Sacalin Island

Sacalin Island is located in the Black Sea , right off the coast of the Romanian Danube Delta , off the Sfântu Gheorghe branch . [1] INITIALLY Sacalin Was Made up of two smaller islands, Sacalinu Mare (Greater Sacalin) and Sacalinu Mic (Lesser Sacalin). In time, however, the two merged into one continuous landmass. The Romanian government has declared the area an ecological reserve and no settlement is permitted on the island.

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Sacalin Island

Sacalin Island is located in the Black Sea , right off the coast of the Romanian Danube Delta , off the Sfântu Gheorghe branch . [1] INITIALLY Sacalin Was Made up of two smaller islands, Sacalinu Mare (Greater Sacalin) and Sacalinu Mic (Lesser Sacalin). In time, however, the two merged into one continuous landmass. The Romanian government has declared the area an ecological reserve and no settlement is permitted on the island.

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St. Thomas Island

St. Thomas Island ( Bulgarian : Тома , ostrov sv. Toma ) or Zmiyski ostrov (Змийски остров, Snake island )), is a Bulgarian island in the Black Sea , 15 kilometers (9 miles) south of Sozopol. It has an area of ​​0.012 square kilometers (2.97 acres) and is one of a few places in Bulgaria where wild cacti grow. The Opuntia cacti were brought from the Botanical Garden in Bratislava , Slovakia and planted by the Royal Botanist Ivan Bureshon the orders of Tsar Boris III in 1933. They have most of the island since then. [1] [2]

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St. Ivan Island

St. Ivan Island ( Bulgarian : . Остров св Иван , . Ostrov sv Ivan ) is the Largest Bulgarian island in the Black Sea , with an area of 0.66 square kilometers (0.25 square miles). [1] It lies off the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast near Sozopol , a town with a rich history and a popular tourist place, and is separated by several hundred meters from the small neighboring St. Peter Island . Standing at 33 meters (108 feet) above sea level , it is also the highest of the Bulgarian sea islands. It lies 920 meters (0.57 miles) from the Stolets peninsula, Sozopol’s Old Town.

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St. Cyricus Island

St. Cyricus Island ( Bulgarian : . Остров св Кирик , ostrov sv Kirik. ), Also Known As St. Cyril Island or Sts. Quiricus and Julietta Island is a Bulgarian island in the Black Sea , 150 meters (490 feet) from Sozopol ‘s Stolets peninsula. It has an area of ​​about 0.08 square kilometers (0.03 square miles) [1] and a height of 15 meters (49 feet). The island is connected to the continent by a road and a breakwater . Unlike most other Bulgarian Black Sea islands, its infrastructure is completely set up.

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St. Anastasia Island

St. Anastasia Island ( Bulgarian : Астров св. Анастасия , ostrov Sv. Anastasiya , formerly called Bolshevik Island , остров Болшевик) is a Bulgarian islet in the Black Sea . It is located 1.5 km off the coast near Chernomorets , at 12 meters above sea level, and covers a territory of one hectare. It is the only inhabited island of the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast .

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Lesbos

Lesbos ( / l ɛ z b ɒ s / , US : / l ɛ z b oʊ s / ; Greek : Λέσβος Lesvos , pronounced [Lezvos] ), sometimes Referred to as Mytilini after- ict capital , is a Greek island Located in the northeastern Aegean Sea . It has an area of ​​1,633 km 2 (631 sq mi) [1] with 320 kilometers (199 miles) ofcoastline , making it the third largest island in Greece . It is separated from Turkey by the narrow Mytilini Strait and in late Palaeolithic / Mesolithic times [2] was joined to the Anatolian mainland before the end of the last glacial period .

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Rhodes

Rhodes ( Greek : Ρόδος , Ródos [roðos] ) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in the area of ​​the island group of historical capital. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality dans le Rhodes regional unit , qui est share of the South Aegean Administrative Region . The main town of the island is Rhodes . [2] The city of Rhodes had 50,636 inhabitants in 2011. It is located northeast of Crete , southeast of Athens and just off the Anatolian coastTurkey . Rhodes’ nickname is The island of the Knights , named after the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem , who ounce conquered the land. [3]

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Chios

Chios ( / k aɪ . Ɒ s / ; Greek : Χίος , translit.  HIOS ; Ancient Greek : Χίος , translit.  Chios ) is the fifth of the Largest Greek Islands , Situated in the Aegean Sea , 7 kilometers (4.3 mi) off the Anatolian coast. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait . Chios is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is the Mastic Island. Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the 11th-century Monastery of Nea Moni , a UNESCO World Heritage Site .

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Cyclades

The Cyclades ( / s ɪ k l ə d i z / ; Greek : Κυκλάδες [ciklaðes] ) are an island group in the Aegean Sea , southeast of mainland Greece and to form administrative prefecture of Greece. They are one of the island groups which constitute the Aegean archipelago . The name refers to the islands around (κυκλάς) the sacred island of Delos . The largest island of the Cyclades is Naxos .

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Dodecanese

The Dodecanese ( UK : / ˌ of oʊ d ɪ k ə n i z / , US : / d oʊ ˌ d ɛ k ə n i z / ; Greek : Δωδεκάνησα , Dodekanisa [Dodekanisa] , literally “twelve islands”) are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea , off the coast ofAsia Minor ( Turkey ), of which 26 are uninhabited. Islandhis island group defines the eastern limit of the Sea of ​​Crete . [1] They belong to the Southern Sporades island group.

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Sporades

The ( Northern ) Sporades ( / s p ɒr ə d i z / ; Greek : Βόρειες Σποράδες ) are an archipelago along the east coast of Greece , Northeast of the island of Euboea , [1] in the Aegean Sea . They consist of 24 islands, which are permanently inhabited: Alonnisos , Skiathos , Skopelos and Skyros . [1] They may also be referred to the Thessalian Sporades (Θεσσαλικές Σποράδες).

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North Aegean islands

The North Aegean Islands are a number of Aegean Sea , also known as the Northeast Aegean islands , belonging to Greece and Turkey . The islands do not form a physical chain or group, but are often grouped together for tourist or administrative purposes. To the south are the Dodecanese islands; and to the west are the Cyclades and Sporadesislands.

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Ionian Islands

The Ionian Islands ( Modern Greek : Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia , Ancient Greek , Katharevousa : Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι, Ionioi Nēsoi , Italian : Isole Ionia ) are a group of islands in Greece . They are traditionally called the Heptanese , ie “the Seven Islands” ( Greek : Ἑπτάνησα, Heptanēsa or Ἑπτάνησος, Heptanēsos ; Italian : Eptaneso), but the group includes many smaller ones.

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Krk

Krk ( pronounced [kr̩k] ; German: Vegl ; Latin : Curicta ; Italian : Veglia ; Vegliot Dalmatian : Vikla ; Ancient Greek Kyrikon , Κύρικον) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea , located near Rijeka in the Bay of Kvarner and of Primorje-Gorski Kotar county . Traditionally, Krk had been thought to be the largest Adriatic island, with an area of ​​405.78 km 2 (156.67 sq mi), [2] [3]until geographical survey and remeasurements done in 2011 determined that the neighboring island of Cres has an equal surface area. Krk is the most populous island in the Adriatic Sea , with multiple towns and cities that total a total of 19,383 (2011) inhabitants.

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Rab

Rab ( Latin : Arba , Italian : Arbe , German : Arbey ) is an island in Croatia and a town of the same name located just off the northern Croatian coast in the Adriatic Sea .

The island is 22 km (14 mi) long, has an area of ​​93.6 km 2 (36 sq mi) [1] and 9,328 inhabitants (2011). [2] The highest peak is Kamenjak at 408 m. The northeastern side of the island is mostly barren, karst , while the southwestern side is covered by one of the last oak forests of the Mediterranean.

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Cres

Cres ( pronounced [t͡srɛːs] ; Italian : Cherso , German : Kersch , Latin : Crepsa , Greek : Χέρσος, Chersos ) is an Adriatic island in Croatia . It is one of the northern islands in the Kvarner Gulf and can be reached via ferry from Rijeka , the island Krk or from the Istrian peninsula ( Brestova – Porozina line ).

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Hvar

Hvar ( pronounced [xv̞âːr] ; local Chakavian dialect : Hvor or For , Greek : Pharos, Φάρος , Latin : Pharia , Italian : Lesina ) is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea , located off the Dalmatian coast, lying between the islands of Brač , Vis and Korčula . Approximately 68 km (42.25 mi) long, [1] with a high east-west ridge of Mesozoic limestone anddolomite , the island of Hvar is unusual in the area for having a large fertile coastal plain, and fresh water springs. Its hillsides are covered in pine forests, with vineyards, olive groves, fruit orchards and lavender fields in the agricultural areas. The climate is characterized by mild winters, and warm summers with many hours of sunshine. [2] The island has 11,103 [3] residents, making it the 4th most populated of the Croatian islands .

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Mljet

Mljet ( pronounced [mʎɛt] ; Latin : Melita , Italian : Meleda ) is The Most southerly and easterly of the larger Adriatic islands of the Dalmatia area of Croatia . The National Park includes the western part of the island, Veliko jezero, Malo jezero, Soline Bay and a sea belt 500 m wide from the most prominent cape of Mljet covering an area of ​​54 km 2 . [1] The central parts of the park are Veliko jezero with the Isle of St. Mary, Malo jezero and the villages of Goveđari, Polače and Pomena .[2] [3]

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Brac

Brač ( pronounced [brâːtʃ] ; local Chakavian : Broč , pronounced [broːtʃ] ; Latin : Bretia , Brattia ; Italian : Brazza ) is an island in the Adriatic Sea within Croatia , with an area of ​​396 square kilometers (153 sq mi), [1] making it the largest island in Dalmatia , and the third largest in the Adriatic. It is separated from the mainland by the Brač Channel , which is 5 to 13 km (3 to 8 mi) wide. [2]The island’s tallest peak, Vidova Gora , or Mount St. Vid, stands at 780 m, [3] making it The Highest point of island in the Adriatic. The island has a population of 13,956, [1]living in many settlements, ranging from the main town to Supetar , with more than 3,300 inhabitants, to Murvica , where less than two dozen people live. Airport on Brač is the largest airport in Split .

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Korcula

Korcula ( Croatian: [kɔːrtʃula] ( listen )About this sound  ; Italian : Curzola , Greek : Κόρκυρα Μέλαινα , Korkyra Melaina , Latin : Corcyra Nigra, Korkyra Melaina , Old-Slavic Krkar ) is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea . It has an area of ​​279 km 2 (108 sq mi); 46.8 km (29.1 mi) long and is average 7.8 km (4.8 mi) wide [2] – and lies just off the Dalmatiancoast. Its 15,522 inhabitants (2011) make it the most populous Adriatic island after Krk [3] and the most populous Croatian island not connected to the mainland by a bridge. The population is almost entirely ethnic Croats (95.74%). [4] The island is twinned with Rothesay in Scotland.

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Lastovo

Lastovo ( pronounced [lâstɔv̞ɔ] ; Italian : Lagosta , German : Augusta , Latin : Augusta Insula , Greek : Ladestanos , Illyrian : Ladest ) is an island municipality in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in Croatia . The municipality Consists of 46 islands with a total population of 792 people, [3] of qui 93% are ethnic Croats , and a land area of 53 square kilometers Approximately (20 sq mi). [4][5] The biggest island in the municipality is also named Lastovo, as is the largest town. The majority of the population lives on the 46 square kilometers (18 sq mi) island of Lastovo.

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Vir

Vir ( pronounced [v̞îːr] , Italian : Puntadura , Dalmatian : Punta de Ura ), an island on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea with an area of ​​22 km 2 , [1] lies north of the city of Zadar . It is connected to the mainland via a road bridge . The main village on the island, the eponymous village of Vir, had a population of 1,608 as of 2001. There are two more villages, Lozice and Torovi. The highest peak on the island is Bandira (112 m).

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Molat

Molat (pronounced [mɔ̌lat] ; Italian : Melada ) is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea . It is located near Zadar , southeast of Ist , separated by Zapuntel strait. It has an area of ​​22.82 km 2 (8.81 sq mi). [1] [2]

Molat (population 107), Zapuntel (pop 42) and Brgulje (pop 48), [3] and they are situated in the interior of the island, and smaller hamlets are on the seaside. Main industries on the island are agriculture , sheep breeding , fishing and tourism . [4] [5]

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Ugljan

Ugljan ( pronounced [ɡʎɡʎan] ; Italian : Ugliano ) is a Croatian island and the first in the Zadar Archipelago . It is located northwest of the island of Pašman and southeast of the islands of Rivanj and Sestrunj . Separated from the mainland by the Zadar Channel, it is connected with the island of Pašman by the Ždrelac Bridge spanning the Ždrelac Strait . Area 50.21 km 2(19.39 sq mi), population 6.049 (2011), length 22 km (14 mi), width to 3.8 km (2.4 mi). [2]

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Solta

Šolta ( pronounced [ʃɔːlta] ; Italian : Solta ; Latin : Solentium ) is an island in Croatia . It is situated in the Adriatic Sea in the central Dalmatian archipelago , west of the island of Brač , south of Split (separated by Split Channel ) and east of the Drvenik islands, Drvenik Mali and Drvenik Veli (separated by the Šolta Channel ). [2] Its area is 58.98 km [3][4] and it has a population of 1,700 (as of 2011). [1]

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Lošinj

Lošinj ( pronounced [lɔ̌ʃiːɲ] , Italian : Lussino , Venetian : Lusin , German : Lötzing ) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea , in the Kvarner Gulf . It is almost due south of the city of Rijeka and part of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar County .

The settlements on Lošinj include Nerezine , Sveti Jakov , Ćunski , Artatore , Mali Lošinj and Veli Lošinj .

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Dugi Otok

Dugi Otok ( pronounced [dueɡiː ǒtok] , Croatian for “Long Island”, Italian : Isola Lunga ) is the seventh largest island in the Adriatic Sea , part of Croatia . It is located on the Dalmatian coast , west of Zadar . 44.5 km (27.7 miles) long by 4.8 km (3.0 miles) wide, [3] with an area of ​​114 square kilometers (44 miles) sq mi) [4] ). Its elevation reaches 300 m; and many of its higher portions contain Maritime Pine .

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Pag (island)

Pag (pronounced [paːɡ] ; Latin : Pagus , Italian : Pago , German : Baag ) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea . It is the fifth-largest island of the Croatian coast, and the one with the longest coastline. [3]

In the 2011 census, the population of the island was 9,059. [1] There are two towns on the island, Pag and Novalja , as well as many smaller villages and tourist places. Pag is the only Croatian island that is administratively divided between two counties . Its northern part belongs to Lika-Senj County , while the central and southern parts belong to Zadar County . [3]

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Saronic Islands

The Saronic Islands or Argo-Saronic Islands is an archipelago in Greece , named after the Saronic Gulf in which they are located, just off the Greek mainland . [1] The main inhabited islands of this group are Salamis , Aegina , Agistri , and Poros . The islands of Hydra and Dokos , which are part of the Peloponnese (technically between the Saronic Gulf and the Argolic Gulf ), are sometimes included as part of the Saronic Islands. [2]

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Euboea

Euboea or Evia [1] ( / Ju b i ə / ; Greek : Εύβοια , Evvoia , pronounced [Evia] ; Ancient Greek : Εὔβοια , EUBOIA , [eúboja] ) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after- Crete . The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; It is about 180 km (110 mi) long, and varies in breadth from 50 km (31 mi) to 6 km (3.7 mi). Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros , Tinos and Mykonos .

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Franz Josef Land

Franz Josef Land , Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph’s Land ( Russian : Земля Франца-Иосифа , tr. Zemlya Frantsa-Iosifa ) is an archipelago , inhabited only by Russian military personal basis [1] Located in the Arctic Ocean , Barents Sea and Kara Sea , constituting the northernmost part of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia. It consists of 191 islands, which cover an area of ​​16,134 square kilometers (6,229 sq mi), stretching 375 kilometers (233 mi) from east to west and 234 kilometers (145 mi) from north to south. The islands are categorized in three groups, a western, central and eastern, separated by the British Channel and the Austrian Strait . The central group is further divided into a northern and southern section by the Markham Strait . The largest island is Prince George Land , which measures 2,741 square kilometers (1,058 sq mi), followed by Wilczek Land , Graham Bell Island and Alexandra Land .

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Novaya Zemlya

Novaya Zemlya ( Russian : Новая Земля , IPA: [novəjə zʲɪmlʲa] , lit. new land ), also known as Nova Zembla (especially in Dutch ), is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in northern Russia and the extreme northeast of Europe , the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the Northern island. Novaya Zemlya is composed of two islands, the southern Severny Island and the southern Yuzhny Island , which are separated byMatochkin Strait . Administratively , it is incorporated as Novaya Zemlya District , one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast , Russia. [1] Municipally , it is incorporated as Novaya Zemlya Urban Okrug . [2]

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October Revolution Island

October Revolution Island (Russian: Остров Октябрьской Революции, Ostrov Oktyabrskoy Revolyutsii ) is the largest island of the Severnaya Zemlya group in the Russian Arctic .

The area of ​​this island has been estimated at 14,170 km 2 (5,470 sq mi) making it the 59th largest island in the world . [1] It rises to a height of 965 m (3,166 ft) on Mount Karpinsky . Half the island is covered with glaciers reaching down into the sea. In the sections free from ice, the vegetation is desert or tundra .

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Severnaya Zemlya

Severnaya Zemlya (Russian: Северная Земля (Northern Land), pronounced [sʲevʲɪrnəjə zʲɪmlʲa] ) is a 37,000-square-kilometer (14,286-square-mile) archipelago in the Russian High Arctic . It lies off Siberia ‘s Taymyr Peninsula , separated from the mainland by the Vilkitsky Strait . This archipelago separates two marginal seas of the Arctic Ocean, the Kara Sea in the west and the Laptev Sea in the east.

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Schmidt Island

Schmidt Island ( Russian : Остров Шмидта ) is part of the Severnaya Zemlya group in the Russian Arctic and was named after Otto Schmidt , chief scientist and chief of the Northern Sea Route . It is located at the far northwestern end of the archipelago and lies slightly south of the Arctic Cape on Komsomolets Island.

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Jan Mayen

Jan Mayen is a Norwegian volcanic island located in the Arctic Ocean . It is 55 km (34 mi) long (southwest) and 373 km 2 (144 sq mi) in area, partly covered by glaciers (an area of ​​114.2 km (71.0 mi) around the Beerenberg volcano ). Dubious – the Chat ] It has two parts: larger Northeast North-Jan and smaller Sør-Jan, linked by a 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide isthmus . It lies 600 km (370 mi) northeast of Iceland (495 km (305 mi) NE of Kolbeinsey ), 500 km (310 mi) east of central Greenlandand 1,000 km (620 mi) west of the North Cape, Norway . The island is mountainous, the highest summit being the Beerenberg volcano in the north. The Sørlaguna (South Lagoon), and Nordlaguna (North Lagoon) are two of the largest islands in the island . A third lake is called Ullerenglaguna (Ullereng Lagoon). Jan Mayen was formed by the Jan Mayen hotspot .

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Svalbard

Svalbard ( sv pronunciationlbɑː , svɑl- / ; [3]) [Translation ] [ pronunciation: [sʋɑ (ː) lbɑːɾ] ; prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen , meaning “jagged mountains”) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean . Situated north of mainland Europe, it is about midway between continental Norway and the North Pole . The islands of the group range from 74 ° to 81 ° north latitude, and from 10 ° to 35 ° east longitude. The largest island is Spitsbergen , followed byNordaustlandet and Edgeøya . Administratively, the archipelago is not part of any Norwegian county , but forms an unincorporated area governed by a governor appointed by the Norwegian government. Since 2002 Svalbard’s main settlement, Longyearbyen , HAS Review: had an Elected local government , Somewhat similar to mainland Municipalities . Other activities include the Russian mining community of Barentsburg , the research station of Ny-Ålesund , and the mining outpost of Sveagruva. Ny-Ålesund is the northernmost settlement in the world with a permanent civilian population. Other settlements are farther north, but are populated only by rotating groups of researchers.

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St Paul’s Island

St Paul’s Island ( Maltese : Il-Gżejjer ta ‘San Pawl ), Also Known As Selmunett , is a small island off Selmun near the north-east of the main island of Malta . St Paul’s Island is sometimes divided into two islands by a shallow isthmus, and it is considered as part of St Paul’s Islands . St Paul’s Island has been uninhabited since World War II, and it is the second largest uninhabited island of Malta, having an area of ​​0.1 square kilometers (0.04 square miles). [1]

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Pantelleria

Pantelleria ( Sicilian : Pantiddirìa ), the ancient Cossyra ( Arabic : قوصرة Qawṣirah , Maltese : Qawsra , now Pantellerija , Ancient Greek Kossyra , Κοσσύρα), is an Italian island in the Strait of Sicily in the Mediterranean Sea , 100 km (62 miles) southwest of Sicily and 60 km (37 miles) east of the Tunisian coast. Tunisia is visible on clear days. Administratively Pantelleria is a comune belonging to the Sicilian province of Trapani .

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Manoel Island

Manoel Island ( Maltese : Il-Gżira Manoel ) is a small island qui forms share of the municipality of Gżira in Marsamxett Harbor , Malta . It is named after the Grand Master António Manoel of Vilhena , who built a fort on the island in the 1720s. Previously, the island had been known as Isolotto or Isola del Vescovo ( Maltese : Il-Gżira tal-Isqof ).

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Malta (island)

Malta is the largest of the three major islands that make up the Maltese archipelago. It is sometimes referred to as Valletta for statistical purposes to distinguish the country from the entire country. Malta is in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea directly south of Italy and north of Libya . The island is 27 kilometers (17 mi) long and 14.5 kilometers (9 mi) wide, with a total area of ​​246 square kilometers (95 mi). The capital is Valletta , largest locality is Birkirkara . The island is made up of many small towns, which together form Larger Urban Zonewith a population of 409,259. The landscape is characterized by low hills with terraced fields.

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Gozo

Gozo ( / ɡ oʊ . Z oʊ / ; Maltese : Għawdex , pronounced [aˤːw.dɛʃ] , [2] formerly Gaulos ) [3] [4] is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea . The island is part of Malta . After the island of Malta itself, it is the second-largest island in the archipelago. Compared to its southeastern neighbor, Gozo is more rural and known for its scenic hills, which are featured on its coat of arms .[5]

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Fungus Rock

Fungus Rock , known as Mushroom Rock , [2] and among the Maltese as He-Ġebla tal-Ġeneral (English: The General’s Rock ), is a small islet in the form of a massive 60-meter-high (200 ft) lump of limestone at the entrance to an almost circular black lagoon in Dwejra , on the coast of Gozo , an island in the Maltese archipelago . Fungus Rock is located at 36 ° 02’45 “N 14 ° 11’27” E and falls within the jurisdiction of San Lawrenz .

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Elba

Elba ( Italian : Elba isola , pronounced [iːzola delba] , Latin : Ilva , Ancient Greek : Αἰθαλία, Aithalia ) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany , Italy , 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) from the coastal town of Piombino . Elba is the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago . Elba is also part of the Arcipelago Toscano National Park , [2] and the third largest island in Italy , after Sicily and Sardinia. It is located in the Tyrrhenian Sea , about 50 kilometers (30 mi) east of the French island of Corsica .

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Corsica

Corsica ( / k ɔːr s ɪ k ə / ; French: Corse [kɔʁs] ; Corsica in Corsican and Italian , pronounced [korsiga] and [kɔrsika] respectivement), is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France . It is located southeast of the French mainland and the Italian Peninsula , with the nearest land mass being the Italian island of Sardiniato the immediate south. A single chain of mountains makes up two-thirds of the island.

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Ischia

Ischia ( Italian pronunciation: [iskja] ) is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea . It lies at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples , about 30 kilometers (19 miles) from the city of Naples . It is the largest of the Phlegrean Islands . Roughly trapezoidal, it measures approximately 10 km (6 miles) east to west and 7 km (4 miles) north to south and has about 34 km (21 miles) of coastline and a surface area of ​​46.3 square kilometers (17.9 sq mi). It is almost entirely mountainous; the highest peak is Mount Epomeo , at 788 meters (2.585 feet). [2]The island is very densely populated, with 60,000 residents (more than 1,300 inhabitants per square km). quote needed ]

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Filfla

Filfla is a small, mostly barren, uninhabited islet 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) south of Malta , and is the most southerly point of the Maltese Archipelago . Filflu (or filfluu ), a small rocky islet some 102 meters (335 feet) southwest of Filfla, [1] has the southernmost point of Malta. The name is believed to come from felfel , the Arabic for a peppercorn . [2]

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Fungus Rock

Fungus Rock , known as Mushroom Rock , [2] and among the Maltese as He-Ġebla tal-Ġeneral (English: The General’s Rock ), is a small islet in the form of a massive 60-meter-high (200 ft) lump of limestone at the entrance to an almost circular black lagoon in Dwejra , on the coast of Gozo , an island in the Maltese archipelago . Fungus Rock is located at 36 ° 02’45 “N 14 ° 11’27” E and falls within the jurisdiction of San Lawrenz .

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Comino

Comino ( Maltese : Kemmuna ), formerly called Expired Ephaestia , [2] [3] is a small island of the Maltese archipelago entre the islands of Malta and Gozo in the Mediterranean Sea , measuring 3.5 square kilometers (1.4 sq mi) in area. Named after the cumin that flourishes in the Maltese Islands, Comino is noted for its tranquility and isolation. by whom? ] It has a permanent population of only three residents, Following The Death of the fourth resident in 2017. [1]One priest and one policeman from the nearby island of Gozo, to render their services to the local population and summertime visitors. Today, Comino is a bird sanctuary and nature reserve . Administratively, it is part of the municipality of Għajnsielem , in Southeastern Gozo.

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Balearic Islands

The Balearic Islands ( / ˌ b æ l i ær ɪ k aɪ the ə n d z / ; Catalan : Balearic Islands , pronounced [iʎəz bələas] ; Spanish : Balearic Islands , [1] [2] [3] pronounced [ Arelas baleaɾes] ) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea , near the eastern coast of theIberian Peninsula .

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North Jutlandic Island

The North Jutlandic Island ( Danish : Nørrejyske Ø ), Vendsyssel-Thy , or simply Jutland north of the Limfjord ( Jylland north for Limfjorden ) are lesser-used names for the northernmost portion of Denmark and of Jutland . It is more common to Refer to the three traditional districts Vendsyssel , Hanherred and Thy . Jutland by the Limfjord , it is traditionally regarded as a part of Jutland rather than an island.

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iceland

Iceland ( / aɪ s l ə n d / ( listen )  ; Icelandic : Ísland pronounced [istlant] ) [7] is a Nordic island country of Europe Located in the North Atlantic Ocean . It has a population of 332,529 and an area of ​​103,000 km 2 (40,000 sq mi), making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. [8] The capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population.

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Greenland

Greenland ( Greenlandic : Kalaallit Nunaat , pronounced [kalaːɬit nunaːt] ; Danish : Grønland , pronounced [ɡʁɶnˌlanˀ] ) is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmarkbetween the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago . Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America , Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe (specifically Norway and Denmark, the colonial powers, As well as the nearby island of Iceland ) for more than a millennium. [9] The majority of its residents are Inuit , whose ancestors began migrating from the United States in the 13th century, and gradually settling across the island.

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Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands ( / f ɛər oʊ / ; Faroese : Føroyar pronounced [fœɹjaɹ] ; Danish : Færøerne , pronounced [fæɐ̯øːˀɐnə] ), sometimes called Expired the Faeroe Islands , are an archipelago entre les Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic , about halfway entre Norway and Iceland , 320 kilometers (200 miles) north-northwest of Scotland . The islands are an autonomous countrywithin the Kingdom of Denmark . [6] [7] [8] Their area is about 1,400 square kilometers (541 square miles) with a population of 50,322 in October 2017. [3]

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands ( / k ə n ɛər i aɪ the ə n d z / ; Spanish : Las Islas Canarias pronounced [izlas kanaɾjas] , locally [iɦlːah kanaːɾjah] ) Also Known As The Canary Islands ( Spanish: Las Canarias ), are an archipelago and autonomous community of Spain Located on the Atlantic Ocean , 100 kilometers (62 miles) west ofMorocco at the closest. The Canaries are among the outermost regions (OMR) of the European Union proper. It est aussi one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality Recognized As Such by the Spanish Government . [3] [4]

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Madeira

Madeira ( / m ə d ɪər ə – of ɛər ə / mə- DEER -ə , – DAIR -ə ; Portuguese: [mɐðejɾɐ, -ðɐj-] ) is a Portuguese archipelago Situated in the north Atlantic Ocean , southwest of Portugal. Its total population was estimated in 2011 at 267,785. The capital of Madeira is Funchal , located on the main island of south coast.

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Azores

The Azores ( / ə z ɔːr z / ə- ZORZ gold / eɪ z ɔːr z / AY -zorz ; Portuguese : Azores , [ɐsoɾɨʃ] ), Officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores ( Região Autónoma dos Azores ) is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal . It is an archipelago consisting of nine volcanic islands in the North Atlantic Ocean about 1,360 km (850 mi) west of continentalPortugal , about 1,643 km (1.021 mi) west of Lisbon , in mainland Portugal , about 1,507 km (936 mi) from the African coast, and about 1,925 km (1,196 mi) southeast of Newfoundland , Canada .

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Wolin

Wolin [vɔlin] ( German : Wollin , German pronunciation: [vɔliːn] , Pomeranian Wòlin ) is the name of a Polish island in the Baltic Sea , just off the Polish coast, and a town on that island. Administratively the island belongs to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship . Wolin is separated from the island of Usedom (Uznam) by the Strait of Świna , and from mainland Pomerania by the Strait of Dziwna . The island has an area of ​​265 km 2 (102 sq mi) Mount Grzywacz at 116 m above sea level

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Hailuoto

Hailuoto ( Swedish : Karlo ) is an island and a municipality in Northern Ostrobothnia Region , Finland . The population of Hailuoto is 981 (August 31, 2017) [2] and the municipality covers an area of ​​200.53 km 2 (excluding sea areas) of which 1.70 km 2 (0.66 sq mi) is inland water (January 1, 2016). [1] The population density is 4.89 / km 2 (12.7 / sq mi).

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Fehmarn

Fehmarn ( German pronunciation ( help · info ) ) ( Danish : Femern ) is an island and-since 2003 -a town on this island in the Baltic Sea , off the eastern coast of Schleswig-Holstein , Germany , and c. 18 kilometers south of the Danish island of Lolland . It belongs to the district of Ostholstein .

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Åland Islands

The Åland Islands or Åland ( Swedish : Åland , IPA: [Oland] ; Finnish : Ahvenanmaa ) is an archipelago at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea Belonging to Finland . It is autonomous , demilitarised and is only monolingually Swedish-speaking region in Finland. It is the smallest region of Finland , constituting 0.49% of its land area and 0.50% of its population.

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Hisingen

Hisingen is the fifth-largest island of Sweden (after Gotland , Öland , Södertörn and Orust ), [2] with an area of ​​199 km 2 (77 sq mi). It forms part of Gothenburg and is bordered by the Göta to the south and east, the Nordre älv to the north, and the Kattegat to the west. The northern part of the city of Gothenburg, with its harbors, industries and suburbs, is located on the island, which is divided between the two historical provinces of Västergötland and Bohuslän .

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Orust

Orest is an island in western Sweden , and Sweden’s third largest island. In 2014 Statistics Sweden declared it to be the fourth largest island, under a definition which adds artificial canals to the possible bodies of water surrounding an island. It has been noted that under this definition, all of Götaland would be the country’s largest island, rendering Orust instead the fifth largest. [2] The largest town on Orust is Henån , where approximately 1,800 inhabitants live. Orust is home to approximately 15,160 inhabitants in the winter and many more in the summer.

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Öland

Öland [2] ( Swedish pronunciation: [Oland] ( listen )  ) is the second Largest Swedish island and the Smallest of the traditional provinces of Sweden . Öland has an area of ​​1,342 square kilometers (518 square miles) and is located in the Baltic Sea just off the coast of Småland . The island has 26,000 inhabitants. [1] It is separated from the mainland by the Kalmar Straitand connected to it by the 6-km Öland Bridge , ouvert qui is 30 September 1972.

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Naissaar

Naissaar ( German : Nargen ; Swedish : Nargö ) is an island northwest of Tallinn (Purpose Viimsi Parish ) in Estonia . The island covers an area of ​​18.6 square kilometers (7.2 square miles). It is 8 kilometers (5.0 miles) long and 3.5 kilometers (2.2 miles) wide, and lies about 8.5 kilometers (5.3 miles) from the mainland. The highest point on the island is Kunilamägi, which is 27 meters (89 feet) above sea level . The island is predominantly of coniferous forest and piles of stones and boulders. As of 2005, the island had a population of ten. Now the island has three dozen or so permanent residents and some summer residents. Administratively the island is divided into three villages: Lõunaküla (Storbyn), Tagaküla (Bakbyn) and Väikeheinamaa(Lillängin).

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Gotland

Gotland ( / ɡ ɒ t l ə n d / ; Swedish pronunciation: [ɡɔtland] ( listen )  , [3] older spellings include Gottland / ɡ ɒ t l ə n d / or Gothland / ɡ ɒ .theta the ə n d / , [4] ), Gutland in the local dialect Gutnish , [5]is a province , county , municipality , and diocese of Sweden . It is Sweden’s largest island . [6] [7] [8] [9] The province includes the small islands of Fårö and Gotska Sandön to the north, Karlsö Islands ( Lilla and Stora ) to the west. The population is 58,003, [2] of which about 23,600 live in Visby , the main town. [1] The island of Gotland and the other areas of the province of Gotland make up one of Sweden’s total land area.

The island’s main sources of income are farming along with food processing, tourism, information technology services, design, and some heavy manufacturing such as production from locally mined limestone . [10] From a military viewpoint, it occupies a strategic location in the Baltic Sea .

History

The island is the home of the Gutes , and sites such as the Ajvide Settlement show that it has been occupied since prehistory . [11] A DNA study conducted on the 5,000-year-old skeletal remains of the Middle Neolithic seal hunters from Gotland, which was related to modern-day Finns, while a farmer from Gökhem parish in Västergötland on the mainland was found more closely related to modern-day Mediterraneans. This is about the spread of agricultural peoples from the Middle East at about that time. [12]

Early on, Gotland became a commercial center, with the town of Visby the most important Hanseatic city ​​in the Baltic Sea. [13] In the late medieval times, the island had 20 short districts ( tings ), each represented by its elected judge at the island-ting, called landsting . New laws have been decided at the landsting, which also took decisions concerning the island as a whole. [14]

Gutasaga contains legends of how the island was settled by Þieluar and populated by his descendants. It is also known as a third of the population in Europe, a tradition associated with the migration of the Goths , whose name has the same origin as Gutes , the native name of the people of the island. It is more likely that the Gutes voluntarily submitted to the king of Sweden and asserts that the submission is based on mutual agreement, and notes the duties and obligations of the Swedish King and Bishop in relationship to Gotland. [15] According to some historians, it is therefore an effort not only to write down the history of Gotland, but also to assert Gotland’s independence from Sweden.[16]

It gives Awair Strabain the mutually beneficial agreement with the king of Sweden; the event would have taken place before the end of the 9th century, when Wulfstan of Hedeby reported that the island was subject to the Swedes:

The Discovery of Muscovy –

Blekingey , and Meore , and Eowland , and Gotland, part of the land of the Burgundians , which is subject to the Sweons ; and Weonodland was all the way on our right, as far as Weissel -mouth. [17]

The city of Visby and the rest of the island were driven by the German market in Visby and the peasants they traded with in the countryside had to be put down by King Magnus III of Sweden in 1288. [ 18] In 1361, Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark invaded the island. [19] The Victual Brothers occupied the island in 1394 to set up a stronghold in their headquarters in Visby. At last, Gotland became a fief of the Teutonic Knights , awarded to them on the condition that they expel the piratical Victual Brothers from their fortified sanctuary. [14]An invading army of Teutonic Knights conquered the island in 1398, destroying Visby and driving the Victual Brothers from Gotland. In 1409, Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen of the Teutonic Knights guaranteed peace with the Kalmar Union of Scandinavia by selling the island of Gotland to Queen Margaret of Denmark, Norway and Sweden . [14]

The number of Arab dirhams on the island of Gotland alone is astoundingly high. In the various hoards located around the island, there are more than one place in Western Eurasia . The total sum is as great as it has been unearthed in the entire Muslim world. [20] These corners Moved north through trade entre Rus merchants and the Abbasid Caliphate , along the Silver-Fur Road , and the money made by Scandinavian merchants Would help northern Europe, Especially Viking Scandinavia and the Carolingian Empire, as major commercial centers for the next several centuries. [21]

The Berezan ‘Runestone , discovered in 1905 in Ukraine, was made by a Varangian ( Viking ) trader named Grani in memory of his business partnerKarl. It is assumed that they were from Gotland. [22]

The Mästermyr chest , an important artifact from the Viking Age , was found in Gotland. [23] [24]

The authority of the landsting was successively erected after the island was occupied by the Teutonic Order, then sold to Eric of Pomerania and after 1449 ruled by Danish governors. [14] In late medieval times, the ting of twelve representatives for the farmers, free-holders or tenants. Since the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, the island has remained under Swedish rule. [14] [25]

On September 19, 1806, the Swedish government issued sovereignty of the Gotland to the Order of St. John of Jerusalem , which had been expelled from Malta in 1798, but the Order rejected it. The Order never resumed its territory, and eventually it reestablished itself in Rome as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta . [26]

On 22 April 1808, during the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, a Russian army landed on the southeastern shores of Gotland near Grötlingbo . Under command of Nikolaus Andrejevich Bodisco 1,800 Russians took the city of Visby without any engagement, and occupied the island. A Swedish naval force rescue ship was sent from Karlskrona under the command of Admiral Rudolf Cederström with 2,000 men; the island was liberated and the Russians capitulated. Russian forces left the island on 18 May 1808.

Spillings Hoard

On  July 16 , 1999, the world’s largest Viking silver treasure, the Spillings Hoard , was found in a field at the Spillings farm northwest of Slite . [ 67 ] The weight of a total of 67 kg (148 lb.) (27 kg (60 lb) and 40 kg (88 lb)), and about 14,000, from foreign countries, mostly Islamic. [28] It also contained about 20 kg (44 lb) of bronze objects along with numerous everyday objects such as nails, glass beads, parts of tools, pottery, iron bands and clasps. The treasure was found by a metal detector, and the finders fee, given to the farmer who owned the land, was over 2 million crowns (about US $ 308,000). [29]The treasure was found almost by accident while filming a news report for TV4 about illegal treasure hunting on Gotland. [30]

Administration

The traditional provinces of Sweden serve as administrative and political purposes, but are historical and cultural entities. In the case of Gotland, however, due to its insular position, the administrative county ( län ), Gotland County , and the municipality ( kommun ), Gotland Municipality , both cover the same territory as the province. Moreover, the diocese of Visby is also congruent with the province. [31] [32] [33]

Sockens

Gotland is traditionally divided into 92 sockens . [1]

Heraldry

Gotland Was Granted icts arms in about 1560. [34] The coat of arms is a ducal coronet Represented with. Blazon: “Azure has a ruler with a golden army.” Or holding on a cross-staff of the same “Gules bordered and with five tails of the third.” The county was granted the same coat of arms in 1936. The municipality, created in 1971, uses the same picture, but with other tinctures .

The Gotlandic flag displays the Gotlandic coat of arms, known on the 13th century in the shape of the seal of the Gutnish Republic with the proud ram. It reads: “Gutenses signo xpistus signatur in agno”.

Geography

Gotland is Sweden’s largest island, and it is the largest island fully encompassed by the Baltic Sea (with Denmark’s Zealand at the Baltic’s edge). [6] [7] [8] [9] With its total area of ​​3,183.7 km 2(1.229.2 sq mi) The island of Gotland and the other areas of the province of Gotland make up 0.8% of Sweden’s total land area. [35] The province includes the small islands of Fårö and Gotska Sandön to the north, and the Karlsö Islands, (Lilla and Stora) to the west, which are even smaller. The island of Gotland has 2,994 km 2 (1.156 sq mi), while the province has 3,183.7 km 2 (1,229.2 sq mi) [3,151 km2 (1,217 sq mi) of land excluding the lakes and rivers. [36] The population is 57,221, [2] of which about 23,600 live in Visby, the seat of the municipality and the capital of the county. [1] About two-fifths of the island’s population live in Visby.

Gotland is located about 90 km (56 mi) from the Baltic states , Latvia being the nearest. Gotland is the name of the island, but the following is considered part of Gotland and the Gotlandic culture:

  • Furillen
  • Fårö
  • Gotska Sandön , a National park of Sweden
  • The Karlsö Islands ( Karlsö Stora and Lilla Karlsö )
  • Laus holmar
  • Ytterholmen
  • Östergarnsholm

There are several shallow lakes located near the shores of the island. The biggest is Lake Bästeträsk , located near Fleringe in the northern part of Gotland.

Gotland contains many popular beaches, such as Tofta Strand, and Hundfria strand. The Hoburg Shoal bird reserve is situated on the southern tip of the island. [37]

The highest point of the island Lojsta Hed which stalls 82 m (269 ft) above sea level.

Climate

Gotland has a semi-continental variety of a marine climate . This results in a larger size than normal in the Baltic Sea for large distances in all directions. This is due to strong continental winds tracking the sea from surrounding great landmasses.

[ hide ]Climate data for Visby, temperature 2002-2015, precipitation 1961-1990 (sunshine 2002-2014)
month Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Record high ° C (° F) 10.2
(50.4)
12.2
(54)
18.6
(65.5)
25.2
(77.4)
27.7
(81.9)
31.4
(88.5)
33.7
(92.7)
31.8
(89.2)
29.0
(84.2)
20.0
(68)
13.5
(56.3)
12.5
(54.5)
33.7
(92.7)
Average high ° C (° F) 1.4
(34.5)
1.2
(34.2)
4.5
(40.1)
10.0
(50)
15.2
(59.4)
18.8
(65.8)
22.0
(71.6)
21.3
(70.3)
17.0
(62.6)
10.9
(51.6)
6.8
(44.2)
3.5
(38.3)
11.0
(51.8)
Daily mean ° C (° F) -0.5
(31.1)
-0.9
(30.4)
1.1
(34)
5.5
(41.9)
10.4
(50.7)
14.4
(57.9)
17.9
(64.2)
17.3
(63.1)
13.4
(56.1)
8.1
(46.6)
4.8
(40.6)
1.6
(34.9)
7.7
(45.9)
Average low ° C (° F) -2.5
(27.5)
-3.0
(26.6)
-2.3
(27.9)
1.0
(33.8)
5.7
(42.3)
9.9
(49.8)
13.8
(56.8)
13.2
(55.8)
9.9
(49.8)
5.3
(41.5)
2.8
(37)
-0.3
(31.5)
4.4
(39.9)
Record low ° C (° F) -25.0
(-13)
-25.4
(-13.7)
-23.5
(-10.3)
-12.7
(9.1)
-6.9
(19.6)
-1.0
(30.2)
2.9
(37.2)
1.1
(34)
-2.9
(26.8)
-6.0
(21.2)
-11.5
(11.3)
-22.2
(-8)
-25.4
(-13.7)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 53
(2.09)
29
(1.14)
35
(1.38)
29
(1.14)
29
(1.14)
30
(1.18)
50
(1.97)
49
(1.93)
58
(2.28)
48
(1.89)
58
(2.28)
54
(2.13)
522
(20.55)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 37 64 174 255 310 329 308 254 202 102 41 31 2,107
Source # 1: [38]
Source # 2: [39]

Geology

Gotland is made of a sequence of sedimentary rocks of a Silurian age, dipping to the south-east. The main Silurian succession of limestones and shales included thirteen units spanning 200 to 500 m (660 to 1,640 ft) of stratigraphic thickness, being thick in the south, and overlies to 75 to 125 m (246 to 410 ft) thick Ordovician sequence. [40]

It was deposited in a shallow, hot and salty sea, on the edge of an equatorial continent. [41] The water depth never exceeded 175 to 200 m (574 to 656 ft), [42] and shallowed over time as bioherm detritus, and terrestrial sediments, filled the basin. Reef growth started in the Llandovery , when the sea was 50 to 100 m (160 to 330 ft), and reefs continued to dominate the sedimentary record. [40] Some sandstones are present in the rocks to the south of the island, which represent sand bars deposited close to the shore line. [43]

The lime rocks have been weathered into characteristic karstic rock formations known as rauks . Fossils, mainly rugose corals and brachiopods , are abundant throughout the island; palæo- sea-stacks are preserved in places. [44]

Economy

The island’s main sources of income are farming along with food processing, tourism, IT solutions, design and some heavy manufacturing such as production from locally mined limestone . Most of Gotland’s economy is based on small scale production. [45] In 2012, there were over 7,500 registered companies on Gotland. [46] 1,500 of these had more than one employee. [10]Gotland has the world’s largest vineyard and winery, located in Hablingbo . [47] [48]

[ show ]Gotlands largest employers in 2015 [49]

Military

Main article: Military on Gotland
World War II era Kulsprutebunker(Machine gun bunker) located near Brucebo, Gotland County

Gotland occupies a strategic location in the Baltic sea from a defense viewpoint. The Swedish government decided in March 2015 to begin a permanent military presence on Gotland, starting with an initial 150 troop garrison, [50] primarily of elements of the Swedish Army . It has been reported that the bulk of this initial warfare will have a new motorized rifle battalion, [51]alternatively referred to as a “modular-structured rapid response army response”. A later report has been submitted to an advanced stage for a squadron helicopter supportand an Air Force “fast response Gripen squadron jet” to also be based on the island to support the new garrison and further reinforce the defenses. [52] Prior to the disbandment of the original garrison, there had been a continuous Swedish presence on Gotland in one form or another, for nearly 200 years. [53]

A 2005 photo of 4 IFVs ( Stridsfordon 90 ) during an exercise at Tofta skjutfält

After the standing down of the original garrison, a battalion of the Swedish Home Guard is based on Gotland for emergencies as part of the Eastern Military Region ( MR E ). The unit, 32: Gotlandsbataljonen (the 32nd Gotland Battalion), acts as a reserve component of the Swedish Amphibious Corps . [54] Among the residual war reserve stocks were reported in Gotland in March 2015, were 14 tanks [55] ( Stridsvagn 122s ) at the Tofta skjutfält (Tofta firing range), [56] [57] but without any crews or dedicated personal maintenance assigned to them.[58]

Gotland currently has no local air defense capability. [59] Despite its importance as a naval base in the past, [60] as of 2004 , there are no naval units based on Gotland. [59] Swedish military experts have criticized the defense of Gotland as not being adequate to defend the island. [61]

The Tofta firing range itself (also known as the Tofta Tank firing range) is 8 km (5.0 mi) south of Visby. Another less common name for the range is the Toftasjön firing range. Tracing its origins back to 1898, as of 2008 the range extended over 2,700 acres (11 km 2 ). It was a major training and storage facility for the Gotland garrison during its existence, and was still occasionally used for training by the armed forces since the garrison was shut down in 2005. However, from the second half of 2014 onwards, there has been a marked increase, especially by armored units (mostly company sized), [57]in Northeastern Europe have escalated. At least one of the buildings on the range, the former tank repair shop , is currently owned by a private company ( Peab ), with the military renting back the top floor for its own use. [58]

When held by the military, one of the most notable being the Gotland Grand National , the world’s largest enduro race. [62]

Tourism

The first modern day tourists came to Gotland during the 19th century and were known as “bathers”. [63] Gotland became very popular with socialites at the time through Princess Eugenie who lived in Västerhejde , in the west part of the island from the 1860s. [64] [65]

When camping was a popular pastime among the Swedes, and in 1955, Gotland was visited by 80,000 people. [65] In the 1970s mostly young people were attracted to Gotland. Since 2010 the island has become a more versatile spot visited by people from all over the world, in all manner of ways. [65]

Gotland is one of Sweden’s most noted tourist destinations. In 2001 it was the fifth largest tourist destination in Sweden based on the total number of guest nights. [66] Gotland is usually the part of Sweden which receives the most hours of sunlight during a year with Visby statistically the location with the most sunshine in Sweden. [67] In 2007 approximately 750,000 people visited Gotland. [10]

In 1996, ferries between Gotland and mainland Sweden carried more than 1 million passengers in a year. In 2007, the number of passengers exceeded 1.5 million. [68] In 2012, the ferries had 1,590,271 passengers and the airlines 327,255 passengers. [69]

[ show ]Number of tourists from top five countries in 2012 [70]

Cruise ship and new pier

The port of call on Gotland is Visby. The city is visited by a number of cruise ships every year. [72] [73] About Baltic Sea with Visby as one of their destinations. [74] In 2005, 147 ships docked at Visby, in 2010 the number was 69. [75] In 2014, 62 ships are scheduled to visit Visby. [76] Visby harbor is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. [75] Ships must anchor a fair distance from shore, which is not possible during bad weather. [77]In 2007, the first proposal for a new pier at Visby harbor, was made. [78] In 2011, the topic of the new pier was discussed in the Riksdag [79] and in 2012 research and planning for the pier began. [75] In January 2014 a letter of intent for a new arrival in Copenhagen was signed by Gotland Region and Copenhagen Malmö Port (CMP). The estimated cost is 250 million crowns (about US $ 38.52 million). [80] [81]

Culture

A number of stones with grooves exist on Gotland. Archaeologists interpret these grooves as traces of an industrial process in the High Middle Ages . There are approximately 3,700 grinding grooves, of which about 750 occur in the solid limestone outcrop and the rest in other rock formations. The latter often consists of granite or gneiss, but also soft rocks such as sandstone occur. [82] Grinding grooves are also found in Skåne, Southern Sweden and Finland. Astronomer Göran Henriksson dates from these grinding grooves to the Stone Age, from c. 3300 BCE to c. 2000 BCE, based on astronomical alignments, [83] ALTHOUGH His methodology has-been Heavily Criticized. [84]

The Medieval town of Visby has been designated as a site of the UNESCO World heritage program. An impressive feature of Visby is the fortress that surrounds the old city, dating from the 13th century. [85]

The inhabitants of Gotland traditionally spoke their own language, known as Gutnish . Today however, they have adapted to a dialect of Swedish that is known as “Gotländska”. [86]

In the 13th century, a work containing the laws of the island, called “Gotlandic law” (Gutalagen), was published in the ancient Gutnish language. [87]

Gotland is Noted for ict 94 medieval churches , [88] MOST of qui are restored and in active use. These churches exhibit two major styles of architecture: Romanesque and Gothic . The older churches were constructed in the Romanesque style from 1150-1250. The newer churches were constructed in the Gothic architectural style that prevailed from about 1250-1400. The oldest painting on one of the churches on Gotland stretches as far back in time as the 12th century. [89]

Traditional games of skill like Kubb , Pärk , and Varpa are played on Gotland. They are part of what is called “Gutniska Lekar”, and are performed on the Midsummer’s Eve celebration on the island, but throughout the summer months. The games have widespread renown; Some of them are played by the United States. [90]

The knotwork design subsequently named the ” Valknut ” has The Most attested historic instances we picture stones in Gotland, qui include being white on Both the Stora Hammars I and the Tängelgårda stones . [91] Gotland also has a rich heritage of folklore, including myths about the bysen , Di sma undar jordi , Hoburgsgubben and the Martebo lights . [92] [93]

Gotland gives its name to the traditional farmhouse ale Gotlandsdricka , a turbid beer with much in common with Finnish sahti , and related beers from the Baltic states . [94]

Notable residents

Ingmar Bergman & Sven Nykvist
Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland, 2014.
Håkan Loob
  • Christopher Polhem , father of Swedish mechanical physics
  • Ingmar Bergman , film director
  • Håkan Loob , form NHL player
  • Lennart Eriksson , punk rock musician
  • Susanne Alfvengren , singer
  • Serious , death metal band
  • Thomas Löfkvist , cyclist
  • Theresa Andersson , singer, composer, musician
  • Hjördis Petterson , actress
  • Tove Edfeldt , actress
  • Einar Englund , compose
  • Babben Larsson , comedian
  • Håkan Nesser , author
  • Jonas Jonasson , journalist, writer

Dukes and Duchesses of Gotland

Main article: Duke of Gotland
  • Prince Oscar 1859-1888 (lost title)
  • Princess Leonore 2014-

Sports events

  • Gotland competes in the biennial Island Games , which it hosted in 1999 . [95] They will host the games for a second time in 2017 . [96]
  • Round Gotland Race -Sailing Event (“ÅF Offshore Race”) starting at Stockholm, around the island of Gotland and back. [97]
  • Grand National Gotland (GGN) is an annual enduro race on Gotland. GGN is a part of the Swedish enduroklassikern (enduro classics, Ränneslättsloppet, Stångebroslaget and Gotland Grand National). GNN is the world’s largest enduro race. [98] [99]
  • Stånga Games are annual games for Gotlandic sports. The games are held in Stånga . The games are unofficially called “the Gotland Olympic Games”. Some of the sports at the Stånga Games are pärk , varpa and caber toss . [90]

Sports organizations

In 2012, there were 171 registered sports organizations on Gotland. [100]

Gotland has two senior women’s sports teams playing in the first third: basketball team Visby Ladies Basketball Club (in Basketligan dam ) and floorball team Endre IF (in the Swedish Super League). [101] [102] Visby Ladies won the Swedish Championship in 2005. [103]

Football in the province is managed by Gotlands Fotbollförbund . The leading football club is FC Gute , playing in the fourth-tier league Division 2 as of 2014 . [104]

In popular culture

The Long Ships , or Red Orm (original title: Röde Orm ), has best-selling Swedish novel written by Frans G. Bengtsson , contains a vivid description of Gotland in the Viking Age. A section of the book is devoted to a Viking ship setting out to Russia, stopping on its way to Gotland and engaging a pilot from the island who plays an important part in their journey. Gotlanders of the Viking era are depicted as a city, and more sophisticated and cosmopolitan than other Scandinavians of their time, and proud of their knowledge and skills.

Naomi Mitchison , in his autobiographical book ” You may well ask “, relates to an experience during a walking tour in Sweden: “Over in Gotland I walked again, more than I would have had the milestones been in old Swedish miles , so that my disappointing three-mile walk along the seabed under the strange ancient fortifications was really fifteen minutes “. [105]

The crime novels of Mari Jungstedt , featuring Detective Superintendent Anders Knutas, are set on Gotland.

In the Battlefield Vietnam video game modification Gotland Invasion , the Soviet Union invades Gotland in 1977.

For the 1989 Studio Ghibli movie, Kiki’s Delivery Service , by Hayao Miyazaki, he and other illustrators in Gotland in preparation for animation.

Astronomy

A number of asteroids in the main-belt are named after places on Gotland or Gotlanders, such as 10795 Babben , 3250 Martebo and 7545 Smaklösa . Most of them have been named by Swedish astronomer Claes-Ingvar Lagerkvist , a summer resident on Gotland. All the Gotlandic names are vividly described in NASA’s JPL Small-Body Database in connection with each asteroid. [106] [107]

Kihnu

Kihnu ( Swedish : Kynö ) is an island in the Baltic Sea . With an area of ​​16.4 km 2 (6.3 sq mi) it is the largest island in the Gulf of Riga [1] and the seventh largest island of Estonia . The length of the island is 7 km (4.3 mi) and width 3.3 km (2.1 mi), the highest point is at 8.9 meters (29.2 ft) above sea level .

The island belongs to the Pärnu County of Estonia. Together with Neighboring islands it forms Kihnu Parish , one of the Smallest Municipalities of the country with an area of 16.8 km 2 (6.5 sq mi).

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Vilsandi

The island of Vilsandi , Kihelkonna Parish , Saare County , Estonia is located in the Baltic Sea . It covers an area of ​​some 9 square kilometers and is the westernmost populated island in Estonia. The surrounding waters are shallow and rocky and many travels the Baltic have perished nearby. The island of Vilsandi can be reached by boat by Saaremaa . Much of the island is now part of Vilsandi National Park, which grew from a bird reserve founded in 1910. It is a highly sensitive ecosystem due to the area by many migratory birds breeding and nesting ground. Hunting is absolutely prohibited. This park is a popular tourist destination not only for local Estonians, but also people of Finland who are visiting Estonia in greater and greater numbers.

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Saaremaa

Saaremaa ( Estonian pronunciation: [sɑːremɑː] ; Danish: Øsel ; English (esp. Traditionally): Osel ; [1] Finnish: Saarenmaa ; Swedish & German: Ösel ) is the largest island in Estonia , measuring 2,673 km 2 (1,032 sq mi ). [2] The main island of Saare County , it is located in the Baltic Sea , south of Hiiumaa island and west of Muhu island, and belongs to the West Estonian Archipelago . The capital of the island is Kuressaarewhich has about 15,000 inhabitants; the whole island has over 30,966 inhabitants.

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Ruhnu

Ruhnu ( Swedish : Runö , Latvian : Roņu sala ) is an Estonian island in the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic Sea . It is administratively part of Saare County but is geographically closer to the Latvian mainland. At 11.9 square kilometers (4.6 sq mi), it is currently less than 100, mostly ethnic Estonian , permanent inhabitants. Before 1944, it was for centuries populated by ethnic Swedes and traditional Swedish law was used.

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Piirissaar

Piirissaar ( formerly Borka , Russian : Mezha (Межа) ) is an Estonian island located in Lake Peipus . It belongs to Tartu County as the Piirissaare Parish .

Piirissar is the largest island in Lake Peipus with a size of 7.8 km². It is located c. 15 km from the mouth of the Emajõgi river. Piirissaar is located c. 1 – 2 meters above the water level in Lake Peipus.

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Osmussaar

Osmussaar ( Swedish : Odensholm ) is an Estonian island located in the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea , 7.5 km off the Estonian mainland. Administratively the island is part of Noarootsi Parish in Lääne County . Its area is 4.8 km 2 (1,200 acres).

Before the Soviet Union occupied Estonia during World War II , around 130 people, mainly Estonian Swedes , lived on the island. The continuous settlement of Swedes on Osmussaar had dated back centuries. Currently Osmussaar has only two permanent inhabitants [1] and the island is a nature reserve.

Naissaar

Naissaar ( German : Nargen ; Swedish : Nargö ) is an island northwest of Tallinn (Purpose Viimsi Parish ) in Estonia . The island covers an area of ​​18.6 square kilometers (7.2 square miles). It is 8 kilometers (5.0 miles) long and 3.5 kilometers (2.2 miles) wide, and lies about 8.5 kilometers (5.3 miles) from the mainland. The highest point on the island is Kunilamägi, which is 27 meters (89 feet) above sea level . The island is predominantly of coniferous forest and piles of stones and boulders. As of 2005, the island had a population of ten. Now the island has three dozen or so permanent residents and some summer residents. Administratively the island is divided into three villages: Lõunaküla (Storbyn), Tagaküla (Bakbyn) and Väikeheinamaa(Lillängin).

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Hiiumaa

Hiiumaa ( Estonian pronunciation: [hiːumɑː] ; German & Swedish : Dago ; Danish : Dago ; Finnish : Hiidenmaa ) is the second Largest island (989 km²) in Estonia . It is in the Baltic Sea , north of the island of Saaremaa , part of the West Estonian archipelago . Its largest town is Kärdla . Along with several smaller neighboring islands, the island makes up Hiiu County ; one of the 15 counties of Estonia.

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Abruka

Abruka is an 8.78 km² Estonian island in the Gulf of Riga , 4 km south of the island of Saaremaa .

Together with few neighboring smaller islands ( Vahase , Kasselaid , Linnusitamaa and Kirjurahu ) Abruka forms the village of Abruka, which is part of Lääne-Saare Parish , Saare County . The village has a population of 33 (as of 1 January 2011) [1] and an area of ​​10.1 km².

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Zealand

Zealand ( Danish : Sjælland , pronounced [ɕɛˌlanˀ] ), at 7.031 km 2 , is the Largest (except Greenland) and MOST populated island in Denmark with a population of 2,287,740 (39.8% of Denmark’s total as of January 2017). [1]

It is the 13th-largest island in Europe by area and the 4th most populous . It is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link , to Lolland , Falster (and Germany from 2028) by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges . Zealand is also linked to Amager by several bridges. Zealand is linked to other countries through a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden .

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Lolland

Lolland ( Danish pronunciation: [lʌˌlanˀ] ; formerly spelled Laaland , literally “low land”) is the fourth Largest island of Denmark , with an area of 1.243 km 2 (480 sq mi). Located in the Baltic sea , it is part of Region Sjælland (Region Zealand). As of 1 January 2013, it has 62,578 inhabitants. [1]

Overview

Lolland is also known as “pancake island” because of its flatness: the highest point of the island is 25 m (82 ft) above sea level, just outside the village of Horslunde . The island has been an important communication highway, among others for Nazi Germany during World War II . Historically, sugar beet grew in Lolland. Sugar is still a major industry, visible from the large number of sugar beet fields.

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Funen

Funen ( Danish : Fyn , pronounced [fyːˀn] ), with an area of ​​3,099.7 square kilometers (1,196.8 sq mi), is the third-largest island of Denmark , after Zealand and Vendsyssel-Thy . It is the 165th -largest island in the world. It is in the central part of the country and has a population of 466,284 (2013). [1] The main city is Odense which is connected to the sea by a seldom-used channel . The city’s shipyard, Odense Steel Shipyard , has been relocated outside Odense proper.

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Falster

Falster is an island in south-eastern Denmark with an area of ​​486.2 km 2 (187.7 sq mi) [1] and 43,398 inhabitants as of January 1, 2010. [2] Located in the Baltic sea , it is part of Region Sjælland (County of Zealand) and is managed by Guldborgsund Municipality . Falster includes Denmark’s southernmost point, Gedser Odde , near Gedser . [3]

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Bornholm

Bornholm ( Danish: [bɒːnhʌlˀm] ; Old Norse : Burgundaholmr ) is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea , to the east of the rest of Denmark , south of Sweden , northeast of Germany and north of the westernmost part of Poland . The main industries on the island include, dairy farming , and arts and crafts such as glass production and pottery using locally worked clay . Tourism is important during the summer. There is an especially large number of Denmark’sround churches on the island. The total area according to www.noegletal.dk (Municipal and Regional Key Figures) was 588.36 square kilometers (227.17 sq mi) (January 2016). Population was 39,627 (1 October 2017).

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Alderney

Alderney ( / ɔː the d ər n i / ; French : Aurigny [oʁiɲi] ; Auregnais dialect : Aoeur’gny ) is the northernmost of the inhabited Channel Islands . It is part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey , a British Crown dependency . It is 3 miles (5 km) long and 1 1 / 2  miles (2.4 km) wide. The area is 3 square miles (8 km 2), making it the third-largest island of the Channel Islands, and the second largest in the Bailiwick. It is around 10 miles (15 km) from the west of The Hague on the Cotentin Peninsula , Normandy , France, 20 miles (30 km) from the north-east of Guernsey and 60 miles (100 km) from the south coast Great Britain. It is the closest of the Channel Islands to both France and the United Kingdom. It is separated from Hague Cape by the dangerous Alderney Race (English: Raz Blanchard ).

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guernsey

Guernsey ( / ɡ ɜːr n z i / ) is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy . It lies roughly north of St Malo and the west of the Cotentin Peninsula . With several smaller local islands, it forms a jurisdiction within the Bailiwick of Guernsey , a Crown dependency . The jurisdiction is made up of ten parishes on the island of Guernsey, three other inhabited islands ( Herm , Jethou and Lihou), and many small islets and rocks. The jurisdiction is not part of the United Kingdom . [4]

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Jersey

Jersey ( / dʒ ɜːr z i / , French: [ʒɛʁzɛ] ; Jèrriais : JERRI dʒɛri ) Officially the Bailiwick of Jersey ( French : Bailliage Jersey ; Jèrriais : Bailiwick Jerri ) is a Crown dependency [9] Located near the coast of Normandy , France . [10] Jersey was part of the Duchy of Normandy, whose dukes went on to become kings of England from 1066. After Normandy was lost by the kings of England in the 13th century, and the ducal title surrendered to France, Jersey and the other Channel Islands remained attached to the English crown.

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Aran Islands

The Aran Islands ( Irish : Oileáin Árann -pronunciation: [əlʲɑːnʲ ɑːɾən] ) or The Arans ( na hárainneacha – [nə hɑːɾənʲəxə] ) are a group of three islands located on the mouth of Galway Bay , on the west coast of Ireland , with total area of ​​about 46 square kilometers. They constitute the barony of Aran in County Galway , Ireland.

From west to east the islands are: Inishmore ( rainnʲ woːɾ) or ɪnnmh ( Inner Mór) [1] – the largest; Inishmaan ( Inis Mein / Inis Meadhin – [ɪnʲɪʃ mʲɑːnʲ] ), the second-largest; and Inisheer ( Inis Thiar / Inis Oírr / Inis Oirthir – [ɪnʲɪʃ hiəɾ / iːɾʲ / ɛɾʲhɪɾʲ] ), the smallest.

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Achill Island

Achill Island ( / æ k əl / ; Irish : Acaill, Oileán Acla ) in County Mayo is the Largest island off the coast of Ireland , and is Situated off the west coast. It has a population of 2,700. Its area is 148 km 2 (57 sq mi). Achill is attached to the mainland by Michael Davitt Bridge , between the villages of Gob an Choir ( Achill Sound ) and Poll Raithní ( Polranny ). A bridgewas also completed in 1947, and was later completed in 2008. Other centers of population include the villages of Keel, Dooagh , Dumha Eige ( Dooega ), Dun Ibhir ( Dooniver ) , The Valley and Dugort. The parish’s hand Gaelic football pitch and secondary school are on the mainland at Poll Raithní. Early human settlements are believed to be established on Achill around 3000 BC. A paddle dating from this period was found at the Crannóg near Dookinella. The island is 87% peat bog . The parish of Achill also includesCurraun peninsula . Some of the people of Curraun consider themselves to be Achill people, and most of them are Achill refer to this area. There are between 500-600 native Irish speakers in Achill parish. In the summer of 1996, the RNLI decided to station a lifeboat at Kildownet.

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Anglesey

Anglesey ( / æ ŋ . Ɡ ə l . S i / ; Welsh : Ynys Môn [ənɨs MON] ) is an island off the north-west coast of Wales . With an area of ​​276 square miles (715 km 2 ), [1] is the largest island in Wales and the seventh largest in the British Isles . Anglesey is also the largest island in the Irish Sea by area , and the second most populous island (after the Isle of Man ). [2] The population at the2011 census was 69,751. [3] Two bridges span the Menai Strait , connecting to the mainland: the Menai Suspension Bridge , designed by Thomas Telford in 1826, and the Britannia Bridge .

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Caldey Island

Caldey ( Welsh : Ynys Bŷr ) is a small island off the SW coast of mainland Wales , near Tenby in Pembrokeshire . [2] With a Recorded history going back over 1500 years, it is Known as one of Holy Islands of Britain, and a number of traditions inherited from Celtic times are Observed by the Cistercian monks Who Are The chief Gutman and owners of the island today . [3]

At its closest point, Caldey lies 1 kilometer (0.6 mi) south of the mainland, though the usual access to the island by Tenby which is 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) to the north.

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Ramsey Island

Ramsey Island ( Welsh : Ynys Dewi ) is an island about 1 km off the coast of St David’s peninsula in Pembrokeshire on the northern side of St Brides Bay , in southwest Wales . It is 640 acres (259.00 hectares) in area.

In Welsh the island is named after St. David ( Dewi Sant ), patron saint of Wales . It was the home of his confessor, St. Justinian . The nearest town, strictly a city , is St David’s .

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Skomer

Skomer ( Welsh : Ynys Sgomer ) is an island off the coast of Pembrokeshire in West Wales. It is best known for its wildlife in the world of Manx shearwaters nest on the island, the Atlantic puffin colony is the largest in southern Britain, and the Skomer flies (a subspecies of the bank flies ) is unique to the island. It is also known for its archeological interest: stone circles , standing stones and remains of prehistoric houses. Skomer is a national nature reserve , a Site of Special Scientific Interest and aSpecial Protection Area . Much of the island has also been designated an ancient monument . It is surrounded by a marine nature reserve and is managed by the Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales . There is now a hostel on the island so you can stay on the boat home.

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Holy Island, Anglesey

Holy Island ( Welsh : Ynys Gybi , ‘the island of (Saint) Cybi ‘) is an island (15.22 sq mi (39.4 km 2 )) on the western side of the larger Isle of Anglesey , Wales , from which it is separated by a narrow, winding channel. It is called “Holy” because of the high concentration of standing stones , burial chambers , and other religious sites on the small island. The alternative and historic name of the island is Holyhead Island . According to the 2011 Census , the population was 13,659, of which 11,431 (84%) lived in the largest town, Holyhead.

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North Uist

North Uist ( Scottish Gaelic : Tuath Uibhist pronounced [ɯ.ɪʃtʲ ə t̪ʰuə] ) is an island and community in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland .

Etymology

In Donald Munro’s A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland Called Hybrid of 1549, North Uist, Benbecula and South Uist are Described as One island of Ywst (Uist). In the south of this island, he described the division between South Uist and Benbecula where the end heirof the sea enters, and cuts the countrey be ebbing and flowing through it. Further north of Benbecula he describes North Uist as “this countrey is called Kenehnache of Ywst, which is in Englishe, the north head of Ywst”. [7]

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