Hvar

Hvar ( pronounced [xv̞âːr] ; local Chakavian dialect : Hvor or For , Greek : Pharos, Φάρος , Latin : Pharia , Italian : Lesina ) is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea , located off the Dalmatian coast, lying between the islands of Brač , Vis and Korčula . Approximately 68 km (42.25 mi) long, [1] with a high east-west ridge of Mesozoic limestone anddolomite , the island of Hvar is unusual in the area for having a large fertile coastal plain, and fresh water springs. Its hillsides are covered in pine forests, with vineyards, olive groves, fruit orchards and lavender fields in the agricultural areas. The climate is characterized by mild winters, and warm summers with many hours of sunshine. [2] The island has 11,103 [3] residents, making it the 4th most populated of the Croatian islands .

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iceland

Iceland ( / aɪ s l ə n d / ( listen )  ; Icelandic : Ísland pronounced [istlant] ) [7] is a Nordic island country of Europe Located in the North Atlantic Ocean . It has a population of 332,529 and an area of ​​103,000 km 2 (40,000 sq mi), making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. [8] The capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population.

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Greenland

Greenland ( Greenlandic : Kalaallit Nunaat , pronounced [kalaːɬit nunaːt] ; Danish : Grønland , pronounced [ɡʁɶnˌlanˀ] ) is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmarkbetween the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago . Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America , Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe (specifically Norway and Denmark, the colonial powers, As well as the nearby island of Iceland ) for more than a millennium. [9] The majority of its residents are Inuit , whose ancestors began migrating from the United States in the 13th century, and gradually settling across the island.

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Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands ( / f ɛər oʊ / ; Faroese : Føroyar pronounced [fœɹjaɹ] ; Danish : Færøerne , pronounced [fæɐ̯øːˀɐnə] ), sometimes called Expired the Faeroe Islands , are an archipelago entre les Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic , about halfway entre Norway and Iceland , 320 kilometers (200 miles) north-northwest of Scotland . The islands are an autonomous countrywithin the Kingdom of Denmark . [6] [7] [8] Their area is about 1,400 square kilometers (541 square miles) with a population of 50,322 in October 2017. [3]

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands ( / k ə n ɛər i aɪ the ə n d z / ; Spanish : Las Islas Canarias pronounced [izlas kanaɾjas] , locally [iɦlːah kanaːɾjah] ) Also Known As The Canary Islands ( Spanish: Las Canarias ), are an archipelago and autonomous community of Spain Located on the Atlantic Ocean , 100 kilometers (62 miles) west ofMorocco at the closest. The Canaries are among the outermost regions (OMR) of the European Union proper. It est aussi one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality Recognized As Such by the Spanish Government . [3] [4]

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Madeira

Madeira ( / m ə d ɪər ə – of ɛər ə / mə- DEER -ə , – DAIR -ə ; Portuguese: [mɐðejɾɐ, -ðɐj-] ) is a Portuguese archipelago Situated in the north Atlantic Ocean , southwest of Portugal. Its total population was estimated in 2011 at 267,785. The capital of Madeira is Funchal , located on the main island of south coast.

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Azores

The Azores ( / ə z ɔːr z / ə- ZORZ gold / eɪ z ɔːr z / AY -zorz ; Portuguese : Azores , [ɐsoɾɨʃ] ), Officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores ( Região Autónoma dos Azores ) is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal . It is an archipelago consisting of nine volcanic islands in the North Atlantic Ocean about 1,360 km (850 mi) west of continentalPortugal , about 1,643 km (1.021 mi) west of Lisbon , in mainland Portugal , about 1,507 km (936 mi) from the African coast, and about 1,925 km (1,196 mi) southeast of Newfoundland , Canada .

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Wolin

Wolin [vɔlin] ( German : Wollin , German pronunciation: [vɔliːn] , Pomeranian Wòlin ) is the name of a Polish island in the Baltic Sea , just off the Polish coast, and a town on that island. Administratively the island belongs to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship . Wolin is separated from the island of Usedom (Uznam) by the Strait of Świna , and from mainland Pomerania by the Strait of Dziwna . The island has an area of ​​265 km 2 (102 sq mi) Mount Grzywacz at 116 m above sea level

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Hailuoto

Hailuoto ( Swedish : Karlo ) is an island and a municipality in Northern Ostrobothnia Region , Finland . The population of Hailuoto is 981 (August 31, 2017) [2] and the municipality covers an area of ​​200.53 km 2 (excluding sea areas) of which 1.70 km 2 (0.66 sq mi) is inland water (January 1, 2016). [1] The population density is 4.89 / km 2 (12.7 / sq mi).

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Fehmarn

Fehmarn ( German pronunciation ( help · info ) ) ( Danish : Femern ) is an island and-since 2003 -a town on this island in the Baltic Sea , off the eastern coast of Schleswig-Holstein , Germany , and c. 18 kilometers south of the Danish island of Lolland . It belongs to the district of Ostholstein .

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Åland Islands

The Åland Islands or Åland ( Swedish : Åland , IPA: [Oland] ; Finnish : Ahvenanmaa ) is an archipelago at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea Belonging to Finland . It is autonomous , demilitarised and is only monolingually Swedish-speaking region in Finland. It is the smallest region of Finland , constituting 0.49% of its land area and 0.50% of its population.

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Hisingen

Hisingen is the fifth-largest island of Sweden (after Gotland , Öland , Södertörn and Orust ), [2] with an area of ​​199 km 2 (77 sq mi). It forms part of Gothenburg and is bordered by the Göta to the south and east, the Nordre älv to the north, and the Kattegat to the west. The northern part of the city of Gothenburg, with its harbors, industries and suburbs, is located on the island, which is divided between the two historical provinces of Västergötland and Bohuslän .

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Orust

Orest is an island in western Sweden , and Sweden’s third largest island. In 2014 Statistics Sweden declared it to be the fourth largest island, under a definition which adds artificial canals to the possible bodies of water surrounding an island. It has been noted that under this definition, all of Götaland would be the country’s largest island, rendering Orust instead the fifth largest. [2] The largest town on Orust is Henån , where approximately 1,800 inhabitants live. Orust is home to approximately 15,160 inhabitants in the winter and many more in the summer.

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Öland

Öland [2] ( Swedish pronunciation: [Oland] ( listen )  ) is the second Largest Swedish island and the Smallest of the traditional provinces of Sweden . Öland has an area of ​​1,342 square kilometers (518 square miles) and is located in the Baltic Sea just off the coast of Småland . The island has 26,000 inhabitants. [1] It is separated from the mainland by the Kalmar Straitand connected to it by the 6-km Öland Bridge , ouvert qui is 30 September 1972.

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Naissaar

Naissaar ( German : Nargen ; Swedish : Nargö ) is an island northwest of Tallinn (Purpose Viimsi Parish ) in Estonia . The island covers an area of ​​18.6 square kilometers (7.2 square miles). It is 8 kilometers (5.0 miles) long and 3.5 kilometers (2.2 miles) wide, and lies about 8.5 kilometers (5.3 miles) from the mainland. The highest point on the island is Kunilamägi, which is 27 meters (89 feet) above sea level . The island is predominantly of coniferous forest and piles of stones and boulders. As of 2005, the island had a population of ten. Now the island has three dozen or so permanent residents and some summer residents. Administratively the island is divided into three villages: Lõunaküla (Storbyn), Tagaküla (Bakbyn) and Väikeheinamaa(Lillängin).

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Gotland

Gotland ( / ɡ ɒ t l ə n d / ; Swedish pronunciation: [ɡɔtland] ( listen )  , [3] older spellings include Gottland / ɡ ɒ t l ə n d / or Gothland / ɡ ɒ .theta the ə n d / , [4] ), Gutland in the local dialect Gutnish , [5]is a province , county , municipality , and diocese of Sweden . It is Sweden’s largest island . [6] [7] [8] [9] The province includes the small islands of Fårö and Gotska Sandön to the north, Karlsö Islands ( Lilla and Stora ) to the west. The population is 58,003, [2] of which about 23,600 live in Visby , the main town. [1] The island of Gotland and the other areas of the province of Gotland make up one of Sweden’s total land area.

The island’s main sources of income are farming along with food processing, tourism, information technology services, design, and some heavy manufacturing such as production from locally mined limestone . [10] From a military viewpoint, it occupies a strategic location in the Baltic Sea .

History

The island is the home of the Gutes , and sites such as the Ajvide Settlement show that it has been occupied since prehistory . [11] A DNA study conducted on the 5,000-year-old skeletal remains of the Middle Neolithic seal hunters from Gotland, which was related to modern-day Finns, while a farmer from Gökhem parish in Västergötland on the mainland was found more closely related to modern-day Mediterraneans. This is about the spread of agricultural peoples from the Middle East at about that time. [12]

Early on, Gotland became a commercial center, with the town of Visby the most important Hanseatic city ​​in the Baltic Sea. [13] In the late medieval times, the island had 20 short districts ( tings ), each represented by its elected judge at the island-ting, called landsting . New laws have been decided at the landsting, which also took decisions concerning the island as a whole. [14]

Gutasaga contains legends of how the island was settled by Þieluar and populated by his descendants. It is also known as a third of the population in Europe, a tradition associated with the migration of the Goths , whose name has the same origin as Gutes , the native name of the people of the island. It is more likely that the Gutes voluntarily submitted to the king of Sweden and asserts that the submission is based on mutual agreement, and notes the duties and obligations of the Swedish King and Bishop in relationship to Gotland. [15] According to some historians, it is therefore an effort not only to write down the history of Gotland, but also to assert Gotland’s independence from Sweden.[16]

It gives Awair Strabain the mutually beneficial agreement with the king of Sweden; the event would have taken place before the end of the 9th century, when Wulfstan of Hedeby reported that the island was subject to the Swedes:

The Discovery of Muscovy –

Blekingey , and Meore , and Eowland , and Gotland, part of the land of the Burgundians , which is subject to the Sweons ; and Weonodland was all the way on our right, as far as Weissel -mouth. [17]

The city of Visby and the rest of the island were driven by the German market in Visby and the peasants they traded with in the countryside had to be put down by King Magnus III of Sweden in 1288. [ 18] In 1361, Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark invaded the island. [19] The Victual Brothers occupied the island in 1394 to set up a stronghold in their headquarters in Visby. At last, Gotland became a fief of the Teutonic Knights , awarded to them on the condition that they expel the piratical Victual Brothers from their fortified sanctuary. [14]An invading army of Teutonic Knights conquered the island in 1398, destroying Visby and driving the Victual Brothers from Gotland. In 1409, Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen of the Teutonic Knights guaranteed peace with the Kalmar Union of Scandinavia by selling the island of Gotland to Queen Margaret of Denmark, Norway and Sweden . [14]

The number of Arab dirhams on the island of Gotland alone is astoundingly high. In the various hoards located around the island, there are more than one place in Western Eurasia . The total sum is as great as it has been unearthed in the entire Muslim world. [20] These corners Moved north through trade entre Rus merchants and the Abbasid Caliphate , along the Silver-Fur Road , and the money made by Scandinavian merchants Would help northern Europe, Especially Viking Scandinavia and the Carolingian Empire, as major commercial centers for the next several centuries. [21]

The Berezan ‘Runestone , discovered in 1905 in Ukraine, was made by a Varangian ( Viking ) trader named Grani in memory of his business partnerKarl. It is assumed that they were from Gotland. [22]

The Mästermyr chest , an important artifact from the Viking Age , was found in Gotland. [23] [24]

The authority of the landsting was successively erected after the island was occupied by the Teutonic Order, then sold to Eric of Pomerania and after 1449 ruled by Danish governors. [14] In late medieval times, the ting of twelve representatives for the farmers, free-holders or tenants. Since the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, the island has remained under Swedish rule. [14] [25]

On September 19, 1806, the Swedish government issued sovereignty of the Gotland to the Order of St. John of Jerusalem , which had been expelled from Malta in 1798, but the Order rejected it. The Order never resumed its territory, and eventually it reestablished itself in Rome as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta . [26]

On 22 April 1808, during the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, a Russian army landed on the southeastern shores of Gotland near Grötlingbo . Under command of Nikolaus Andrejevich Bodisco 1,800 Russians took the city of Visby without any engagement, and occupied the island. A Swedish naval force rescue ship was sent from Karlskrona under the command of Admiral Rudolf Cederström with 2,000 men; the island was liberated and the Russians capitulated. Russian forces left the island on 18 May 1808.

Spillings Hoard

On  July 16 , 1999, the world’s largest Viking silver treasure, the Spillings Hoard , was found in a field at the Spillings farm northwest of Slite . [ 67 ] The weight of a total of 67 kg (148 lb.) (27 kg (60 lb) and 40 kg (88 lb)), and about 14,000, from foreign countries, mostly Islamic. [28] It also contained about 20 kg (44 lb) of bronze objects along with numerous everyday objects such as nails, glass beads, parts of tools, pottery, iron bands and clasps. The treasure was found by a metal detector, and the finders fee, given to the farmer who owned the land, was over 2 million crowns (about US $ 308,000). [29]The treasure was found almost by accident while filming a news report for TV4 about illegal treasure hunting on Gotland. [30]

Administration

The traditional provinces of Sweden serve as administrative and political purposes, but are historical and cultural entities. In the case of Gotland, however, due to its insular position, the administrative county ( län ), Gotland County , and the municipality ( kommun ), Gotland Municipality , both cover the same territory as the province. Moreover, the diocese of Visby is also congruent with the province. [31] [32] [33]

Sockens

Gotland is traditionally divided into 92 sockens . [1]

Heraldry

Gotland Was Granted icts arms in about 1560. [34] The coat of arms is a ducal coronet Represented with. Blazon: “Azure has a ruler with a golden army.” Or holding on a cross-staff of the same “Gules bordered and with five tails of the third.” The county was granted the same coat of arms in 1936. The municipality, created in 1971, uses the same picture, but with other tinctures .

The Gotlandic flag displays the Gotlandic coat of arms, known on the 13th century in the shape of the seal of the Gutnish Republic with the proud ram. It reads: “Gutenses signo xpistus signatur in agno”.

Geography

Gotland is Sweden’s largest island, and it is the largest island fully encompassed by the Baltic Sea (with Denmark’s Zealand at the Baltic’s edge). [6] [7] [8] [9] With its total area of ​​3,183.7 km 2(1.229.2 sq mi) The island of Gotland and the other areas of the province of Gotland make up 0.8% of Sweden’s total land area. [35] The province includes the small islands of Fårö and Gotska Sandön to the north, and the Karlsö Islands, (Lilla and Stora) to the west, which are even smaller. The island of Gotland has 2,994 km 2 (1.156 sq mi), while the province has 3,183.7 km 2 (1,229.2 sq mi) [3,151 km2 (1,217 sq mi) of land excluding the lakes and rivers. [36] The population is 57,221, [2] of which about 23,600 live in Visby, the seat of the municipality and the capital of the county. [1] About two-fifths of the island’s population live in Visby.

Gotland is located about 90 km (56 mi) from the Baltic states , Latvia being the nearest. Gotland is the name of the island, but the following is considered part of Gotland and the Gotlandic culture:

  • Furillen
  • Fårö
  • Gotska Sandön , a National park of Sweden
  • The Karlsö Islands ( Karlsö Stora and Lilla Karlsö )
  • Laus holmar
  • Ytterholmen
  • Östergarnsholm

There are several shallow lakes located near the shores of the island. The biggest is Lake Bästeträsk , located near Fleringe in the northern part of Gotland.

Gotland contains many popular beaches, such as Tofta Strand, and Hundfria strand. The Hoburg Shoal bird reserve is situated on the southern tip of the island. [37]

The highest point of the island Lojsta Hed which stalls 82 m (269 ft) above sea level.

Climate

Gotland has a semi-continental variety of a marine climate . This results in a larger size than normal in the Baltic Sea for large distances in all directions. This is due to strong continental winds tracking the sea from surrounding great landmasses.

[ hide ]Climate data for Visby, temperature 2002-2015, precipitation 1961-1990 (sunshine 2002-2014)
month Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Record high ° C (° F) 10.2
(50.4)
12.2
(54)
18.6
(65.5)
25.2
(77.4)
27.7
(81.9)
31.4
(88.5)
33.7
(92.7)
31.8
(89.2)
29.0
(84.2)
20.0
(68)
13.5
(56.3)
12.5
(54.5)
33.7
(92.7)
Average high ° C (° F) 1.4
(34.5)
1.2
(34.2)
4.5
(40.1)
10.0
(50)
15.2
(59.4)
18.8
(65.8)
22.0
(71.6)
21.3
(70.3)
17.0
(62.6)
10.9
(51.6)
6.8
(44.2)
3.5
(38.3)
11.0
(51.8)
Daily mean ° C (° F) -0.5
(31.1)
-0.9
(30.4)
1.1
(34)
5.5
(41.9)
10.4
(50.7)
14.4
(57.9)
17.9
(64.2)
17.3
(63.1)
13.4
(56.1)
8.1
(46.6)
4.8
(40.6)
1.6
(34.9)
7.7
(45.9)
Average low ° C (° F) -2.5
(27.5)
-3.0
(26.6)
-2.3
(27.9)
1.0
(33.8)
5.7
(42.3)
9.9
(49.8)
13.8
(56.8)
13.2
(55.8)
9.9
(49.8)
5.3
(41.5)
2.8
(37)
-0.3
(31.5)
4.4
(39.9)
Record low ° C (° F) -25.0
(-13)
-25.4
(-13.7)
-23.5
(-10.3)
-12.7
(9.1)
-6.9
(19.6)
-1.0
(30.2)
2.9
(37.2)
1.1
(34)
-2.9
(26.8)
-6.0
(21.2)
-11.5
(11.3)
-22.2
(-8)
-25.4
(-13.7)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 53
(2.09)
29
(1.14)
35
(1.38)
29
(1.14)
29
(1.14)
30
(1.18)
50
(1.97)
49
(1.93)
58
(2.28)
48
(1.89)
58
(2.28)
54
(2.13)
522
(20.55)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 37 64 174 255 310 329 308 254 202 102 41 31 2,107
Source # 1: [38]
Source # 2: [39]

Geology

Gotland is made of a sequence of sedimentary rocks of a Silurian age, dipping to the south-east. The main Silurian succession of limestones and shales included thirteen units spanning 200 to 500 m (660 to 1,640 ft) of stratigraphic thickness, being thick in the south, and overlies to 75 to 125 m (246 to 410 ft) thick Ordovician sequence. [40]

It was deposited in a shallow, hot and salty sea, on the edge of an equatorial continent. [41] The water depth never exceeded 175 to 200 m (574 to 656 ft), [42] and shallowed over time as bioherm detritus, and terrestrial sediments, filled the basin. Reef growth started in the Llandovery , when the sea was 50 to 100 m (160 to 330 ft), and reefs continued to dominate the sedimentary record. [40] Some sandstones are present in the rocks to the south of the island, which represent sand bars deposited close to the shore line. [43]

The lime rocks have been weathered into characteristic karstic rock formations known as rauks . Fossils, mainly rugose corals and brachiopods , are abundant throughout the island; palæo- sea-stacks are preserved in places. [44]

Economy

The island’s main sources of income are farming along with food processing, tourism, IT solutions, design and some heavy manufacturing such as production from locally mined limestone . Most of Gotland’s economy is based on small scale production. [45] In 2012, there were over 7,500 registered companies on Gotland. [46] 1,500 of these had more than one employee. [10]Gotland has the world’s largest vineyard and winery, located in Hablingbo . [47] [48]

[ show ]Gotlands largest employers in 2015 [49]

Military

Main article: Military on Gotland
World War II era Kulsprutebunker(Machine gun bunker) located near Brucebo, Gotland County

Gotland occupies a strategic location in the Baltic sea from a defense viewpoint. The Swedish government decided in March 2015 to begin a permanent military presence on Gotland, starting with an initial 150 troop garrison, [50] primarily of elements of the Swedish Army . It has been reported that the bulk of this initial warfare will have a new motorized rifle battalion, [51]alternatively referred to as a “modular-structured rapid response army response”. A later report has been submitted to an advanced stage for a squadron helicopter supportand an Air Force “fast response Gripen squadron jet” to also be based on the island to support the new garrison and further reinforce the defenses. [52] Prior to the disbandment of the original garrison, there had been a continuous Swedish presence on Gotland in one form or another, for nearly 200 years. [53]

A 2005 photo of 4 IFVs ( Stridsfordon 90 ) during an exercise at Tofta skjutfält

After the standing down of the original garrison, a battalion of the Swedish Home Guard is based on Gotland for emergencies as part of the Eastern Military Region ( MR E ). The unit, 32: Gotlandsbataljonen (the 32nd Gotland Battalion), acts as a reserve component of the Swedish Amphibious Corps . [54] Among the residual war reserve stocks were reported in Gotland in March 2015, were 14 tanks [55] ( Stridsvagn 122s ) at the Tofta skjutfält (Tofta firing range), [56] [57] but without any crews or dedicated personal maintenance assigned to them.[58]

Gotland currently has no local air defense capability. [59] Despite its importance as a naval base in the past, [60] as of 2004 , there are no naval units based on Gotland. [59] Swedish military experts have criticized the defense of Gotland as not being adequate to defend the island. [61]

The Tofta firing range itself (also known as the Tofta Tank firing range) is 8 km (5.0 mi) south of Visby. Another less common name for the range is the Toftasjön firing range. Tracing its origins back to 1898, as of 2008 the range extended over 2,700 acres (11 km 2 ). It was a major training and storage facility for the Gotland garrison during its existence, and was still occasionally used for training by the armed forces since the garrison was shut down in 2005. However, from the second half of 2014 onwards, there has been a marked increase, especially by armored units (mostly company sized), [57]in Northeastern Europe have escalated. At least one of the buildings on the range, the former tank repair shop , is currently owned by a private company ( Peab ), with the military renting back the top floor for its own use. [58]

When held by the military, one of the most notable being the Gotland Grand National , the world’s largest enduro race. [62]

Tourism

The first modern day tourists came to Gotland during the 19th century and were known as “bathers”. [63] Gotland became very popular with socialites at the time through Princess Eugenie who lived in Västerhejde , in the west part of the island from the 1860s. [64] [65]

When camping was a popular pastime among the Swedes, and in 1955, Gotland was visited by 80,000 people. [65] In the 1970s mostly young people were attracted to Gotland. Since 2010 the island has become a more versatile spot visited by people from all over the world, in all manner of ways. [65]

Gotland is one of Sweden’s most noted tourist destinations. In 2001 it was the fifth largest tourist destination in Sweden based on the total number of guest nights. [66] Gotland is usually the part of Sweden which receives the most hours of sunlight during a year with Visby statistically the location with the most sunshine in Sweden. [67] In 2007 approximately 750,000 people visited Gotland. [10]

In 1996, ferries between Gotland and mainland Sweden carried more than 1 million passengers in a year. In 2007, the number of passengers exceeded 1.5 million. [68] In 2012, the ferries had 1,590,271 passengers and the airlines 327,255 passengers. [69]

[ show ]Number of tourists from top five countries in 2012 [70]

Cruise ship and new pier

The port of call on Gotland is Visby. The city is visited by a number of cruise ships every year. [72] [73] About Baltic Sea with Visby as one of their destinations. [74] In 2005, 147 ships docked at Visby, in 2010 the number was 69. [75] In 2014, 62 ships are scheduled to visit Visby. [76] Visby harbor is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. [75] Ships must anchor a fair distance from shore, which is not possible during bad weather. [77]In 2007, the first proposal for a new pier at Visby harbor, was made. [78] In 2011, the topic of the new pier was discussed in the Riksdag [79] and in 2012 research and planning for the pier began. [75] In January 2014 a letter of intent for a new arrival in Copenhagen was signed by Gotland Region and Copenhagen Malmö Port (CMP). The estimated cost is 250 million crowns (about US $ 38.52 million). [80] [81]

Culture

A number of stones with grooves exist on Gotland. Archaeologists interpret these grooves as traces of an industrial process in the High Middle Ages . There are approximately 3,700 grinding grooves, of which about 750 occur in the solid limestone outcrop and the rest in other rock formations. The latter often consists of granite or gneiss, but also soft rocks such as sandstone occur. [82] Grinding grooves are also found in Skåne, Southern Sweden and Finland. Astronomer Göran Henriksson dates from these grinding grooves to the Stone Age, from c. 3300 BCE to c. 2000 BCE, based on astronomical alignments, [83] ALTHOUGH His methodology has-been Heavily Criticized. [84]

The Medieval town of Visby has been designated as a site of the UNESCO World heritage program. An impressive feature of Visby is the fortress that surrounds the old city, dating from the 13th century. [85]

The inhabitants of Gotland traditionally spoke their own language, known as Gutnish . Today however, they have adapted to a dialect of Swedish that is known as “Gotländska”. [86]

In the 13th century, a work containing the laws of the island, called “Gotlandic law” (Gutalagen), was published in the ancient Gutnish language. [87]

Gotland is Noted for ict 94 medieval churches , [88] MOST of qui are restored and in active use. These churches exhibit two major styles of architecture: Romanesque and Gothic . The older churches were constructed in the Romanesque style from 1150-1250. The newer churches were constructed in the Gothic architectural style that prevailed from about 1250-1400. The oldest painting on one of the churches on Gotland stretches as far back in time as the 12th century. [89]

Traditional games of skill like Kubb , Pärk , and Varpa are played on Gotland. They are part of what is called “Gutniska Lekar”, and are performed on the Midsummer’s Eve celebration on the island, but throughout the summer months. The games have widespread renown; Some of them are played by the United States. [90]

The knotwork design subsequently named the ” Valknut ” has The Most attested historic instances we picture stones in Gotland, qui include being white on Both the Stora Hammars I and the Tängelgårda stones . [91] Gotland also has a rich heritage of folklore, including myths about the bysen , Di sma undar jordi , Hoburgsgubben and the Martebo lights . [92] [93]

Gotland gives its name to the traditional farmhouse ale Gotlandsdricka , a turbid beer with much in common with Finnish sahti , and related beers from the Baltic states . [94]

Notable residents

Ingmar Bergman & Sven Nykvist
Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland, 2014.
Håkan Loob
  • Christopher Polhem , father of Swedish mechanical physics
  • Ingmar Bergman , film director
  • Håkan Loob , form NHL player
  • Lennart Eriksson , punk rock musician
  • Susanne Alfvengren , singer
  • Serious , death metal band
  • Thomas Löfkvist , cyclist
  • Theresa Andersson , singer, composer, musician
  • Hjördis Petterson , actress
  • Tove Edfeldt , actress
  • Einar Englund , compose
  • Babben Larsson , comedian
  • Håkan Nesser , author
  • Jonas Jonasson , journalist, writer

Dukes and Duchesses of Gotland

Main article: Duke of Gotland
  • Prince Oscar 1859-1888 (lost title)
  • Princess Leonore 2014-

Sports events

  • Gotland competes in the biennial Island Games , which it hosted in 1999 . [95] They will host the games for a second time in 2017 . [96]
  • Round Gotland Race -Sailing Event (“ÅF Offshore Race”) starting at Stockholm, around the island of Gotland and back. [97]
  • Grand National Gotland (GGN) is an annual enduro race on Gotland. GGN is a part of the Swedish enduroklassikern (enduro classics, Ränneslättsloppet, Stångebroslaget and Gotland Grand National). GNN is the world’s largest enduro race. [98] [99]
  • Stånga Games are annual games for Gotlandic sports. The games are held in Stånga . The games are unofficially called “the Gotland Olympic Games”. Some of the sports at the Stånga Games are pärk , varpa and caber toss . [90]

Sports organizations

In 2012, there were 171 registered sports organizations on Gotland. [100]

Gotland has two senior women’s sports teams playing in the first third: basketball team Visby Ladies Basketball Club (in Basketligan dam ) and floorball team Endre IF (in the Swedish Super League). [101] [102] Visby Ladies won the Swedish Championship in 2005. [103]

Football in the province is managed by Gotlands Fotbollförbund . The leading football club is FC Gute , playing in the fourth-tier league Division 2 as of 2014 . [104]

In popular culture

The Long Ships , or Red Orm (original title: Röde Orm ), has best-selling Swedish novel written by Frans G. Bengtsson , contains a vivid description of Gotland in the Viking Age. A section of the book is devoted to a Viking ship setting out to Russia, stopping on its way to Gotland and engaging a pilot from the island who plays an important part in their journey. Gotlanders of the Viking era are depicted as a city, and more sophisticated and cosmopolitan than other Scandinavians of their time, and proud of their knowledge and skills.

Naomi Mitchison , in his autobiographical book ” You may well ask “, relates to an experience during a walking tour in Sweden: “Over in Gotland I walked again, more than I would have had the milestones been in old Swedish miles , so that my disappointing three-mile walk along the seabed under the strange ancient fortifications was really fifteen minutes “. [105]

The crime novels of Mari Jungstedt , featuring Detective Superintendent Anders Knutas, are set on Gotland.

In the Battlefield Vietnam video game modification Gotland Invasion , the Soviet Union invades Gotland in 1977.

For the 1989 Studio Ghibli movie, Kiki’s Delivery Service , by Hayao Miyazaki, he and other illustrators in Gotland in preparation for animation.

Astronomy

A number of asteroids in the main-belt are named after places on Gotland or Gotlanders, such as 10795 Babben , 3250 Martebo and 7545 Smaklösa . Most of them have been named by Swedish astronomer Claes-Ingvar Lagerkvist , a summer resident on Gotland. All the Gotlandic names are vividly described in NASA’s JPL Small-Body Database in connection with each asteroid. [106] [107]

Kihnu

Kihnu ( Swedish : Kynö ) is an island in the Baltic Sea . With an area of ​​16.4 km 2 (6.3 sq mi) it is the largest island in the Gulf of Riga [1] and the seventh largest island of Estonia . The length of the island is 7 km (4.3 mi) and width 3.3 km (2.1 mi), the highest point is at 8.9 meters (29.2 ft) above sea level .

The island belongs to the Pärnu County of Estonia. Together with Neighboring islands it forms Kihnu Parish , one of the Smallest Municipalities of the country with an area of 16.8 km 2 (6.5 sq mi).

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Vilsandi

The island of Vilsandi , Kihelkonna Parish , Saare County , Estonia is located in the Baltic Sea . It covers an area of ​​some 9 square kilometers and is the westernmost populated island in Estonia. The surrounding waters are shallow and rocky and many travels the Baltic have perished nearby. The island of Vilsandi can be reached by boat by Saaremaa . Much of the island is now part of Vilsandi National Park, which grew from a bird reserve founded in 1910. It is a highly sensitive ecosystem due to the area by many migratory birds breeding and nesting ground. Hunting is absolutely prohibited. This park is a popular tourist destination not only for local Estonians, but also people of Finland who are visiting Estonia in greater and greater numbers.

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Saaremaa

Saaremaa ( Estonian pronunciation: [sɑːremɑː] ; Danish: Øsel ; English (esp. Traditionally): Osel ; [1] Finnish: Saarenmaa ; Swedish & German: Ösel ) is the largest island in Estonia , measuring 2,673 km 2 (1,032 sq mi ). [2] The main island of Saare County , it is located in the Baltic Sea , south of Hiiumaa island and west of Muhu island, and belongs to the West Estonian Archipelago . The capital of the island is Kuressaarewhich has about 15,000 inhabitants; the whole island has over 30,966 inhabitants.

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Ruhnu

Ruhnu ( Swedish : Runö , Latvian : Roņu sala ) is an Estonian island in the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic Sea . It is administratively part of Saare County but is geographically closer to the Latvian mainland. At 11.9 square kilometers (4.6 sq mi), it is currently less than 100, mostly ethnic Estonian , permanent inhabitants. Before 1944, it was for centuries populated by ethnic Swedes and traditional Swedish law was used.

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Piirissaar

Piirissaar ( formerly Borka , Russian : Mezha (Межа) ) is an Estonian island located in Lake Peipus . It belongs to Tartu County as the Piirissaare Parish .

Piirissar is the largest island in Lake Peipus with a size of 7.8 km². It is located c. 15 km from the mouth of the Emajõgi river. Piirissaar is located c. 1 – 2 meters above the water level in Lake Peipus.

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Osmussaar

Osmussaar ( Swedish : Odensholm ) is an Estonian island located in the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea , 7.5 km off the Estonian mainland. Administratively the island is part of Noarootsi Parish in Lääne County . Its area is 4.8 km 2 (1,200 acres).

Before the Soviet Union occupied Estonia during World War II , around 130 people, mainly Estonian Swedes , lived on the island. The continuous settlement of Swedes on Osmussaar had dated back centuries. Currently Osmussaar has only two permanent inhabitants [1] and the island is a nature reserve.

Naissaar

Naissaar ( German : Nargen ; Swedish : Nargö ) is an island northwest of Tallinn (Purpose Viimsi Parish ) in Estonia . The island covers an area of ​​18.6 square kilometers (7.2 square miles). It is 8 kilometers (5.0 miles) long and 3.5 kilometers (2.2 miles) wide, and lies about 8.5 kilometers (5.3 miles) from the mainland. The highest point on the island is Kunilamägi, which is 27 meters (89 feet) above sea level . The island is predominantly of coniferous forest and piles of stones and boulders. As of 2005, the island had a population of ten. Now the island has three dozen or so permanent residents and some summer residents. Administratively the island is divided into three villages: Lõunaküla (Storbyn), Tagaküla (Bakbyn) and Väikeheinamaa(Lillängin).

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Hiiumaa

Hiiumaa ( Estonian pronunciation: [hiːumɑː] ; German & Swedish : Dago ; Danish : Dago ; Finnish : Hiidenmaa ) is the second Largest island (989 km²) in Estonia . It is in the Baltic Sea , north of the island of Saaremaa , part of the West Estonian archipelago . Its largest town is Kärdla . Along with several smaller neighboring islands, the island makes up Hiiu County ; one of the 15 counties of Estonia.

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Abruka

Abruka is an 8.78 km² Estonian island in the Gulf of Riga , 4 km south of the island of Saaremaa .

Together with few neighboring smaller islands ( Vahase , Kasselaid , Linnusitamaa and Kirjurahu ) Abruka forms the village of Abruka, which is part of Lääne-Saare Parish , Saare County . The village has a population of 33 (as of 1 January 2011) [1] and an area of ​​10.1 km².

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Zealand

Zealand ( Danish : Sjælland , pronounced [ɕɛˌlanˀ] ), at 7.031 km 2 , is the Largest (except Greenland) and MOST populated island in Denmark with a population of 2,287,740 (39.8% of Denmark’s total as of January 2017). [1]

It is the 13th-largest island in Europe by area and the 4th most populous . It is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link , to Lolland , Falster (and Germany from 2028) by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges . Zealand is also linked to Amager by several bridges. Zealand is linked to other countries through a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden .

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Lolland

Lolland ( Danish pronunciation: [lʌˌlanˀ] ; formerly spelled Laaland , literally “low land”) is the fourth Largest island of Denmark , with an area of 1.243 km 2 (480 sq mi). Located in the Baltic sea , it is part of Region Sjælland (Region Zealand). As of 1 January 2013, it has 62,578 inhabitants. [1]

Overview

Lolland is also known as “pancake island” because of its flatness: the highest point of the island is 25 m (82 ft) above sea level, just outside the village of Horslunde . The island has been an important communication highway, among others for Nazi Germany during World War II . Historically, sugar beet grew in Lolland. Sugar is still a major industry, visible from the large number of sugar beet fields.

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Funen

Funen ( Danish : Fyn , pronounced [fyːˀn] ), with an area of ​​3,099.7 square kilometers (1,196.8 sq mi), is the third-largest island of Denmark , after Zealand and Vendsyssel-Thy . It is the 165th -largest island in the world. It is in the central part of the country and has a population of 466,284 (2013). [1] The main city is Odense which is connected to the sea by a seldom-used channel . The city’s shipyard, Odense Steel Shipyard , has been relocated outside Odense proper.

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Falster

Falster is an island in south-eastern Denmark with an area of ​​486.2 km 2 (187.7 sq mi) [1] and 43,398 inhabitants as of January 1, 2010. [2] Located in the Baltic sea , it is part of Region Sjælland (County of Zealand) and is managed by Guldborgsund Municipality . Falster includes Denmark’s southernmost point, Gedser Odde , near Gedser . [3]

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Bornholm

Bornholm ( Danish: [bɒːnhʌlˀm] ; Old Norse : Burgundaholmr ) is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea , to the east of the rest of Denmark , south of Sweden , northeast of Germany and north of the westernmost part of Poland . The main industries on the island include, dairy farming , and arts and crafts such as glass production and pottery using locally worked clay . Tourism is important during the summer. There is an especially large number of Denmark’sround churches on the island. The total area according to www.noegletal.dk (Municipal and Regional Key Figures) was 588.36 square kilometers (227.17 sq mi) (January 2016). Population was 39,627 (1 October 2017).

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Alderney

Alderney ( / ɔː the d ər n i / ; French : Aurigny [oʁiɲi] ; Auregnais dialect : Aoeur’gny ) is the northernmost of the inhabited Channel Islands . It is part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey , a British Crown dependency . It is 3 miles (5 km) long and 1 1 / 2  miles (2.4 km) wide. The area is 3 square miles (8 km 2), making it the third-largest island of the Channel Islands, and the second largest in the Bailiwick. It is around 10 miles (15 km) from the west of The Hague on the Cotentin Peninsula , Normandy , France, 20 miles (30 km) from the north-east of Guernsey and 60 miles (100 km) from the south coast Great Britain. It is the closest of the Channel Islands to both France and the United Kingdom. It is separated from Hague Cape by the dangerous Alderney Race (English: Raz Blanchard ).

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guernsey

Guernsey ( / ɡ ɜːr n z i / ) is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy . It lies roughly north of St Malo and the west of the Cotentin Peninsula . With several smaller local islands, it forms a jurisdiction within the Bailiwick of Guernsey , a Crown dependency . The jurisdiction is made up of ten parishes on the island of Guernsey, three other inhabited islands ( Herm , Jethou and Lihou), and many small islets and rocks. The jurisdiction is not part of the United Kingdom . [4]

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Jersey

Jersey ( / dʒ ɜːr z i / , French: [ʒɛʁzɛ] ; Jèrriais : JERRI dʒɛri ) Officially the Bailiwick of Jersey ( French : Bailliage Jersey ; Jèrriais : Bailiwick Jerri ) is a Crown dependency [9] Located near the coast of Normandy , France . [10] Jersey was part of the Duchy of Normandy, whose dukes went on to become kings of England from 1066. After Normandy was lost by the kings of England in the 13th century, and the ducal title surrendered to France, Jersey and the other Channel Islands remained attached to the English crown.

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Aran Islands

The Aran Islands ( Irish : Oileáin Árann -pronunciation: [əlʲɑːnʲ ɑːɾən] ) or The Arans ( na hárainneacha – [nə hɑːɾənʲəxə] ) are a group of three islands located on the mouth of Galway Bay , on the west coast of Ireland , with total area of ​​about 46 square kilometers. They constitute the barony of Aran in County Galway , Ireland.

From west to east the islands are: Inishmore ( rainnʲ woːɾ) or ɪnnmh ( Inner Mór) [1] – the largest; Inishmaan ( Inis Mein / Inis Meadhin – [ɪnʲɪʃ mʲɑːnʲ] ), the second-largest; and Inisheer ( Inis Thiar / Inis Oírr / Inis Oirthir – [ɪnʲɪʃ hiəɾ / iːɾʲ / ɛɾʲhɪɾʲ] ), the smallest.

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Achill Island

Achill Island ( / æ k əl / ; Irish : Acaill, Oileán Acla ) in County Mayo is the Largest island off the coast of Ireland , and is Situated off the west coast. It has a population of 2,700. Its area is 148 km 2 (57 sq mi). Achill is attached to the mainland by Michael Davitt Bridge , between the villages of Gob an Choir ( Achill Sound ) and Poll Raithní ( Polranny ). A bridgewas also completed in 1947, and was later completed in 2008. Other centers of population include the villages of Keel, Dooagh , Dumha Eige ( Dooega ), Dun Ibhir ( Dooniver ) , The Valley and Dugort. The parish’s hand Gaelic football pitch and secondary school are on the mainland at Poll Raithní. Early human settlements are believed to be established on Achill around 3000 BC. A paddle dating from this period was found at the Crannóg near Dookinella. The island is 87% peat bog . The parish of Achill also includesCurraun peninsula . Some of the people of Curraun consider themselves to be Achill people, and most of them are Achill refer to this area. There are between 500-600 native Irish speakers in Achill parish. In the summer of 1996, the RNLI decided to station a lifeboat at Kildownet.

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Anglesey

Anglesey ( / æ ŋ . Ɡ ə l . S i / ; Welsh : Ynys Môn [ənɨs MON] ) is an island off the north-west coast of Wales . With an area of ​​276 square miles (715 km 2 ), [1] is the largest island in Wales and the seventh largest in the British Isles . Anglesey is also the largest island in the Irish Sea by area , and the second most populous island (after the Isle of Man ). [2] The population at the2011 census was 69,751. [3] Two bridges span the Menai Strait , connecting to the mainland: the Menai Suspension Bridge , designed by Thomas Telford in 1826, and the Britannia Bridge .

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Caldey Island

Caldey ( Welsh : Ynys Bŷr ) is a small island off the SW coast of mainland Wales , near Tenby in Pembrokeshire . [2] With a Recorded history going back over 1500 years, it is Known as one of Holy Islands of Britain, and a number of traditions inherited from Celtic times are Observed by the Cistercian monks Who Are The chief Gutman and owners of the island today . [3]

At its closest point, Caldey lies 1 kilometer (0.6 mi) south of the mainland, though the usual access to the island by Tenby which is 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) to the north.

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Ramsey Island

Ramsey Island ( Welsh : Ynys Dewi ) is an island about 1 km off the coast of St David’s peninsula in Pembrokeshire on the northern side of St Brides Bay , in southwest Wales . It is 640 acres (259.00 hectares) in area.

In Welsh the island is named after St. David ( Dewi Sant ), patron saint of Wales . It was the home of his confessor, St. Justinian . The nearest town, strictly a city , is St David’s .

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Skomer

Skomer ( Welsh : Ynys Sgomer ) is an island off the coast of Pembrokeshire in West Wales. It is best known for its wildlife in the world of Manx shearwaters nest on the island, the Atlantic puffin colony is the largest in southern Britain, and the Skomer flies (a subspecies of the bank flies ) is unique to the island. It is also known for its archeological interest: stone circles , standing stones and remains of prehistoric houses. Skomer is a national nature reserve , a Site of Special Scientific Interest and aSpecial Protection Area . Much of the island has also been designated an ancient monument . It is surrounded by a marine nature reserve and is managed by the Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales . There is now a hostel on the island so you can stay on the boat home.

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Holy Island, Anglesey

Holy Island ( Welsh : Ynys Gybi , ‘the island of (Saint) Cybi ‘) is an island (15.22 sq mi (39.4 km 2 )) on the western side of the larger Isle of Anglesey , Wales , from which it is separated by a narrow, winding channel. It is called “Holy” because of the high concentration of standing stones , burial chambers , and other religious sites on the small island. The alternative and historic name of the island is Holyhead Island . According to the 2011 Census , the population was 13,659, of which 11,431 (84%) lived in the largest town, Holyhead.

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North Uist

North Uist ( Scottish Gaelic : Tuath Uibhist pronounced [ɯ.ɪʃtʲ ə t̪ʰuə] ) is an island and community in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland .

Etymology

In Donald Munro’s A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland Called Hybrid of 1549, North Uist, Benbecula and South Uist are Described as One island of Ywst (Uist). In the south of this island, he described the division between South Uist and Benbecula where the end heirof the sea enters, and cuts the countrey be ebbing and flowing through it. Further north of Benbecula he describes North Uist as “this countrey is called Kenehnache of Ywst, which is in Englishe, the north head of Ywst”. [7]

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South Uist

South Uist ( Scottish Gaelic : Uibhist a Deas ) is the second-largest island of the Outer Hebrides in to date. In the northwest, there is a missile testing range. Its inhabitants are known in Gaelic as Deasaich (Southerners).Scotland. At the 2011 census, it had a usually resident population of 1,754, a fall of 64 since 2001.[8] There is a nature reserve and a number of sites of archaeological interest, including the only location in Great Britain where prehistoric mummies have been found. The population is about 90% Roman Catholic. The island, in common with the rest of the Hebrides, is one of the last remaining strongholds of the Gaelic language in Scotland. In 2006 South Uist, and neighbouring Benbecula and Eriskay, were involved in Scotland’s biggest community land buyout

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Jura, Scotland

Jura ( / dʒ ʊər ə / joor -ə ; Scottish Gaelic : Diùra [tʲuːɾə] ) is an island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, adjacent to and to the north-east of Islay . Compared with its fertile and more populous neighbor, the Jura is mountainous, bare and infertile, covered largely by large areas of blanket bog , hence its small population. In the list of the islands of Scotland , Jura comes eighth. It is in the Argyll and Bute area .

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Isle of Arran

Arran or the Isle of Arran ( / æ r ən / ; Scottish Gaelic : Eilean Arainn pronounced [elan arɪɲ] ), at 432 square kilometers (167 sq mi), is the Largest island in the Firth of Clyde and the seventh Largest Scottish island. Historically part of Buteshire , it is in the unitary council area of North Ayrshire . In the 2011 census it had a resident population of 4,629. Though culturally and physically similar to the Hebrides , it is separated from the Kintyrepeninsula. It is divided into highland and lowland areas by the Highland Boundary Fault and has been described as a “geologist’s paradise”. [7]

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Mainland, Orkney

The Mainland is the main island of Orkney , Scotland . Both of Orkney’s burghs , Kirkwall and Stromness , lie on the island, which is also the heart of Orkney’s ferry and air connections.

Seventy-five percent of Orkney’s population live on the island, which is more densely populated than the other islands of the archipelago. The lengthy history of the island has many important archaeological sites and the sandstone bedrock provides a platform for fertile farmland. There is an abundance of wildlife, especially seabirds.

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Islay

Islay ( / aɪ the ə / ( listen )  EYE -lə ; Scottish Gaelic : Ìle , pronounced [iːlə] ) is the southernmost island of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. Known as “The Queen of the Hebrides “, [7] it lies in Argyll just south of Jura and around 40 kilometers (25 mi) north of the Irish coast. The island’s capital is Bowmore, where the distinctive round Kilroy Parish Church and a distillery are located. [8] Port Ellen is the main port. [9]

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Mull

Mull ( Scottish Gaelic : muilë , pronounced [mulʲə] ) is the second Largest island of the Inner Hebrides (after Skye ), off the west coast of Scotland in the council area of Argyll and Bute .

With an area of ​​875.35 square kilometers (337.97 sq mi) Mull is the fourth largest Scottish island and the fourth largest outside Great Britain (excluding Ireland). In the 2011 census the usual resident population of Mull was 2,800 [2] to a slight increase on the 2001 figure of 2,667; [6] in the summer this is supplemented by many tourists. Much of the population lives in Tobermory , the only burgh on the island until 1973, and its capital.

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Mainland, Shetland

The Mainland is the main island of Shetland , Scotland . The island contains Shetland ‘s only burgh , Lerwick , and is the center of Shetland’ s ferry and air connections.

It has an area of ​​374 square miles (970 km 2 ), making it the third-largest Scottish island and the fifth largest of the British Isles after Great Britain , Ireland , Lewis and Harris and Skye .

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Skye

Skye , or the Isle of Skye ( / s k aɪ / ; Scottish Gaelic : An t-Eilean Sgitheanach gold Eilean a ‘Cheo ) is the Largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland . [Note 1] The island’s peninsulas radiates from a mountainous center dominated by the Cuillins , the rocky slopes of which provide some of the most dramatic mountain scenery in the country. [9] [10] Although it has been suggested that the Gaelic Sgitheanach describes a winged shape there is no definitive agreement to the name of origins.

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Lewis and Harris

Lewis and Harris ( Scottish Gaelic : Leòdhas agus na Hearadh ) is a Scottish island in the Outer Hebrides . It is the largest island in Scotland and the third largest in the British Isles , after Great Britain and Ireland .

Geography

The northern part of the island is called Lewis , the southern is Harris and they are often referred to as if they are separate islands. The boundary between Lewis and Harris is on the island between Loch Resort ( Reasort , opposite Scarp ) and Loch Seaforth ( Shiophoirt ) on the east (north of the more obvious isthmus at Tarbert).

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List of outlying islands of Scotland

The outlying islands of Scotland are not part of the larger archipelagos and island groups of Scotland and are therefore not part of the Hebrides , the Northern Isles or the Islands of the Forth and Clyde estuaries. None of these islands ares currently inhabited And Few of Them Were ever, ALTHOUGH Hirta Was occupied from the Neolithic age up to 1930 and Stroma Was Permanently occupied up to the 1970s and thereafter by lighthouse keepers and Their families up to 1996. [1] [2] Several other outlying islands have lighthouses, none of which are still manned.

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Islands of the Forth

The Islands of the Forth are a group of small islands located in the Firth of Forth and in the estuary of the River Forth on the east coast of Scotland. Most of the group in the open waters of the firth , between the Lothians and Fife , with the majority to the east of the city of Edinburgh . Two islands lie further west in the river estuary.

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Islands of the Clyde

The Islands of the Firth of Clyde are the fifth largest of the Scottish island groups after the Inner and Outer Hebrides , Orkney and Shetland . They are situated in the Firth of Clydebetween Ayrshire and Argyll and Bute . There are about forty islands and skerries , of qui only four are inhabited and only nine larger than 40 hectares (99 acres). [Note 1] The largest and most populous are Arran and Bute , and Great Cumbrae and Holy Isleare also served by dedicated ferry routes. [4] [5] The Scottish archipelagos is another example of this.

The geology and geomorphology of the area is complex and the surrounding sea lochs each have distinctive features. The influence of the Atlantic Ocean and the North Atlantic Driftcreates a mild, damp oceanic climate.

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List of Inner Hebrides

This List of Inner Hebrides is a chain of islands and skerries located on the west coast of mainland Scotland . There are 36 inhabited islands in this archipelago , of which Islay , Mulland Skye are the largest and most populous.

The islands of Scotland are known collectively as Hebrides ; the Inner Hebrides are separated from the Outer Hebrides by The Minch to the north and the Sea of ​​the Hebrides to the south. The Inner Hebrides of Ardnamurchan are governed by two separate local authorities as part of larger territories. The Northern Inner Hebrides, including Skye, the Small Islandsand the Summer Isles , are part of the Highland Unitary Council region. The southern group, including Islay, Jura, the Slate Islands and Gigha are part of the Argyll and Bute council region.

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List of Outer Hebrides

The Outer Hebrides is a chain of more than 100 islands and small skerries located about 70 kilometers (43 mi) west of mainland Scotland . There are 15 uninhabited islands in this archipelago , which are also known as Western Isles and Long Island Archaic ( Scottish Gaelic : An t-Eilean Fada ). [Note 1]

Lewis and Harris is the largest island in Scotland and the third largest in the British Isles , after Great Britain and Ireland. [2] It Incorporates Lewis in the north and Harris in the south, both, of qui are frequently Referred to as individual islands, ALTHOUGH They Are joined by a land border. [Note 2] The largest settlement in Lewis and the Outer Hebrides is Stornoway .

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List of Orkney islands

This is a list of Orkney islands in Scotland . The Orkney archipelago is located 16 kilometers (9.9 mi) north of mainland Scotland and includes over 70 islands and skerries , of which 20 are permanently inhabited. In addition to the Orkney Mainland there are three groups of islands. The North and South Isles is located in Mainland. The Pentland Skerries are a group of small islands in the Pentland Firth , a dangerous stretch of water between mainland Scotland and the larger islands of Orkney, through which the strongest tidal streams in Britain. [1] The Isle of Stromais often mistakenly included with the Orkney Islands, but is part of Caithness .

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List of Shetland islands

This is a list of Shetland islands in Scotland . The Shetland Archipelago is located 100 kilometers (62 mi) north of mainland Scotland and the capital Lerwick is almost equidistant from Bergen in Norway and Aberdeen in Scotland. The Shetland archipelago is about 300 islands and skerries , of which 16 are inhabited. In addition to the Shetland mainland the larger islands are Unst , Yell and Fetlar .

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Isles of Scilly

The Isles of Scilly ( / s ɪ l i / ; Cornish : Syllan gold Enesek Syllan ) are an archipelago off the southwestern tip of Cornwall . One of the islands, St Agnes , is the most southerly point in both England and the United Kingdom , being over 4 miles (6.4 km) further south than the most southerly point of the British mainland at Lizard Point .

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Lundy

Lundy is the largest island in the Bristol Channel . It lies 12 miles (19 km) off the coast of Devon , England, [3] in the district of Torridge , about a third of the distance from Devon, England to South Wales . Lundy gives its name to a British sea area and is one of the islands of England . [4] Lundy has-been designated by Natural England as national character area 159, one of England’s natural areas . [5]

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Wallasea Island

Wallasea Island lies in Essex , England . It is bound to the north by the River Crouch , to the south by the River Roach , and to the west by Paglesham Pool and the narrow Paglesham Creek . The population of the Island is included in the civil parish of Canewdon .

Much of the island is farmland , and wheat is the main crop. A small settlement at its western end is linked to a campsite and marina . It is linked by ferry to Burnham-on-Crouch .

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Walney Island

The Isle of Walney , also known as Walney Island , is an island off the west coast of England , at the western end of Morecambe Bay . It forms part of the town of Barrow-in-Furness , and it is separated from mainland Barrow by Walney Channel, a narrow channel which is spanned by the Jubilee Bridge . Walney is the largest island of the Furness Islands group, both in population and size, and is the largest in the Irish Sea . Its population at the 2011 UK Census was 10,651, distributed evenly across the island’s two Wards ofWalney North and Walney South . [1]

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Mersea Island

Mersea Island / m ɜːr z i / [1] is an island in Essex , England, in the Blackwater and Colne estuaries to the south-east of Colchester . Its name comes from the Old English word meresig , meaning “island of the pool”. The island is divided into two main areas, West Mersea and East Mersea , and connected to the mainland by the Strood, a cause that can flood at high tide.

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Canvey Island

Canvey Island is a civil parish and reclaimed island in the Thames estuary in Essex , England. It has an area of ​​7.12 square miles (18.44 km 2 ) and a population of 38,170. [1]Essex by a network of creeks. The only exception is the flood of exceptional tides, but it has been inhabited since the Roman invasion of Britain.

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Portsea Island

Portsea Island is a flat, low-lying island measuring 24 square kilometers (9 sq mi) in area, just off the southern coast of England . The island is located within the traditional county of Hampshire and contains the vast majority of Portsmouth .

Portsea Island has the third largest population of the British Isles after the mainlands of Great Britain and Ireland ; it also has the highest population density.

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Foulness Island

Foulness ( / f aʊ the n ɛ s / ) is an island on the east coast of Essex in England , qui is separated from the mainland by narrow creeks . In the 2001 census, the usually resident population was 212, living in the settlements of Churchend and Courtsend, at the end of the island. The population reduced to 151 at the 2011 Census. [1] The island has a general store and post office . The George and Dragon Churchend pub closed in 2007, while the church closed in May 2010.

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Isle of Sheppey

The Isle of Sheppey is an island off the northern coast of Kent , England in the Thames Estuary , some 46 miles (74 km) to the east of London . It has an area of ​​36 square miles (93 km 2 ). The island forms part of the local government district of Swale . Sheppey is derived from the ancient Saxon “Sceapige”, meaning isle of sheep, and even today the extensive marshes which make up a large proportion of the island.

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Isle of Wight

The Isle of Wight / w aɪ t / (Referred to informally as ‘IOW’ [4] or ‘The Island’) is a county and the Largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel , about 2 miles (3.2 km) off the coast of Hampshire , separated by the Solent . The island-have beens HAS resorts That holiday destinations since Victorian times , and is Known for icts mild climate, coastal scenery, and verdant landscape of fields, downland and chines .

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ireland

Ireland ( / aɪər the ə n d / ( listen )  ; Irish : Éire [eːɾʲə] ( listen )  ; Ulster-Scots : Airlann [ɑːrlən] ) is an island in the North Atlantic . It is separated from Great Britain by the North Channel , the Irish Sea , and St George’s Channel . Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles , thethird-largest in Europe , and the twentieth-largest on Earth . [6]

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Great Britain

Great Britain , also known as Britain , is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe . With an area of ​​209,331 km 2 (80,823 sq mi), Great Britain is the largest of the British Isles , the largest European island , and the ninth-largest island in the world . [5] [note 1] In 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world’s third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan . [7][8] The island of Ireland is situated in the west of theisland, and together with theseislands , including the British Isles archipelago. [9]

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