponnesian War3.10.
  22. Jump up^ Merouses 2002 ea. 5, sect. 3
  23. Jump up^ A translation of the decree can be viewed online
  24. Jump up^ Anthon, Charles A Manual of Greek Literature , p.251, 1853
  25. Jump up^ Hugh Johnson,Vintage: The Story of Winepg 41. Simon and Schuster 1989
  26. Jump up^ Livy, 44.28
  27. Jump up^ “Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, BOOK XXXVI THE NATURAL HISTORY OF STONES., CHAPTER 5. (6.) – AT WHAT PERIOD MARBLE WAS FIRST USED IN BUILDINGS” . Perseus.tufts.edu . Retrieved 2013-03-26 .
  28. Jump up^ Acts 20:15
  29. Jump up^ Brownworth, Lars (2009)Lost to the West: The Forgotten Byzantine Empire That Rescued Western Civilization, Crown Publishers,ISBN 978-0-307-40795-5: “… the Muslims captured Ephesus in 1090 and spread out Chios, Rhodes, and Lesbos fell in quick succession. ” p. 233.
  30. Jump up^ William Miller,”The Zaccaria of Phocaea and Chios. (1275-1329.)” The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 31, 1911 (1911), pp. 42-55; doi:10.2307 / 624735.
  31. Jump up^ Arbel, Benjamin, Bernard Hamilton, and David Jacob. Latins and Greeks in the Eastern Mediterranean After 1204. ISBN 0-7146-3372-0.
  32. Jump up^ Chios History Archived2 October 2011 at theWayback Machine.
  33. Jump up^ William St. Clair, That Greece Might Still Be Free,The Philhellenes in the War of Independence, Oxford University Press, London, 1972, p.79. ISBN 0-19-215194-0.
  34. Jump up^ “The Sephardic Community of Chios” . Sephardicstudies.org . Retrieved 22 March 2009 .
  35. Jump up^ William St. Clair, p. 79
  36. Jump up^ Hellenic Genocide Events Archived4 August 2008 at theWayback Machine. retrieved 19 May 2008
  37. Jump up^ Y. Altinok; B. Alpar B; N. Özer; C. Gazioglu (2005). “1881 and 1949 earthquakes at the Chios-Cesme Strait (Aegean Sea) and their relationship to tsunamis” (PDF) . Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences . 5 : 717-725. doi : 10.5194 / nhess-5-717-2005 . Retrieved 31 July 2010 .
  38. Jump up^ Μιχαηλίδης, Σταύρος Γ. (2014). Σταύρος Γ. Λιβανός. Η Χιώτικη Ναυτιλιακή παραδοση στην κορυφή της παγκόσμιας ναυτιλίας. Χίος.
  39. Jump up^ “First World War.com – On This Day – 17 February 1916” . www.firstworldwar.com . Retrieved 2016-02-17 .
  40. Jump up^ Becoming a Subject: Political Prisoners During the Greek Civil War: Polymeris Voglis, Published 2002Berghahn Books ISBN 157181308X
  41. Jump up^ “2011 Population Census” (PDF) . HELLENIC STATISTICAL AUTHORITY.
  42. Jump up^ [1] Archived3 February 2007 at theWayback Machine.
  43. Jump up^ A Corpus of the Inscriptions of Chios (IG XII 6.3)
  44. Jump up^ Wood, Michael (1998). In Search of the Trojan War . Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: Univ of CA Press. ISBN  0-520-21599-0 .
  45. Jump up^ Matthew Somerville (3 July 2017). “This Insane Greek Fireworks Battle Puts Your 4th July to Shame” . Narrative.ly . Retrieved 3 July 2017 .
  46. Jump up^ Municipality of Genoa – Homepage.
  47. Jump up^ Dictionary.com
  48. Jump up^ Jona Lendering. “Theopompus of Chios” . Livius.org . Retrieved 22 March 2009 .
  49. Jump up^ Arthur Bard; Mitchell G. Bard (2002). The Complete Idiot ‘s Guide to Understanding the Brain . Alpha Books. p. 17. ISBN  978-0-02-864310-6 .
  50. Jump up^ A New Theory Clarifying the Identity OF Christopher Columbus: A Byzantine Prince from Chios, Greece. by Ruth G Durlacher-Wolper 1982 (Published by The New World Museum, San Salvador, Bahamas)
  51. Jump up^ “The Chian Federation” . Chianfed.org . Retrieved 2013-03-26

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