Caldey Island

Caldey ( Welsh : Ynys Bŷr ) is a small island off the SW coast of mainland Wales , near Tenby in Pembrokeshire . [2] With a Recorded history going back over 1500 years, it is Known as one of Holy Islands of Britain, and a number of traditions inherited from Celtic times are Observed by the Cistercian monks Who Are The chief Gutman and owners of the island today . [3]

At its closest point, Caldey lies 1 kilometer (0.6 mi) south of the mainland, though the usual access to the island by Tenby which is 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) to the north.

The island’s population consists of 40 permanent residents and a number of Cistercian monks, [4] known as Trappists , whose predecessors migrated there from Belgium in the early 20th century, taking over from Anglican Benedictines who had bought the island in 1906 and built the extant monastery and abbey but later got into financial difficulties. [5] Today the monks of Caldey Abbey farm the island, chiefly raising dairy cattle , and make a range of items including cheese, shortbread, perfumes and toiletries.

In the spring and summer, visitors are welcome to Caldey, not only to visit the sacred sanctuary but also to view the island’s rich wildlife. [6]

Name origins

The island was named Ynys Bŷr for Saint Pyr , the sixth century saint, [7] and Pyr is named as abbot of the monastery around the year 500 in the Life of St Samson . This Welshname has been in use since Medieval times, but the Old Welsh name is St Pyr’s day is unknown. [8]

Like many Welsh islands, Caldey’s (sometimes spelled Caldy ) English name derives from the Vikings . Kald ey translates as “cold island”, with the name appearing as ‘Caldea’ in the early 12th century, and Kaldey or Caldey by 1291. [9]

History

A Celtic monastery was first established on the island in the sixth century, and the island thrived during the Middle Ages . [10] [11] Following the Norman Conquest, Robert made Martin, Lord of Cemais , given the island to his mother Geva. [12] In the 12th century, a priory was established by Tironensian monks as a daughter house of St. Dogmaels Abbey , and lasted to the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536. [13] The current abbey was built in 1910 by Anglican Benedictine monks but financial problems beginning in 1925 led by the Belgian Cistercians. [14] It is considered to be the most complete example of the Arts and Crafts style in the country, and was the largest project of John Coates Carter . At the time of building, the abbey was called “the greatest phenomenon in the Anglican community at the present time”. The roofs are of white roughcast with red tiling, and the abbey church has five side-windows and on the south a “tapering” tower with primitive crenellations . Caldey Island and Little Caldey Island has been an ecclesiastical district for as long as the locals can remember, with 20 Cistercian monks living at the monastery as of 2007 . [15]The Census Reports of the County of Pembroke record it as an ecclesiastical district for administrative purposes. [16]

Geography

Caldey Island is about 1.5 miles and 1 mile (1.6 km) in width at its widest. It has an area of ​​538 acres (2.18 km 2 ) and its highest elevation is 197 feet (60 m). The island lies in Carmarthen Bay on the north side of the Bristol Channel in the county of Pembrokeshire , a little over 2.3 miles (3.7 km) south of Tenby on the mainland of SW Wales. [5] [14] Caldey Sound. A ferry service from Tenby goes to Caldey Island in the spring and summer months when the weather allows. [11] Boats depart every half hour from the harbor at high tide, while at low tide they depart from Castle Beach.[15]

Caldey Island consists of two islands: Caldey Island and Little Caldey Island. Little Caldey Island is also known as St Margaret Island or St Margaret’s Isle, and lies off the north-western point of Caldey Island. It Acquired icts name in the 17th century, [17] and is Known for icts seals and bird sanctuary. [5]

Caldey Island contains about 500 acres (202 ha) most of which is tillable land. Greenhouses on Caldey Island produce vegetables for the city of Cardiff . There are also some hatcheries for raising chickens and other poultry on the island. [18] Caldey Island has a single village, but is best known for its monastery .

Climate

The average high and low temperatures, Caldey Island are given in the following table. The absolute maximum recorded temperature is 33 ° C (91 ° F) in August and the absolute minimum recorded is -9 ° C (16 ° F) in February. [19]

[ hide ]Climate data for Caldey Island, Wales
month Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Average high ° C (° F) 8
(46)
8
(46)
10
(50)
12
(54)
15
(59)
17
(63)
20
(68)
20
(68)
17
(63)
14
(57)
11
(52)
8
(46)
20
(68)
Average low ° C (° F) 3
(37)
3
(37)
5
(41)
5
(41)
8
(46)
10
(50)
13
(55)
12
(54)
10
(50)
8
(46)
5
(41)
3
(37)
3
(37)
Source: Weatherbase [19]Retrieved on 5 June 2013
Max Wind Speed
Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
65 km / h 59 km / h 59 km / h 59 km / h 56 km / h 48 km / h 43 km / h 46 km / h 44 km / h 67 km / h 61 km / h 61 km / h
40 mph 37 mph 37 mph 37 mph 35 mph 30 mph 27 mph 29 mph 27 mph 42 mph 38 mph 38 mph

Nature

Caldey Island is known for its flowers which are rarely found in other areas of the United Kingdom. The island also has many species of birds that are prevalent in the summer months. [18] The country’s largest colony of cormorants is located at St Margaret’s Island. [15]

Economy

The fact is that the fact is that there is no such thing as the fact that they do not work, and that they are mainly involved with the monks, who makes cheese, perfumes and other products. [4] The main income comes from the perfume, shortbread and chocolate items. There is an internet shop based on the island that opened in the monastery in 2001. [20] Their lavender perfume is said to be “simply the best lavender soliflore on earth” by the perfume critic Luca Turin . [21]

Caldey Island provides a warm welcome to up to 750 guests in the local guesthouse . [10] Caldey Island has a functioning post office which includes a museum of the island’s history. [22] The island has its own postage stamps and its own monetary unit, the Dab. [14]

Archaeological excavations

Caldey Island monastery, reflected in the pond

Three cellars-have-been Discovered on the island and excavated to unearth archaeological finds: Nanna’s Cave, [23] Potter’s Cave (1950) and Ogof-yr-ychen ( “Ox cave”, 1970) Were Discovered. [24] In Nanna’s Cave, human bones and shells were first found in 1911 and excavations continued until the 1970s. [23] Potter’s Cave Was found in 1950 by a monk named James Van Nedervelde, and continued up to 1970 excavations qui INITIALLY Revealed stalagmites in qui tools and animals Were embedded. After removal of these findings, three human skeletons were found and carbon-dated: two were dated to the Middle Stone Age and one to the Romano-British period.Upper Paleolithic period. In Ogof-yr-Ychen, the remains of five people were 7590 BC and 571 Cal clarification needed ] BC. Stable isotope ratio tests revealed that they lived on marine food. [24] A very few earlier Neolithic bowls and shells have also been found in the cellars. All the findings were carbonated and preserved in the Abbey of Caldey Island, or in the Tenby Museum and Art Gallery . [23]

Landmarks

Caldey Island Priory
Caldey Lighthouse

Tourist attractions on Caldey Island include the recently restored 13th-century church of St Illtyd , [25] an Ogham cross from the 6th century, a Norman chapel, and Caldey Abbey , completed in 1910. Caldey Lighthouse was built in 1828. [26] The light Was intended to help coastal traffic trading limestone and coal to mid and north Wales aim the light aussi Helped long-distance and North American traffic Identify the Bristol Channel and Avoid confusion with the English Channel citation needed ]. The lighthouse is a squat, round, brick-lined limestone tower of 17 m (56 ft), with walls 0.9 m (3 ft) thick at the base and 2 ft 6 in (0.76 m) thick at the top. The light stands 64 m (210 ft) above high-water mark. The lighthouse was automated in 1929. The lighthouse keeper’s cottages are two-storey, with hipped roofs, octagonal chimneys, and a one-storey linking corridor. The cottages were built around 1868-70 by TC Harvey.

The north side of Caldey Island is made of limestone , a desirable building material. [18] Limestone quarrying on the island; Some of the limestone was taken to the Annery kiln in Torridge for processing. [27]

Other facilities

The island issues its own postage stamps and has its own currency called the Dab , referring to a small fish species which occurs locally. There is a colonial-style tea shop on the green fields. [28] There is an underground reservoir in the monastery which in the past supplied water to the garden and the people. [28]

The island’s resources for handling emergencies have been supplemented by a multi-purpose emergency vehicle that can be used as a police car, an ambulance, and a water trailer, a fire engine. The island has a regular firefighting unit, a duty which used to be performed by the monks. The last reported major was on 1940 when the monastery was damaged. In December 2012, six firefighters had to be brought by Tenby to douse a small fire. [4]

References

  1. Jump up^ “Community population 2011” . Retrieved 20 April 2011 .
  2. Jump up^ Hastings 2000, p. 64.
  3. Jump up^ “Caldey Island” . Caldey Island.co.uk . Retrieved 5 May 2013 .
  4. ^ Jump up to:c “Caldey Island monks and residents get 999 new vehicle” . BBC News . Retrieved 5 June 2013 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:c “Caldey Island” . Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved 6 June 2013 .
  6. Jump up^ Christopher Howells (March 2011). Caldey Island: The Story of a Holy Island . Graffeg. ISBN  978-1-905582-14-3 . Retrieved 5 June 2013 .
  7. Jump up^ Royal 1977, p. 37.
  8. Jump up^ Thomas, Charles. “Lundy’s Lost Name (Island Studies (1997))” (PDF) . Lundy.Org .
  9. Jump up^ Manwaring 2008, p. 71.
  10. ^ Jump up to:b Williams 2001 , p. 294.
  11. ^ Jump up to:b “Caldey Island Pembrokeshire Wales” . Caldey-island.co.uk . Retrieved 5 May2013 .
  12. Jump up^ “Cistercian Way – Caldey Island” . Archived from the original on 14 July 2014 . Retrieved 7 July 2014 .
  13. Jump up^ “Caldey (Priory)” . Monastic Wales . Retrieved 23 April 2015 .
  14. ^ Jump up to:c HeathMichell 2006 , p. 53.
  15. ^ Jump up to:c Atkinson & Wilson 2007 , p. 167.
  16. Jump up^ Royal 1977, p. 35.
  17. Jump up^ Royal 1977, pp. 36 & 37.
  18. ^ Jump up to:c Huntington 1908 , p. 323.
  19. ^ Jump up to:b “Local Weather: Caldey Island Climate History” . Myweather2.com . Retrieved 5 June 2013 .
  20. Jump up^ “Monks get internet shopping habit” . BBC News . BBC. 3 June 2013 . Retrieved 3 June 2013 .
  21. Jump up^ “Perfumes: The Guide by Luca Turin and Tania Sanchez, David Sexton” . London Evening Standard . Retrieved 3 June 2013 .
  22. Jump up^ “Caldey Island Post Office, Wales, c 1950” . Flickr. November 23, 2009 . Retrieved 3 June 2013 .
  23. ^ Jump up to:c Burrow 2003 , p. 237.
  24. ^ Jump up to:b Burrow 2003 , p. 56.
  25. Jump up^ “Major restoration project for 13th century Caldey Island church” . Western Telegraph. July 7, 2014 . Retrieved 7 July 2014 .
  26. Jump up^ “Caldey Island – Visit Me in Wales” . Wales.me. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013 . Retrieved 3 June 2013 .
  27. Jump up^ “Caldey Island” . Charles Wilmott – M0OXO . Retrieved 3 June 2013 .
  28. ^ Jump up to:b HeathMichell 2006 , pp. 53-56.

Leave a Comment